List of island countries

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Countries fully on islands
Countries without land borders

This is a list of island countries. An island is a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water.[1] Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Philippines (which consists of thousands of islands). Others consist of a single island, such as Nauru, or part of an island, such as Haiti. Although Australia is designated as a continent, it is often referred to as an island and has no land borders. Some declared island countries are not universally recognized as politically independent.

Current[edit]

Sovereign states[edit]

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Population Area (km²) Density (per km²) Geographic location
 Antigua and Barbuda Two main islands Continental shelf 85,632 440 194 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Australia[n 1] One main island Australian continent 22,547,870 7,686,848 2.93 Australia
 Bahamas Archipelago Continental shelf 330,000 13,878 23.27 Atlantic Ocean, Bahamas
 Bahrain One main island Continental shelf 791,000 750 1,189.5 Persian Gulf
 Barbados One main island Continental shelf 269,556 430 627 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 Brunei Part of a larger island Continental shelf 388,190 5,765 67.3 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Cape Verde Archipelago Oceanic 567,000 4,033 125.5 Atlantic Ocean, Africa
 Comoros Archipelago Oceanic 798,000 2,235 275 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Cook Islands[n 2] Archipelago Oceanic 10,777 236 45.7 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Cuba One main island Continental shelf 11,241,161 109,884 102.3 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Cyprus[n 3] Part of a larger island Continental shelf 793,963 9,251 85 Mediterranean Sea
 Dominica One main island Continental shelf 72,660 754 105 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
 Dominican Republic Part of a larger island Continental shelf 10,990,000 48,442 208.2 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 East Timor Part of a larger island Continental shelf 1,066,582 14,874 76.2 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Federated States of Micronesia Archipelago Oceanic 111,000 702 158.1 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Fiji Archipelago Oceanic 849,000 18,274 46.4 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Grenada One main island Continental shelf 110,000 344 319.8 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 Haiti Part of a larger island Continental shelf 9,700,000 27,750 350 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Iceland One main island Oceanic 316,252 103,000 3.1 Atlantic Ocean
 Indonesia Archipelago Two continental shelves 237,556,363 1,904,569 124.7 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Ireland Shares one main island Continental shelf 4,588,252 70,273 65.3 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 Jamaica One main island Continental shelf 2,847,232 10,991 252 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Japan Archipelago Continental shelf 127,433,494 377,873 337 Pacific Ocean, East Asia
 Kiribati Archipelago Oceanic 98,000 811 135 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Madagascar One main island Oceanic 20,653,556 587,041 35.2 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Maldives Archipelago Oceanic 329,198 298 1,105 Indian Ocean
 Malta Two main islands Continental shelf 404,500 316 1,282 Mediterranean Sea
 Marshall Islands Archipelago Oceanic 62,000 181 342.5 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Mauritius Archipelago Oceanic 1,244,663 2,040 610 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Nauru One island Oceanic 13,635 21 649 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 New Zealand Two main islands Continental shelf 4,027,947 268,680 15 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Niue[n 2] Single island Oceanic 1,269 260 4.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Northern Cyprus[n 4] Part of a larger island Continental shelf 285,359 3,355 78 Mediterranean Sea
 Palau Archipelago Oceanic 20,000 459 43.6 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Papua New Guinea Part of a larger island Continental shelf 6,732,000 462,840 14.5 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Philippines Archipelago Continental shelf 88,574,614 300,000 295 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Two main islands Continental shelf 51,300 261 164 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint Lucia One main island Continental shelf 173,765 616 298 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Archipelago Continental shelf 120,000 389 307 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
 Samoa Archipelago Oceanic 179,000 2,831 63.2 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 São Tomé and Príncipe Two main islands Continental shelf 163,000 1,001 169.1 Atlantic Ocean, Africa
 Seychelles Archipelago Oceanic 87,500 455 192 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Singapore[2] One main island Continental shelf 5,399,200 716.1 7,540 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Solomon Islands Archipelago Oceanic 523,000 28,400 18.1 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Sri Lanka One main island Continental shelf 23,650,000 65,610 314 Indian Ocean
 Taiwan [n 5] One main island Continental shelf 22,911,292 36,188 633 Pacific Ocean, East Asia
 Tonga Archipelago Oceanic 104,000 748 139 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Trinidad and Tobago Two main islands Continental shelf 1,299,953 5,131 254.4 Caribbean Sea, South America
 Tuvalu Archipelago Oceanic 12,373 26 475.88 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 United Kingdom One main island Continental shelf 60,587,300 244,820 246 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 Vanuatu Archipelago Oceanic 243,304 12,190 19.7 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia

Dependencies and other notable regions[edit]

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Sovereign state Population Area (km²) Density (per km²) Geographic Location
 Åland[n 6] Archipelago Continental shelf  Finland 28,355 1,580 17.9 Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia
 Alderney Single island Continental shelf  Guernsey

