List of kings of Persia

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King of Iran
ایران
Former Monarchy
Lion and the Sun.svg
Lion and Sun
Shah of iran.png
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
First monarch Unnamed
Last monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Monarchy began c. 2600 BC
Monarchy ended 11 February 1979
Monarchy ended by Iranian revolution
Current pretender(s) Reza Pahlavi

The following is a list of kings and queens of Main Dynasties of ancient Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran and territories lost and their rulers. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of Iran please see:

Awan Dynasty (c. 2600–2270 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Awan Dynasty[1][2][3] (c. 2600–2270 BC)
Unnamed King of Awan  ?–? c. 2580 BC  ?  ? Contemporary with Ur-Nungal king of Uruk[4]
...Lu King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Kur-Ishshak King of Awan  ?–?  ? c. 2550 BC  ? 36 years. contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe king of Lagash
Peli King of Awan  ?–? c. 2500 BC  ?  ?
Tata I King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Ukku-Tanhish King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Hishutash King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Shushun-Tarana King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Napi-Ilhush King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Kikku-Siwe-Temti King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Hishep-Ratep I King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Luh-Ishshan King of Awan  ?–c. 2325 BC  ? c. 2325 BC Son of Hishep-Ratep I
Hishep-Ratep II King of Awan  ?–? c. 2325 BC  ? Son of Luh-Ishshan
Emahsini[5] King of Awan  ?–2311 BC c. 2315 BC 2311 BC
Helu King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Hita King of Awan  ?–? c. 2270 BC c. 2270 BC  ? contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad
Kutik-Inshushinak[6] King of Awan  ?–? c. 2100 BC c. 2100 BC Son of Shinpi-hish-huk contemporary of Ur-Nammu king of Ur. Susa conquered by Ur troops in 2078 and 2016 BC. After him, kings of Simashki took the leadership of Elam.

Simashki Dynasty (c. 2070–c. 1975 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Simashki Dynasty[7][8] (c. 2070–c. 1975 BC)
Gir-Namme I King of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Tazitta I King of Simashki  ?–? c. 2040 BC[5] c. 2037 BC[5]  ?
Eparti I King of Simashki  ?–?  ? c. 2033 BC[5]  ?
Gir-Namme II King of Simashki  ?–? c. 2033 BC  ?  ?
Tazitta II King of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Lurak-Luhhan King of Simashki  ?–2022 BC c. 2028 BC 2022 BC  ?
Hutran-Temti King of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Indattu-Inshushinak I King of Simashki  ?–2016 BC  ? 2016 BC Son of Hutran-Temti
Kindattu King of Simashki  ?–? Before c. 2006 BC After c. 2005 BC Son of Tan-Ruhuratir Conqueror of Ur
Indattu-Inshushinak II King of Simashki  ?–? c. 1980 BC  ? Son of Pepi[6] Cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin & Bilalama king of Eshnunna
Tan-Ruhuratir I King of Simashki  ?–? c. 1965 BC  ? Son of Indattu-Inshushinnak II Cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Indattu-Inshushinak III King of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Ruhuratir I More than 3 years

Epartid Dynasty (c. 1975–c. 1500 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Epartid Dynasty[9] (c. 1975–c. 1500 BC)
Eparti II King of Simashki, king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1973 BC  ? Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[10] cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Shilhaha King of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Eparti II
Kuk-Nashur I Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? son (ruhushak)[11] of Shilhaha
Atta-hushu Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak  ?–After c. 1894 BC  ?1928 BC After c. 1894 BC Son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
Tetep-Mada Shepherd of the people of Susa  ?–? After c. 1890 BC  ? Son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
Palar-Ishshan Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Kuk-Sanit  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
Kuk-Kirwash Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
Tem-Sanit  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Kirwash
Kuk-Nahhunte  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Kirwash
Kuk-Nashur II Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
Shirukduh Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1790 BC  ?  ? Cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria
Shimut-Wartash I  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Shirukduh
Siwe-Palar-Hupak Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam  ?–? Before c. 1765 BC After c. 1765 BC Son of Shirukduh
Kuduzulush I Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Shirukduh
Kutir-Nahhunte I Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1710 BC  ? Son of Kuduzulush I
Atta-Merra-Halki  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuduzulush I (?)
Tata II Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ? Brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
Lila-Irtash  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuduzulush I
Temti-Agun Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
Kutir-Shilhaha Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Temti-Agun
Kuk-Nashur III Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa  ?–? Before c. 1646 BC After c. 1646 BC Son of Kutir-Shilhaha
Temti-Raptash  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kutir-Shilhaha
Shimut-Wartash II  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
Shirtuh King of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Nashur III
Kuduzulush II Sukkalmah, King of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Shimut-Wartash II
Tan-Uli Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Temti-Halki Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Uli
Kuk-Nashur IV[5] Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Uli
Kutik-Matlat[4]  ?–? c. 1500 BC  ? Son of Tan-Uli

Kidinuid Dynasty (c. 1500–c. 1370 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Kidinuid Dynasty[9] (c. 1500–c. 1370 BC)
Kidinu King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 15th century BC  ?  ?
Inshushinak-Sunkir-Nappipir King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Tan-Ruhuratir II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 15th century BC  ?  ?
Shalla King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Temti-Ahar King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1370 BC  ?  ? Cont. Kadashman-Enlil I Kassite king of Babylon

