List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine

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This is a list of killings and massacres committed in Mandatory Palestine. It is restricted to incidents in which at least three people were deliberately killed. This list does not include unlawful deaths due to criminal activity. It includes all casualties that resulted from the initial attack on civilians or non-combat military personnel.

Note: The designation "responsible party" below refers to those believed to be the principle instigators of the violence. Where culpability is disputed or ambiguous, the sources cited support the chosen designation.

Individual massacres during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine are listed below. In total during the course of these events between September 27, 1937 – 1939 5,000 Arabs, 415 Jews, several hundred Britons were killed[1]

List of killings and massacres committed in Mandate Palestine[edit]

Name Date Responsible party Casualties notes
Battle of Tel Hai March 1, 1920 Arabs 13 8 Jews killed;[1] 5 Arabs killed.
Nebi Musa riots April 4–7, 1920 Arabs 9 5 Jews, 4 Arabs killed; 216 Jews, 18 Arabs, 7 Britons wounded[1][2][3]
Jaffa riots May 1–7, 1921 Arabs 93 48 Arabs, 45 Jews killed; 140 Jews, 73 Arabs wounded.
Palestine Riots August 23–26, 1929 Arabs 249 133 Jews, 116 Arabs killed; 339 Jews, 232 Arabs wounded [4][1][2][3][5]
Safed massacre August 29, 1929 Arabs, British police (stayed passive) 20 18-20 Jews killed; 80 Jews wounded[5]
1933 Palestine riots October 28, 1933 Arabs 20
Labor Strike Revolt April 15 – October 12, 1936 Arabs, Jews, British authorities 251 138 Arabs, 80 Jews, 33 British killed[1]
N/A November 14, 1937 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 Arabs killed by Irgun units launching attacks around Jerusalem, ("Black Sunday")[6][7]
N/A April 12, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 2 Arabs and 2 British policemen were killed by a bomb in a train in Haifa.[7]
N/A May 24, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were shot and killed in Haifa.[7]
N/A June 26, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs were killed by a bomb in Jaffa.[7]
N/A June (late), 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 Unknown number of Arabs killed by a bomb that was thrown into a crowded Arab market place in Jerusalem.[8]
N/A July 5, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs were killed in several shooting attacks in Tel-Aviv.[7]
N/A July 5, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were killed by a bomb detonated in a bus in Jerusalem. Further Arab killed in another attack in Jerusalem[7]
N/A July 6, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 23 18 Arabs and 5 Jews were killed by two simultaneous bombs in the Arab melon market in Haifa. More than 60 people were wounded.[7][9][10]
N/A July 8, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 Arabs were killed by a bomb in Jerusalem.[7]
N/A July 16, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jerusalem.[7]
N/A July 25, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 43 43 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa.[7][11]
N/A August 26, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 24 24 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jaffa.[7]
N/A February 27, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 33 33 Arabs were killed in multiple attacks, incl. 24 by bomb in Arab market in Suk Quarter of Haifa and 4 by bomb in Arab vegetable market in Jerusalem.[12]
N/A May 29, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were killed by a mine detonated at the Rex cinema in Jerusalem.[7]
N/A May 29, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were shot and killed during a raid on the village of Biyar 'Adas.[7]
N/A June 2, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were killed by a bomb at the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem.[7][13]
N/A June 16, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 6 6 Arabs were killed in several attacks in Jerusalem.[7]
N/A June 19, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 20 20 Arabs were killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at a marketplace in Haifa.[7][14]
N/A June 29, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 13 13 Arabs were killed in several shooting attacks around Jaffa during a one-hour period.[7][15]
N/A July 20, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 6 6 Arabs were killed in several attacks in Tel-Aviv.[7]
N/A July 20, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were killed in Rehovot.[7]