 United Kingdom

2,400 7.8 307.7 English Channel
 American Samoa[n 7] Archipelago Oceanic  United States 54,947 199 276 Polynesia
 Anguilla One main island Continental shelf  United Kingdom 15,423 91 169 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Aruba Single island Continental shelf  Netherlands 107,635 180 598 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
 Bermuda Archipelago Oceanic  United Kingdom 62,500 53.3 1,170 Atlantic Ocean, North America
 British Virgin Islands Archipelago Continental shelf  United Kingdom 31,148 151 206 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Caribbean Netherlands Three main islands Continental shelf  Netherlands 21,133 127 166 Caribbean Sea
 Cayman Islands Three islands Continental shelf  United Kingdom 52,560 264 199 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Christmas Island One main island  Australia 1,496 135 11.1 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands Two main islands  Australia 596 14 42.6 Maritime Southeast Asia
 Curaçao One main island Continental shelf  Netherlands 145,834 444 328 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
 Falkland Islands[n 8] Two main islands Continental shelf  United Kingdom 3,140 12,173 0.26 Atlantic Ocean, South America
 Faroe Islands Archipelago  Denmark 49,483 1,393 35.5 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
 French Polynesia Archipelago Oceanic  France 274,512 3,827 71.7 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Greenland One major island Continental shelf  Denmark 57,695 2,166,086 0.03 North America
 Guadeloupe One main island Continental Shelf  France 405,500 1,628 250 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Guam[n 7] Single island Oceanic  United States 159,914 544 293 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Guernsey One main island Continental shelf  United Kingdom[n 9][3] 65,345 78 838 English Channel
 Hawaii
(formerly Territory, Republic, and Kingdom of Hawaii)
Archipelago Oceanic  United States 1,392,313 28,311 82.6 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Isle of Man Single island Continental shelf  United Kingdom 85,421 572 149 Irish Sea, British Isles
 Jersey[n 10] Single island Continental shelf  United Kingdom 94,949 116 819 English Channel
 Martinique Single Island Continental Shelf  France 403,795 1,128 360 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Mayotte One main island  France 194,000 374 498.5 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Montserrat One main island Continental shelf  United Kingdom 5,164 102 50.6 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 New Caledonia One main island Continental shelf  France 260,166 18,275 14.2 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Norfolk Island One main island  Australia 2,182 36 60.6 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
 Northern Mariana Islands[n 7] Archipelago Oceanic  United States 51,395 464 111 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
 Pitcairn Islands Archipelago Oceanic  United Kingdom 48 47 1.0 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Puerto Rico[n 7] One main island Continental shelf  United States 3,690,923 8,870 416 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 Réunion One main island  France 893,500 2,512 330 Indian Ocean, Africa
 Saint Barthélemy One main island Continental shelf  France 7,332 21 349 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Three main islands distant from each other Oceanic  United Kingdom 7,728 308 25.1 Atlantic Ocean
 Collectivity of Saint Martin Part of a larger island Continental shelf  France 30,959 54.4 569 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Two main islands Continental shelf  France 5,831 242 24.1 North America
 Sark Single island Continental shelf  Guernsey

 United Kingdom

600 5.45 110 English Channel
 Sint Maarten Part of a larger island Continental shelf  Netherlands 39,088 34 1,150 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Svalbard[n 11] Archipelago  Norway 1,970 62,045 0.03 Arctic Ocean
 Tokelau[n 2] Archipelago Oceanic  New Zealand 1,368 12 114 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
 Turks and Caicos Islands Archipelago Continental shelf  United Kingdom 46,335 948 48.9 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
 U.S. Virgin Islands[n 7] Archipelago Continental shelf  United States 105,275 346 304 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
 Wallis and Futuna Three main islands Oceanic  France 15,289 264 57.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia

Former nations[edit]

Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australia is often considered a continent. This makes its status as an island country disputable.
  2. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are in free association with New Zealand. See Niue Constitution Act. Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand.
  3. ^ The north part of the island of Cyprus is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. In the south of the island are the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, controlled by the United Kingdom.
  4. ^ Recognized as part of Cyprus by all countries except Turkey.
  5. ^ The Republic of China (commonly known as "Taiwan") only controls the islands of Taiwan, Matsu, Kinmen, Penghu etc after the Chinese Civil War, but has not renounced claim on areas currently under control of People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If those territories are taken into account, the Republic of China is not a borderless country or a country centered with a major island. The area under ROC control is also claimed by the People's Republic of China. See Legal status of Taiwan, Political status of Taiwan and One-China policy.
  6. ^ Market Reef defines the border between Finland and Sweden. The lighthouse on the reef is administered directly from Finland and is usually not considered a part of the autonomous Åland Islands.
  7. ^ a b c d e An insular area of the US. See Territories of the United States.
  8. ^ The Falkland Islands are also claimed by Argentina.
  9. ^ Guernsey is not part of the United Kingdom although some aspects of foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the UK.
  10. ^ The Minquiers off Jersey are claimed by France.
  11. ^ Administered by Norway under the Svalbard Treaty.
  12. ^ Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State included all of the island of Ireland but Northern Ireland exercised its option to leave the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. Therefore, from 6 December 1922 to 8 December 1922, the Irish Free State was a borderless island country.
  13. ^ The Crown Colony of Hong Kong covered only Hong Kong Island from 1841 to 1860. Kowloon, south of Boundary Street on the continent, was added in 1860, and extended to include the New Territories in 1898.

References[edit]

External links[edit]