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1400–c. 1200 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Igehalkid Dynasty[9] (c. 1400–c. 1200 BC)
Pahir-Ishshan I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1390 BC  ? Son of Ige-Halki Cont. Kurigalzu I Kassite king of Babylon
Kidin-Hutran I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Pahir-Ishshan I[12]
Attar-Kittah II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Ige-Halki
Humban-Numena I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1370 BC  ? Son of Attar-Kittah II cont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite king of Babylon
Untash-Napirisha or Untash-Humban Untash Napirisha stele Louvre Sb12.jpg King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1340 BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena I
Kidin-Hutran II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Untash-Naprisha[12]
Napirisha-Untash or Humban-Untash King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Kidin-Hutran II[12]
Pahir-Ishshan II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Unpatar-Napirisha or Unpatar-Humban King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Pahir-Ishshan II
Kidin-Hutran III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1224 BC c. 1217 BC Son of Pahir-Ishshan II contemporary of Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite kings of Babylon[10]

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1200–c. 1000 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1200 – c. 1000 BC)[9]
Hallutush-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1200 BC  ?  ?
Shutruk-Nahhunte I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? Before c. 1158 BC After c. 1158 BC Son of Hallutush-Inshushinak
Kutir-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? Before c. 1155 BC After c. 1155 BC Son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Shilhak-Inshushinak I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? Son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Hutelutush-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? before c. 1110 BC after c. 1110 BC Son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1110 BC  ? Son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
Humban-Numena II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 11th century BC  ?  ?
Shutruk-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 11th century BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena II
Shutur-Nahhunte I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 11th century BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena II
Akshir-Shimut King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Akshir-Nahhunte King of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Kara-Indash King of Elam  ?–?  ?  ?  ?

Neo-Elamites (c. 821 – c. 640)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Neo-Elamites (c. 821 – c. 640)[13]
Unknown King of Elam  ?–? c. 821 BC c. 821 BC  ? cont. Shamshi-Adad V king of Assyria
Humban-Tahrah I King of Elam  ?–743 BC  ? 743 BC  ?
Humban-Nikash I King of Elam  ?–717 BC 743 BC 717 BC Son of Humban-Tahrah I
Shutur-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–699 BC 717 BC 699 BC Son (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
Hallushu-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c. 693 BC 699 BC c. 693 BC Brother of Shutur-Nahhunte II
Kutir-Nahhunte III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c 692 BC c. 693 BC c. 692 BC Son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
Humban-Numena III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c. 688 BC c 692 BC c. 688 BC Son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
Humban-Haltash I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c. 681 BC c. 688 BC c. 681 BC Son of Humban-Numena III (?)
Humban-Haltash II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c. 675 BC c. 681 BC c. 675 BC Son of Humban-Haltash I
Urtak-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ?–663 BC c. 675 BC 663 BC Brother of Humban-Haltash II
Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I King of Anshan & Susa  ?–c. 653 BC 663 BC c. 653 BC Brother of Urtak-Inshushinak
Humban-Nikash II King of Anshan & Susa  ?–651 BC c. 653 BC 651 BC Son of Urtak-Inshushinak
Tammaritu King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 652 BC 649 BC Son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
Indabibi King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after July 648 BC 649 BC after July 648 BC  ?
Humban-Haltash III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC after July 648 BC 645/4 BC Son of Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak He was defeated and then captured by Assyrians.
Tammaritu King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC Son of Humban-Hapua & Urtak-Inshushinak
Humban-Nikash III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC Son of Atta-Merra-Halki
Umhuluma King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
Indattu-Inshushinak IV King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC c. 646 BC  ?
Humban-Hapua King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
Pa'e King of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC autumn 646 after 645/4 BC  ?
Shutur-Nahhunte III King of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 646 BC  ? Son of Indattu-Inshushinak IV After him, kingdom of Anshan transferred to Achaemenids

Median Empire (674–652 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Median Empire (674–652 BC)[14]
Phraortes Xšaθrita (?) King of Media  ?–652 BC 674 BC 652 BC Son of Deioces Killed in battle with Assyrians and Scythians. Domination of Scythia 652–625 BC
Kingdom of Scythia (652–625 BC)
Madea King of Scythia  ?–625 BC 652 BC 625 BC Son of Partatua King of Scythia
Median Empire[14] (625–535 BC)
Cyaxares Huvaxšaθra King of Media  ?–585 BC 625 BC 585 BC Son of Xšaθrita
Astyages / Ahasuerus Ishtuvigu King of Media  ?–585 BC 585 BC 550 BC Son of Cyaxares Deposed and later killed
Cyaxares II / Darius King of Media 600?–535? BC 550 BC 535? BC Son of Astyages Died at Babylon of old age. Co-reigned with Cyrus the Great

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)
Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World 600–530 BC 559 BC 530 BC Son of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages King of Anshan from 559 BC. Killed in battle with Massagetes
Cambyses Cambyses II of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–521 BC 530 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great Died while en route to put down a rebellion.
Bardiya Gaumata (?) The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–522 BC 522 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great (possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya) Killed by Persian aristocrats
Darius I Darius In Parse.JPG The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 550–486 BC 522 BC 486 BC Son of Hystaspes
Xerxes I Xerxes I of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 519–465 BC 485 BC 465 BC Son of Darius I Killed
Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes I of Persia.JPG The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–424 BC 465 BC 424 BC Son of Xerxes I
Xerxes II Artaxerxes The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–424 BC 424 BC 424 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Only recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus
 ? Sogdianus The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–423 BC 424 BC 423 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Only recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II
Darius II Ochus Tomb of Darius II.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–404 BC 424 BC 404 BC Son of Artaxerxes I
Artaxerxes II Arsaces 20101229 Artaxerxes II tomb Persepolis Iran.jpg The Great King, King of Kings 436–358 BC 404 BC 358 BC Son of Darius II
Artaxerxes III Ochus Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–338 BC 358 BC 338 BC Son of Artaxerxes II Killed
Artaxerxes IV Arses The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt  ?–336 BC 338 BC 336 BC Son of Artaxerxes III Killed
Darius III Artashata Darius III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 380–330 BC 336 BC 330 BC Son of Artaxerxes IV Killed by Artaxerxes V
Artaxerxes V Bessus The punishment of Bessus by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899).jpg The Great King, King of Kings  ?–329 BC 330 BC 329 BC Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II Killed by Alexander III