1938 Tiberias pogrom October 2, 1938 Arabs 19 19 Jews were killed.[16]
N/A September 27, 1944 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 Unknown number of casualties, around 150 Irgun members attacked four British police stations[17]
N/A November 1, 1945 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 5 locomotives destroyed in Lydda station. Two staff, one soldier and one policeman killed.[18]
N/A December 27, 1945 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 3 British policemen and 4 Basuto soldiers killed during the bombing of British CID headquarters in Jerusalem; 1 British soldier killed during attack of British army camp in north Tel Aviv[19][20]
King David Hotel bombing July 22, 1946 Jewish militants (Irgun) 91 91 killed, including 41 Arabs, 28 Britons, and 17 Jews; 40-45 wounded[21][22]
N/A January 12, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 killed in bombing of British headquarters.[23]
N/A March 1, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 17 17 British officers killed, during raid and explosion.[24]
N/A September 26, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 British policemen killed in Irgun bank robbery.[23]
N/A September 29, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 13 13 killed, 53 wounded in attack on British police station.[23]
1947 Jerusalem Riots December 2, 1947 Arabs 14 8 Jews Reported Killed[25][26]
al-Tira December 12, 1947 Jewish militants 13 13 Arabs killed, 10 wounded[27][28]
N/A December 12, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 20 20 killed, 5 wounded by barrel bomb at Damascus Gate.[29]
N/A December 13, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 16 16 Arabs killed; 67 Arabs wounded from bombings in Jerusalem and Jaffa; Irgun also burns down 100 Arab homes in Jaffa[1]
N/A (See Beit Nabala) December 14, 1947 Arab Legion 13 13 Jews killed (some sources say 14); 9 Jews, 2 Britons, 1 Arab wounded in attack on military convoy near Lydda[1]
N/A December 16, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 killed by bomb at Noga Cinema in Jaffa.[30]
al-Khisas massacre December 18, 1947 Jewish militants (Haganah) 10 10 Arabs killed[1]
N/A December 24, 1947 Arab snipers, Jewish militants 8 4 Jews killed in Haifa by snipers, 4 Arabs killed in reprisals[1]
N/A December 26, 1947 Arab militants 0 7 Jews killed while driving in convoy to Jerusalem[1]
N/A December 28, 1947 Arab Snipers, Jewish militants 5 5 Jews killed in Bab el Wad by snipers, 5 Arabs killed in reprisals[1]
N/A December 29, 1947 Arab militants, Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 Jews killed in Tel Aviv from mortar and sniper fire, 13 Arabs killed in Jerusalem in Irgun bombing[1][1][31]
Bomb thrown on Damascus Gate Café in Jerusalem December 29, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 13 11 Arabs, 2 Britons killed[1][32] Uri Milstein reported 15 casualties from the bombing in the Palestine Post.[33]
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre December 30, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun), Arabs 39 Arabs beat 39 Jews to death and injured 49 after an Irgun bombing which killed 6[1]
Balad al-Shaykh massacre January 1, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 50 17 - 70 Arabs killed in Haifa[1]
N/A January 3, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed in Haifa[1]
N/A January 3, 1948 Arab militants 4 3 Jews, 1 Briton killed in Jerusalem[1]
Bombing of Arab National Committee HQ January 4, 1948 Jewish militants (Stern Gang) 14 14 Arabs killed; 100 Arabs wounded[32]
Semiramis Hotel bombing January 5, 1948 Jewish militants (Haganah) 20 20 Arabs killed in Jerusalem[34]
N/A January 5, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 14 14 Arabs killed and 19 injured by truck bomb outside the 3-storey 'Serrani', Jaffa's built Ottoman Town Hall[35]
N/A January 5, 1948 Arabs, Jews 4 4 Arabs killed after attacking Jewish quarter in Safed[1]
Jaffa Gate bombing in Jerusalem January 7, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 18 15 - 20 Arabs killed[1][36]
N/A January 9, 1948 Arab militants 35 35 Jews killed near Kfar Etzion[1]
N/A January 10, 1948 Arab militants 11 11 Jews killed, 1 decapitated near Yavne[1]
N/A January 14, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews, 2 Britons killed in Haifa[1]
N/A January 20, 1948 Arab militants 8 8 Jews killed in Yehiam[1]
N/A January 22, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews killed near Yazur[1]
N/A January 25, 1948 Arab militants 10 10 Jews killed[1]
N/A January 27, 1948 British soldiers 4 4 Arabs killed in Gaza[1]