Macedonian Empire (330–309 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Macedonian Empire (330–312 BC)
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon.jpg King 356 – 13 June 323 BC 330 BC 323 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia King of Macedonia from 336 BC as Alexander III
Philip III Arrhidaeus King c. 359 – 317 BC June 323 BC 317 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia Killed by Olympias
Alexander IV King Sept. 323 – 309 BC Sept. 323 BC 309 BC Son of Alexander III King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
Perdiccas Regent  ?–321 BC June 323 BC 321 BC Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis
Antipater Regent 398?–319 BC 321 BC 319 BC Son of Iollas Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III
Polyperchon Regent 394–303 BC 319 BC 316 BC Son of Simmias Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III
Antigonus Monophthalmus Antigone le Borgne (pièce).jpg King 382–301 BC 312 BC 301 BC Son of Philip of Elymiotis Ruler over Anatolia from 323, adding Syria and the east in 317. King from 306 BC until 301 BC. Killed at the Battle of Corupedium

Seleucid Empire (311–129 BC)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Seleucid dynasty (311–129 BC)
Seleucus I Nicator Seleuco I Nicatore.JPG King c. 358–281 BC 311 BC 281 BC Son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC.
Antiochus I Soter AntiochusI.jpg King  ?–261 BC 281 BC 261 BC Son of Seleucus I Co-ruler from 291
Antiochus II Theos AntiochusIIMET.jpg King 286–246 BC 261 BC 246 BC Son of Antiochus I
Seleucus II Callinicus SeleucusII.jpg King  ?–225 BC 246 BC 225 BC Son of Antiochus II
Seleucus III Ceraunus Alexander SeleucusIII.jpg King c. 243–223 BC 225 BC 223 BC Son of Seleucus II
Antiochus III the Great Antiochos III.jpg Great King c. 241–187 BC 223 BC 187 BC Son of Seleucus II
Seleucus IV Philopator SeleucusIV.JPG King  ?–175 BC 187 BC 175 BC Son of Antiochus III
Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiokhos IV.jpg King c. 215–163 BC 175 BC 163 BC Son of Antiochus III Killed in Elymais
Antiochus V Eupator Antiochus v.jpg King c. 172–161 BC 163 BC 161 BC Son of Antiochus IV
Demetrius I Soter DemetriosISoter.JPG King 185–150 BC 161 BC 150 BC Son of Seleucus IV
Alexander Balas AlexanderI.jpg King  ?–146 BC 150 BC 146 BC Purported son of Antiochus IV
Demetrius II Nicator DemetriusII.jpg King  ?–139 BC 146 BC 139 BC Son of Demetrius I Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
Antiochus VI Dionysus Antiochos VI.jpg King 148–138 BC 145 BC 142 BC Son of Alexander III. Jointly with Demetrius II.
Antiochus VII Sidetes Antiochus VII coin (Mary Harrsch).jpg King  ?–129 BC 139 BC 129 BC Son of Demetrius I Killed in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire (247 BC – AD 228)[edit]

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BC. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)
Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpg King, Karen, Autocrator  ?–211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
Arsaces II Arsaces Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg  ?–185 BC 211 BC 185 BC[15] Son of Arsaces I
Arsaces III Phriapatius PhriapatiusCoinHistoryofIran.jpg  ?–170 BC 185 BC 170 BC[15] Grandson of Tiridates I
Arsaces IV Phraates I Phraates I.jpg  ?–167 BC 170 BC 167 BC[16] Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces V Mithridates I Mithradatesi.jpg The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene  ?–132 BC 167 BC[16] 132 BC[17] Son of Phriapatius
Arsaces VI Phraates II PhraatesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros  ?–127 BC 132 BC 127 BC[17] Son of Mithridates I Killed in battle with Scythians
Arsaces VII Artabanus I Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpg King  ?–126 BC 127 BC 126 BC[17] Son of Phriapatius Killed in battle with Tocharians
Arsaces VIII Vologases (I)[17] The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes  ?–122 BC 126 BC 122 BC[17] Son of Phriapatius He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
Arsaces IX Artabanus (II)[17] The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I Killed in battle with Medians
Arsaces X Mithridates II MithradatesII.jpg The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter  ?–91 BC 121 BC[18] 91 BC Son of Artabanus I
Arsaces XI Gotarzes I Coin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator  ?–87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XII Artabanus (III)[16] The Great King, Theopator, Nicator  ?–77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Son of Vologases (I)
Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III)[17] The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes  ?–67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XIV Orodes I Orodesi.jpg The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Son of Mithridates II
Arsaces XV Sanatruces I Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene 157–70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Son of Vologases (I)[16]
Arsaces XVI[16]  ? The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes  ?–66 BC 77 BC 66 BC  ? The most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.
Arsaces XVII Phraates III Coin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces I Killed by Orodes II
Arsaces XVIII[16]  ? The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–63 BC 66 BC 63 BC Son of Arsaces XVI The second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.
Arsaces XIX Mithridates III (or IV) Coin of Mithridates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene  ?–54 BC 65 BC[16] 54 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Orodes II
Arsaces XX Orodes II Coin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes  ?–38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Phraates IV
Arsaces XXI Pacorus I Coin of Pacorus I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II Killed in battle with Romans
Arsaces XXII Phraates IV PhraatesIVProfile.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II Killed by Musa
Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos  ?–after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V)[19]  ?  ?–? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Musa Musa Parthian Queen Bust.jpg Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania  ?–4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV
Arsaces XXV Phraates V Coin of Phraates V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV & Musa Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXVI Orodes III OrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–6 4 6 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Killed by Parthian aristocrats
Arsaces XXVII Vonones I Coin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus  ?–19 8 12 Son of Phraates IV Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III Coin of Artabanus II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–40 10 40 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III  ?  ?–? 35 36 Probably a descendant of Tiridates II Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XXX Cinnamus  ?  ?–? 37 37 Son of Artabanus III Abdicated
Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II Godarz.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 11–51 40 – 51 Son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I VardanesICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–46 40 46 Son of Artabanus III Killed by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II Vononesii.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–51 c. 45 51
Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates (VI)[20]  ?  ?–? 49 50 Son of Vonones II Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
Arsaces XXXV Vologases I (or II) VologasesI.JPG King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord  ?–77 51 77 Son of Vonones II
Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–? 55 58 Son of Vologases I (or II) Deposed
Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II (or III) VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–? 77 89/90 Probably son of Vologases I
Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II PacorusII.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–115 77 115 Son of Vonones II
Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–? 80 81 Probably son of Artabanus III
Arsaces XL Osroes I Coin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–130 89/90 130 Probably son of Vologases II (or III)
Arsaces XLI Vologases III (or IV) Coin of Vologases III of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–148 105 148  ?
Arsaces XLII Mithridates IV (or VII) Coin of Mithridates IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–c. 145 115 c. 145 Brother of Osroes I Killed in battle with Romans
Arsaces XLIII Parthamaspates Coin of Parthamaspates of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–after 123 116 117 Son of Osroes I Deposed and went to Rome
Arsaces XLIV[21] Sanatruces II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–c. 145 c. 145 c. 145 son of Mithridates IV (or VII) Killed in battle with Romans
Arsaces XLV Vologases IV (or V) Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–191 148 191 Son of Mithridates IV (or VII)
Arsaces XLVI Vologases V (or VI) Coin of Vologases V of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–208 191 208 Son of Vologases IV (or V)
Arsaces XLVII Osroes II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–? c. 190 c. 195 Probably son of Vologases IV (or V)
Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI (or VII) Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 181–228 208 228 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V Artabanusiv.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–226 213 226 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
Arsaces L Tiridates IV[22] King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?–? 217 222 Son of Vologases IV (or V) He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire (224–651)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
House of Sasan
Ardashir I ArdashirIGoldCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah[23] 180 – February 242 28 April 224 February 242 Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan
Shapur I ShapurICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah 215 – May 270 12 April 240 May 270 Son of Ardashir I
Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir HormizdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah[24]  ?–June 271 May 270 June 271 Son of Shapur I
Bahram I BahramINoFireAltarCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Gilanshah  ?–September 274 June 271 September 274 Son of Shapur I
Bahram II BahramIICroppedCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–293 September 274 293 Son of Bahram I
Bahram III Bahram III.jpg Shahanshah, Sakanshah  ?–293 293 293 Son of Bahram II Deposed
Narseh I NarsehCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah  ?–302 293 302 Son of Shapur I
Hormizd II HormizdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–309 302 309 Son of Narseh I Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Adhur Narseh Shahanshah  ?–309 309 309 Son of Hormizd II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Shapur II Shapur.jpg Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf[25] 309 – 379 309 379 Son of Hormizd II
Ardashir II ArdashirIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–383 379 383 Son of Shapur II
Shapur III ShapurIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–Dec. 388 383 Dec. 388 Son of Shapur II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Bahram IV BahramIVOtherCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Kirmanshah  ?–399 Dec. 388 399 Son of Shapur II
Yazdegerd I YazdegerdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah 363 – 21 January 420 399 21 January 420 Son of Shapur III Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Bahram V BahramVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah 406 – 20 June 438 21 January 420 20 June 438 Son of Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd II YazdegerdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–15 December 457 20 June 438 15 December 457 Son of Bahram V
Hormizd III Shahanshah 399–459 457 459 Son of Yazdegerd II Killed by Peroz I
Peroz I Perozi.jpg Shahanshah  ?–Jan. 484 457 Jan. 484 Son of Yazdegerd II Killed in battle with Hephthalites
Balash Balash.jpg Shahanshah  ?–488 Feb. 484 488 Son of Yazdegerd II
Kavadh I Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah 449 – 13 September 531 488 496 Son of Peroz I Deposed
Djamasp Zamarzp.jpg Shahanshah  ?–502 496 498 Son of Peroz I Deposed
Kavadh I Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah 449 – 13 September 531 498 13 September 531 Son of Peroz I
Khosrau I Anoushiravan.jpg Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just 500 – 31 January 579 13 September 531 31 January 579 Son of Kavadh I
Hormizd IV HormizdIV.jpg Shahanshah 540 – 5 September 590 31 January 579 5 September 590 Son of Khosrau I Killed by Vistahm
Khosrau II Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz 570 – February 28, 628 Sept. 590 Sept. 590 Son of Hormizd IV Deposed and went to Byzantine territory
House of Mihran
Bahram VI Mehrbandak BahramChobinCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Chubineh  ?–591 Sept. 590 Jan. 591 Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II
House of Sasan
Khosrau II Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz 570 – February 28, 628 Jan. 591 25 February 628 Son of Hormizd IV Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II
House of Ispahbudhan
Vistahm BistamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–596 or 600 591 596 or 600 Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI Killed by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk
House of Sasan
Kavadh II Shiruyah KavadhIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–15 September 628 25 February 628 15 September 628 Son of Khosrau II Died from plague
Ardashir III Aradashiriii.jpg Shahanshah 621 – 27 April 629 15 September 628 27 April 629 Son of Kavadh II Killed by Shahrbaraz
House of Mihran
Shahrbaraz ShahrbarazCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz  ?–17 June 629 27 April 629 17 June 629 Sasanian general from the House of Mihran Killed by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht
House of Sasan
Khosrau III Khusrau iii.jpg Shahanshah  ?–630 630 630 Nephew of Khosrau II Killed after a few days reign
Borandukht (First reign) Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpg Shahbanu[26] 590 – 632 17 June 629 16 June 630 Daughter of Khosrau II Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz
Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Shahanshah  ?–? 630 630 Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau II Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht
Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh Shahanshah  ?–630 630 630 Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I. Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Azarmidokht Azarmedukht.jpg Shahbanu  ?–631 630 631 Daughter of Khosrau II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Khosrau IV Khurrazadh KhosrauIVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–631 631 631 Son of Khosrau II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
House of Ispahbudhan
Farrokh Hormizd FarrokhHormizdVCoin.jpg Shahanshah  ?–631 630 631 Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih, the brother of Vistahm Killed by Siyavakhsh under the orders of Azarmidokht
House of Sasan
Hormizd VI HormizdVICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah  ?–631 630 631 Grandson of Khosrau II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Borandukht (Second reign) Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpg Shahbanu[26] 590 – 632 631 632 Daughter of Khosrau II Restored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow
Yazdegerd III YazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah 624 – 651 16 June 632 651 Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau II Killed by a miller