N/A February 3, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Jews killed while riding buses in Haifa[1]
N/A February 7, 1948 Arabs, Jews 6 3 Arabs, 3 Jews killed in Haifa[1]
N/A February 8, 1948 Arabs 6 6 Jews killed in Jerusalem[1]
N/A February 8, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Jews killed in Tel Aviv[1]
N/A February 10, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs killed near Ras el Ain after selling cows in Tel Aviv[37]
N/A February 12, 1948 Arabs 4 4 Jews killed in Jerusalem[1]
N/A February 15, 1948 Arab militants, Jewish militants 8 5 Arabs, 3 Jews killed[1]
Sa'sa' village ambush in the Safad district February 14, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 11 11 Arabs killed[38]
N/A February 17, 1948 Arab militants, Jewish militants 8 5 Arabs, 3 Jews killed[1]
N/A February 17, 1948 Arab militants 57 57 Arabs killed while taking part in attack on Jewish settlements Tirat Tzvi, Sde Eliahu, Ein HaNatziv[1]
Ramla vegetable market bombing February 18, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 12 12 killed, 43 wounded[39]
N/A February 19, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed while riding buses in Haifa[1]
N/A February 21, 1948 Jewish militants 4 4 Arabs killed in Haifa[1]
Ben Yehuda Street bombing February 23, 1948 Arab militants, British deserters 55 55 Jews killed[1]
N/A February 25, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Jews killed on road between Ramle and Tel Aviv[1]
N/A February 28, 1948 Arab militants 7 6 Arabs, 1 Jew killed during attack on Jewish village Kfar Sava[1]
N/A February 18, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish settlement Mitzpe[1]
Rehovot Train bombing March 1, 1948 Jewish militants 28 28 Britons killed[1]
Bevingrad Officers Club bombing March 1, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 20 20 Britons killed; 30 Britons wounded[2]
N/A March 1, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed on Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road[1]
N/A March 2, 1948 Arab militants 9 6 Arabs, 3 Jews killed during Arab attack on Tel-Aviv Jerusalem road[1]
N/A March 4, 1948 Arab militants 16 16 Jews killed on Jerusalem-Atarot road[1]
N/A March 9, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish settlement Yehiam[1]
N/A March 11, 1948 Jews, Arabs 5 4 Arabs, 1 Jew killed in Tiberias[1]
Jewish Agency bombing March 11, 1948 Arab militants 13 13 Jews killed[1]
N/A March 14, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews killed near Faluja[1]
N/A March 14, 1948 Jews, Arabs 5 4 Arabs, 1 Jew killed in Tiberias[1]
N/A March 18, 1948 Arab militants 9 5 Britons, 4 Jews killed in convoy near Acre[1]
N/A March 20, 1948 Arabs 7 7 Jews killed at Ein Harod[1]
N/A March 21, 1948 Arabs 6 6 Jews killed on Rosh Pinna-Safed road[1]
N/A March 22, 1948 Arab militants 24 4 Jews, 20 Arabs during attack on Jewish settlement Nitzanim[1]
N/A March 24, 1948 Jewish militants 36 36 Arabs killed near Tulkarem[1]
N/A March 26, 1948 Arab militants 8 6 Arabs, 2 Jews killed in attack on Jewish convoy near Gaza[1]
N/A March 28, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish convoy near Rehovot[1]
N/A March 28, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish convoy near Safed[1]
Cairo-Haifa train bombing March 31, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 40 40 Arabs killed; 60 Arabs wounded[1]
Massacre in an orange grove in Lydda April 1, 1948 Jewish militias 11 11 Arab laborers killed[40]
Deir Yassin massacre April 9, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 100 ~ 100 Arabs killed[41][42][43]
Hadassah medical convoy massacre April 13, 1948 Arab militants 78 78 Jews (nurses, doctors, and patients) killed[44][45]
Cairo-Haifa Train bombing April 23, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 8 8 Britons killed; 27 Britons wounded[2]
Sorona Police Station bombing April 25, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 4 4 Britons killed[2]
Ein al Zeitun massacre May 3, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 55 37 - 70 Arab prisoners
Kfar Etzion massacre May 13, 1948 Arab militants and Arab Legion 140 127-157 Jews killed[1]
Abu Shusha May 14, 1948 Israeli 60 60

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Gilbert, Martin (2005). Routledge Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-35901-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Bard, Mitchell G., PhD (2005). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Middle East Conflict. Alpha. ISBN 1-59257-410-6. 
  3. ^ a b Segev, Tom (2001). One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate. Owl Books. ISBN 0-8050-6587-3. 
  4. ^ [http://avo.co.il/scripts/prodView.asp?idproduct=2765 'Communal relations - Jewish and Arab in the city of Hebron' (2005) (Hebrew)
  5. ^ a b Shaw Report
  6. ^ J. Bowyer Bell, Moshe Arens, Terror out of Zion,p. 39, 1996 edition
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s (Hebrew)Y. 'Amrami, A. Melitz, דברי הימים למלחמת השחרור ("History of the War of Independence", Shelach Press, 1951).
  8. ^ Tom Segev, Haim Watzman. The Seventh Million. p. 39.  Citing Arnold Zweig's letters to Sigmund Freud
  9. ^ Irgun site Restraint and Retaliation section.
  10. ^ "18 Arabs Die In Bomb Blast". The Vancouver Sun. June 19, 1939. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  11. ^ Palestine Post, July 26–27, 1938
  12. ^ Y. Ben-Ami, Years of Wrath, Days of Glory; Memoirs of the Irgun, Speller and Sons, New York 1982; p 229. Casualty figures from Palestine Post Feb 28, 1939.
  13. ^ The Irgun web site, "The Split within the Irgun" section
  14. ^ Palestine Post, June 20–22, 1939
  15. ^ Palestine Post, June 30, 1939
  16. ^ "Mandate for Palestine - Report of the Mandatory to the LoN (31 December 1938)". domino.un.org. 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012. "Tiber" 
  17. ^ Martin Gilbert. Churchill and the Jews. p. 221. 
  18. ^ Horne, Edward (1982). A Job Well Done (Being a History of The Palestine Police Force 1920 - 1948). The Anchor Press. ISBN 0 9508367 1 2. Page 289.
  19. ^ The Irgun web site, "The United Resistance" section.
  20. ^ Horne. Page 294
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  22. ^ The Irgun Site
  23. ^ a b c Donald Neff, Hamas: A Pale Image of the Jewish Irgun And Lehi Gangs, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, May/June 2006, p. 14-15.
  24. ^ The Irgun web site, "Raid on the Jerusalem Officers Club" section.
  25. ^ http://www.rarenewspapers.com/view/592306
  26. ^ http://images.rarenewspapers.com/ebayimgs/6.17.2012/image043.jpg
  27. ^ Palestine Remembered - Al-Tira
  28. ^ Palestine Post, Dec 14; Milstein, Vol 11, p91
  29. ^ Uri Milstein, History of Israel's War of Independence, Vol II. p51
  30. ^ Milstein, Vol II, p81.
  31. ^ Milstein, Vol II, p214.
  32. ^ a b Jewish Virtual Library
  33. ^ Uri Milstein (30 December 1947). "History of Israel's War of Independence". Palestine Post II: 51. 
  34. ^ Archives of The International Herald Tribune
  35. ^ The Scotsman newspaper, Jan 6, 1948
  36. ^ Uri Milstein (9 January 1948). "History of Israel's War of Independence". Palestine Post III: 95–96. 
  37. ^ Palestine Post, Feb 13, 1948
  38. ^ Khalidi, Walid (2006). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Institute for Palestine Studies. p. 496. ISBN 0-88728-306-3. 
  39. ^ Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
  40. ^ Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
  41. ^ Kana'ana, Sharif and Zeitawi, Nihad (1987), "The Village of Deir Yassin," Bir Zeit, Bir Zeit University Press, 1987)
  42. ^ Morris, Benny (2004). "Chapter 4: The second wave: the mass exodus, April—June 1948, Section: Operation Nahshon". The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. page 238. ISBN 0-521-81120-1. ISBN 0-521-00967-7 (pbk.). 
  43. ^ Milstein, Uri (1998) [1987]. "Chapter 16: Deir Yassin, Section 12: The Massacre". History of the War of Independence IV: Out of Crisis Came Decision (in Hebrew, English version translated and edited by Alan Sacks). Lanhan, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc. pp. page 377. ISBN 0-7618-1489-2. 
  44. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  45. ^ Milstein, Uri (1998) [1987]. "Chapter 16: Deir Yassin, Section 16: Brutality and Hypocrisy". History of the War of Independence IV: Out of Crisis Came Decision (in Hebrew, English version translated and edited by Alan Sacks). Lanhan, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc. pp. page 387. ISBN 0-7618-1489-2.