Rulers of Tabaristan[edit]

Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)[edit]

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)
Gil Gavbara GilGavbaraHistoryofIran.jpg Ispahbadh  ?–660 642 660 Son of Piruz
Dabuya Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah  ?–676 660 676 Son of Gil Gavbara
Farrukhan the Great Ispahbod FarXan's coin-3.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah  ?–728 712 728 Son of Dabuya
Dadhburzmihr Dād-būrzmihr.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah  ?–740/741 728 740/741 Son of Farrukhan the Great
Farrukhan the Little Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah  ?–747/48 740/741 747/48 Son of Farrukhan the Great Regent for Khurshid of Tabaristan
Khurshid of Tabaristan Ispahbod Xurshid's coin-1.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah 734 – 761 740/741 760 Son of Dadhburzmihr Committed suicide

Rashidun Caliphate (651–661)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661)
Uthman ibn Affan Uthman.png Abu Amr, Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 579–656 644 656 Son of Affan, of the Umayyad clan. Killed by Kharijites
Ali Ibn Abi Talib Meshed ali usnavy (PD).jpg Abul-Hasan, Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 598–661 656 661 Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad. Killed by Kharijites

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)[edit]

Kunya Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Umayyad Clan (661–750)
Abu Abdullah Muawiyah I Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 661 680 Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad
Abu Khalid Yazid I Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 680 683 Son of Muawiyah I
Abu Abd ur-Rahman Muawiyah II Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 683 684 Son of Yazid I Abdicated (?)
Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan I Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 684 685 Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I Killed by his wife
Abu'l-Walid Abd al-Malik Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 685 705 Son of Marwan I
Abu'l-Abbas al-Walid I Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 705 715 Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu Ayyub Sulayman Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 715 717 Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu Hafṣ Umar II Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 717 720 Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I
Abu Khalid Yazid II Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 720 724 Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu'l-Walid Hisham Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 724 743 Son of Abd al-Malik
Abu'l-Abbas al-Walid II Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 743 744 Son of Yazid II
Abu Khalid Yazid III Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 Son of al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III Killed
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 Son of al-Walid I Killed
Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan II Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 750 Son of Muhammad son of Marwan I Ruled from Harran in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate (750–946)[edit]

Throne name Original name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Abbasid Clan (750-946)
As-Saffah Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah Balami - Tarikhnama - Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah is proclaimed the first 'Abbasid Caliph (cropped).jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 721-754 750 754 Son of Muhammad son of Ali son of Abdullah son of Abbas who was Muhammad's paternal uncle
Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far Abdullah Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 714-775 754 775 Brother of As-Saffah
Al-Mahdi Abu Abdullah Muhammad Abbasid al-Mahdi dirham Kirman 166AH.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744/5-785 775 785 Son of Al-Mansur
Al-Hadi Abu Mohammad Musa Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 764-786 785 786 Son of Al-Mahdi
Ar-Rashid Abu Ja'far Harun Harun Al-Rashid and the World of the Thousand and One Nights.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 763/766-809 786 809 son of Al-Mahdi
Al-Amin Abu Abdullah Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 787-813 809 813 Son of Harun al-Rashid Killed by Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah John the Grammarian as ambassador before Theophilos and Mamun.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 786-833 813 833 Son of Harun al-Rashid
Al-Mu'tasim Abu Ishaq Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 795-842 833 842 son of Harun al-Rashid
Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 816-847 842 847 Son of Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mutawakkil Abu'l-Fazl Ja'far Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 821-861 847 861 Son of Al-Mu'tasim Killed by Al-Muntasir
Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 837-862 861 862 Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Musta'in Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 836-866 862 866 Son of Muhammad son of Al-Mu'tasim Deposed and later killed
Al-Mu'tazz Abu Abdullah Zubayr Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 847-869 866 869 Son of Al-Mutawakkil Deposed and later killed
Al-Muhtadi Abu Ishaq Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin  ??-870 869 870 Son of Al-Wathiq
Al-Mu'tamid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad Dinar of al-Mu'tamid, AH 271.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 844-892 870 892 Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad Dinar of al-Mu'tadid, AH 285.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 854/861-902 892 902 Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Muktafi Abu Mohammad Ali Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 877/8-908 902 908 son of Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Muqtadir
(First reign)
Abul-Fazl Ja'far Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 895-932 908 929 Son of Al-Mu'tadid Briefly deposed.
Al-Qahir
(First reign)
Abu Mansur Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 899-950 929 929 Son of Al-Mu'tadid Forced to resign the throne in the face of public protest
Al-Muqtadir
(Second reign)
Abul-Fazl Ja'far Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 895-932 929 932 Son of Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Qahir
(Second reign)
Abu Mansur Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 932 934 Son of Al-Mu'tadid Deposed and blinded
Abu'l-Abbas Ar-Radi Muhammad Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 907-940 934 940 Son of Al-Muqtadir De facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra'iq 936-938
Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Dirham of al-Muttaqi.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 908-968 940 944 Son of Al-Muqtadir De facto power in the hands of Bajkam 940-941, Ibn Ra'iq 941-942, Nasir al-Dawla 942-943 & Tuzun 943-944, who deposed and blinded him.
Al-Mustakfi Abu'l-Qasim Abdullah Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 905-949 944 946 Son of Al-Muktafi De facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 & Abu Jafar 945-946. Deposed and blinded by Mu'izz al-Dawla

Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Kunya Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Saffarid Dynasty (861–1003)
Ya'qub as-Saffar Ya'qubfounderofSaffarid.jpg Emir 840 – 879 861 879 Son of al-Layth Died of sickness
Amr Emir  ?–902 879 901 Son of al-Layth Captured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
Abu'l-Hasan Tahir Emir  ?–? 901 908 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr Imprisoned in Baghdad
Al-Layth Emir  ?–928 909 910 Son of Ali, son of al-Layth Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad in 928
Muhammad Emir  ?–? 910 911 Son of Ali, son of al-Layth Imprisoned in Baghdad
Abu Hafs Amr Emir 902 – ? 912 913 Son of Ya'qub Overthrown by the Samanids
Abu Ja'far Ahmad AhmadIbnMuhammadSaffaridCoin.jpg Emir June 21, 906 – March 31, 963 923 963 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman
Abu Ahmad Khalaf KhalafibnAhmadCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir November 937 – March 1009 963 1003 Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad Overthrown by the Ghaznavids in 1003, dies as exile in 1009

Buyid Empire (934–1062)[edit]

The Buyid Empire was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars, Ray, and Iraq. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara and Shahanshah. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Buyids of Fars (933–1062)
Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir, Amir al-umara 891 – 949 934 949 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir (934-949)
Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah 936–983 949 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-Dawla Senior Buyid Emir (976-983) and Emir of Iraq (978-983)
Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil Emir, Amir al-umara 962–989 983 989 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir and Emir of Iraq (987-989)
Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzuban Emir, King 964–998 989 998 son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986)
Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, King, Shahanshah 971–1012 998 1012 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq (988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012)
Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja Emir 992–1024 1012 1024 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq and Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021)
Abu Kalijar Marzuban AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah  ?1011 – 1048 1024 1048 Son of Sultan al-Dawla Also Emir of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048) and Emir of Iraq (1044-1048)
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Emir  ?–1062 1048 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah Emir  ?–? 1051 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Emir  ?–1062 1054 1062 Son of Abu Kalijar Killed by the Shabankara tribal chief Fadluya
Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)
Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan Ruknal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Amir al-umara 898–976 935 976 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir (949-976)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(First reign)
Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir 952–997 976 980 Son of Rukn al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur Muayyadal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir 941–983 976 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(Second reign)
Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir, King, Shahanshah 983–997 976 997 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)
Majd al-Dawla Abu Taleb Rostam AbuTalebRostamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir 993–1029 997 1029 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher Shamsal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir  ?–1021 997 1021 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Sama' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir  ?–1023 1021 1023 Son of Shams al-Dawla Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
Mu'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad Emir, Amir al-umara 915–966 945 966 Son of Buya
Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar Emir, Amir al-umara 943–979 966 979 Son of Mu'izz al-Dawla Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (976-978)
Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah 937–983 977 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir (976-983)
Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzban Emir, King 964–998 983 987 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986) and Emir of Fars & Kerman (989-998)
Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil Emir, Amir al-umara 962–989 987 989 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir (987-989)
Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir 970–1012 989 1012 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012) and Emir of Fars (999-1012)
Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja Emir 992–1024 1012 1021 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021) and Emir of Fars (1012-1024)
Musharrif al-Dawla Abu 'Ali Emir, Shahanshah, King 1002–1025 1021 1025 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Closest thing to Senior Buyid Emir (1024-1025)
Jalal al-Dawla Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla Emir 994–1043 1027 1043 Son of Baha' al-Dawla
Abu Kalijar Marzuban AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah  ?1011 – 1048 1043 1048 Son of Sultan al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (1024-1048), Emir of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048)
Al-Malik al-Rahim Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz Emir  ?–1058 1048 1055 Son of Abu Kalijar Also Senior Buyid Emir (1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril of the Seljuqs

Great Seljuq Empire (1029–1194)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
House of Seljuq (1029–1191)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Toğrül I Abu Talib Mohammad Beg, Sultan 995–1063 1029 1063 Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq
ʿAdud ad-Dawla Alp Arslan Abu Shujaʿ Mohammad AlpArslan.PNG Sultan 1039–1072 1063 1072 Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I
Jalal ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Malik Shah I Abu'l-Fath Hasan Büyük Selçuklu Sultanı Melikşah.jpg Sultan 1055–1092 1072 1092 Son of Alp Arslan Killed by Assassins
Nasir ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud I Sultan 1086–1094 1092 1094 Son of Malik Shah I
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Muzaffar Barkiyaruq Sultan 1080–1105 1094 1105 Son of Malik Shah I
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad I Tapar Sultan 1082–1118 1105 1118 Son of Malik Shah I
Muglith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Mahmud II Sultan 1104–1131 1118 1131 Son of Muhammad I Dominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul II Sultan 1109–1134 1132 1134 Son of Muhammad I Ruled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar
As-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-Dīn Abu'l-Harith Ahmed Sanjar Sultan 1087–1157 1097 1157 Son of Malik Shah I Ruled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.
Ghiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Fath Mas'ud Sultan 1109–1152 1134 1152 Son of Muhammad I Ruled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.
Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Malik Shah II Sultan 1128–1160 1152 1153 Son of Mahmud II Deposed by Khass Bey
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad II Sultan 1128–1160 1153 1160 Son of Mahmud II Rule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah (1153-1155)
Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah Sultan 1118–1162 1153 1155 Son of Muhammad I Rule contested with his nephew Muhammad II
Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Malik Shah II Sultan 1128–1160 1160 1160 Son of Mahmud II Deposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.
Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah Sultan 1118–1162 1160 1161 Son of Muhammad I Deposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Arslan Sultan 1134–1176 1161 1176 Son of Toghrul II De facto power in the hands of Ildeniz (1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(First reign)
Abu Talib Toghrul III Sultan  ?–1194 1176 1194 Son of Arslan De facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Sanjar II Sultan 1189 1191 Son of Sulayman Shah De facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Atabegs of Azerbaijan (1191)
Qizil Arslan Sultan  ?–1191 1191 1191 Son of Ildeniz Held de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan and died an hour before his coronation.
House of Seljuq (1191–1194)
Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din
(Second reign)
Abu Talib Toghrul III Sultan  ?–1194 1176 1194 Son of Arslan Killed by Khwarazm Shah Tekish

Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)[edit]

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)
Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Atsiz Sultan 1097/1105–1156 1153 1156 son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
Taj ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Il-Arslan Sultan  ?–1171 1156 1172 son of Atsiz
Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Tekish Sultan  ?–1200 1172 1200 son of Il-Arslan With opposition from Sultan shah
Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad Sanjar Mort de Muhammad Hwârazmshâh.jpeg Shah  ?–1220 1200 1220 son of Tekish Eliminated by the Mongols
Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Mingburnu Памятник Джелал ад-Дину Манкбурны.JPG Jalal od-Din, Sultan  ?–1231 1220 1231 son of Muhammad Reign largely guerilla warfare against the Mongol conquerors

Mongol Empire (1230–1357)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Great Khans (1221–1256)
Genghis Temujin YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg Khan 1162–1227 1221 1227 Son of Yesugei Baghatur Ruling in Mongolia from 1206
Tolui Tolui Khan.jpg Khan 1192–1232 25 August 1227 13 September 1229 Son of Genghis Regent
Ögedei YuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpg Khan c. 1186 – 11 December 1241 13 September 1229 11 December 1241 Son of Genghis
Töregene Töregene Khatun coin.png Khatun  ?–? 1242 1246 Wife of Ögedei Regent
Güyük Güyük à la fête.jpeg Khan c. 1206–1248 1246 1248 Son of Ögedei and Töregene
Oghul Qaimish Khatun  ?–1251 1248 1251 Wife of Güyük Regent
Möngke Mongkhe khaan.png Khan 10 January 1209 – 11 August 1259 1 July 1251 11 August 1259 Son of Tolui
Ilkhanate (1256–1357)
Hulagu Hulagu Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan c. 1217 – 8 February 1265 1256 8 February 1265 Son of Tolui
Abaqa Abaqa Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan 1234–1282 1265 1 April 1282 Son of Hulagu
Ahmad Nicholas Tekuder Tegüder recevant une ambassade.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1284 1282 1284 Son of Hulagu Killed by Arghun
Arghun AbaqaOnHorseArghunStandingGhazanAsAChild.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan c. 1258 – 7 March 1291 1284 7 March 1291 Son of Abaqa
Gaykhatu Geikhatu interrogeant Shingtûr Nuyân.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1295 1291 1295 Son of Abaqa Killed by general Taghachar
Baydu Baydu coin with Khagan's name.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1295 1295 1295 Son of Taraqai son of Hulagu Executed by Ghazan
Mahmud Ghazan Ghazan with wife at his court.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 5 November 1271– 11 May 1304 1295 1304 Son of Arghun
Muhammad Khodabandeh Öljaitü Majma' al-Tavarikh 001.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, 1280 – 16 December 1316 1304 16 December 1316 Son of Arghun
Abu Sa'id Ala' ad-Din Bahadur Ilhanli Ebu said enguriye 720.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 2 June 1305 – 1 December 1335 1316 1 December 1335 Son of Öljaitü
Arpa Ke'un Mu'izz ad-Din Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1336 1335 10 April 1336 Son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malik-Temur son of Ariq Böke son of Tolui Killed in battle by Ali Padshah
Nasir ad-Din Musa Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1337 12 April 1336 1337 Son of Ali son of Baydu Puppet of Ali Padshah, fled after being defeated by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg
Togha Temür Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–1353 1335 1353 Son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur In opposition to Jalayirid and Chupanid candidates, killed by the Sarbadar Yahya Karawi
Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,  ?–1338 1336 1338 Son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, executed by the Chupanid Hasan Kucek
Sati beg Khatun c.1300 – after 1345 1338 1339 Daughter of Öljaitü Puppet of Hasan Kucek, who deposed her.
Izz ad-Din Jahan Temür Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,  ?–? 1339 1340 Son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, who deposed him for Togha Temür.
Suleiman Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? May 1339 1345 Husband of Sati beg and son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Kucek, fled to Diyarbakr in the disorder after his death.
Anushirwan Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1344 1356  ? Puppet of the Chupanid Malek Ashraf
Luqman Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1353 1388 Son of Togha Temür Puppet of Timur
Ghazan II Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan  ?–? 1356 1357  ? Puppet of Malek Ashraf

Rival Dynasties (1332–1501)[edit]

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Sarbadars (1332–1386)[edit]

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Sarbadars (1332 - 1386)
Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah Amir  ??-1338 1337 1338 Revolted against Togha Temür, stabbed to death by his brother
Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah Amir  ??-1344 1338 1344 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Captured by the Paduspanids and executed.
Muhammad Aytimur (1343–1346) Amir  ??-1346 1344 1346 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown and executed
Kulu Isfendiyar Amir  ??-c.1347 1346 c.1347 Unrelated to predecessors
Shams al-Din ibn Fazl Allah Amir  ??-?? c.1347 1347 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Forced to abdicate by successor
Khwaja Shams al-Din 'Ali Amir  ??-1351/1352 1347 1351/1352 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a disgruntled official
Yahya Karawi Amir  ??-1355/1356 1351/1352 1355/1356 Unrelated to predecessors Eliminated Togha Temür, assassinated.
Zahir al-Din Karawi Amir  ??-1355/1356 1355/1356 1355/1356 Nephew of Yahya Karawi Deposed by vizier
Haidar Qassab Amir  ??-1356 1355/1356 1356 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a Turkish slave
Lutf Allah Amir  ??-1357/1358 or 1361 1356 1357/1358 or 1361 Son of Wajih ad-Din Masud Deposed and executed by his vizier
Hasan al-Damghani Amir  ??-1361/1362 1357/1358 or 1361 1361/1362 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown by Dervish rebels
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud Amir  ??-?? 1361/1362 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors
Rukn ad-Din Amir 1376/1377 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors Installed by Dervish rebels.
Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud Amir  ??-?? 1376/1377 1381 Unrelated to predecessors Restored, became vassal of Tamerlane in 1381

Chupanids (1335–1357)[edit]

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Chupanids (1335–1357)
Hassan Kuchak Amir c.1319–December 15, 1343 July 16, 1338 December 15, 1343 Son of Timurtash son of Chupan Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Sati Beg and Suleiman Khan.
Yagi Basti Amir  ?-1344 1343 1344 Son of Chupan Assassinated by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
Surgan Amir c.1320-? 1343 1345 Son of Chupan and Sati Beg Driven out by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
Malek Ashraf Amir  ?-1357 1343 1357 Brother of Hassan Kuchak Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Anushirwan. Hung by Jani Beg of the Golden Horde.
Temürtas Amir  ?-1360 1360 1360 Son of Malek Ashraf Short-lived puppet of the Golden Horde.

Jalayirids (1335–1432)[edit]

Throne name Original name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Jalayirids (1335–1432)
Taj-ud-Din Hasan Buzurg Ulus Beg  ?-1356 1336 1356 Son-in-law of Chupan Ruled through Ilkhanate puppets Muhammad Khan and Jahan Temür.
Mu'izz-ud-dunya wa'd-Din Shaikh Uvais Bahadur Khan c.1337-1374 1356 1374 Son of Hasan Buzurg
Hasan Shaikh  ?-1374 1374 1374 Son of Shaikh Uvais Killed by the Amirs
Jalal-ud-Din Husain I (1374–1382) Shaikh  ?-1382 1374 1382 Son of Shaikh Uvais Executed by his rebellious brother Ahmed
Bayazid Shaikh  ?-? 1382 1384 Son of Shaikh Uvais In opposition to Husain and Ahmed
Ghiyath ud-Din Ahmad Sultan  ?-1410 1383 1410 Son of Shaikh Uvais In exile 1393-4, 1400-2, 1403-5. Killed in battle by Qara Yusuf
Ala ud-Dunya Shah Walad Sultan  ?-1411 1410 1411 Son of Ali, son of Uvais
Mahmud Sultan  ?-1425 1411 1411 Son of Shah Walad Under regency of Tandu Khatun
Uvais Sultan  ?-1421 1415 1421 Son of Shah Walad
Muhammad Sultan  ?-1421 1421 1421 Son of Shah Walad
Mahmud Sultan  ?-1425 1421 1425 Son of Shah Walad Second reign
Hussain  ?-1432 1425 1432 Son of Ala-ud-Dawlah, son of Ahmed Defeated by Kara Koyunlu

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Injuids (1335–1357)
Sharaf ad-Din Mahmud Shah  ?-1325 1304 1335 Highly autonomous master of the Ilkhanate royal estates (the injü), removed by Abu Sa'id, executed by Arpa Ke'un.
Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Khusrau Amir  ?-1338/9 1335 1338/9 Son of Mahmud Shah
Jalal ad-Din Mas'ud Shah Amir  ?-1342 1338 1342 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Kai-Khusrau. Jalayirid partisan. Assassinated by Chupanids.
Shams ad-Din Muhammad Amir  ?-1339/40 1339/40 1339/40 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Mas'ud Shah. Murdered by his Chupanid supporter.
Shaikh Abu Ishaq Amir  ?-? 1343 1357 Son of Mahmud Shah Defeated by & executed by the Muzaffarids

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)[edit]

  1. Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  2. Abu'l Fawaris Jamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  3. Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  4. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  5. Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387
  6. Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  7. Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  8. Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  9. Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)[edit]

  1. Qara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja, 1378/9–c. 1388
  2. Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad, c. 1388–1399/1400 and 1405/6–1420/1
  3. Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf, 1420/1–1436
  4. Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf, 1436 – 10 November 1467
  5. Hasan ’Ali ibn Jahan Shah, November 1467 – 1468

Ak Koyunlu (1378–1508)[edit]

  1. Kara Yülük Osman, 1378/9 to 1435/6
  2. Hamza, 1435/6 to 1444/5
  3. Nur al-Din ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1435/6 to 1438
  4. M‘uizz al-Din Jihangir ibn ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1444/5 to 1453/4
  5. Uzun Hasan ibn ‘Ali, 1453/4 to 1478/9
  6. Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan, 1478/9 to 1479/80
  7. Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan, 1479/80 to 1490/1
  8. Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub, 1490/1 to 1491/2
  9. Rustam ibn Maqsud, 1491/2 to 1496/7
  10. Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad, 1496/7 to 1497/8
  11. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1497/8 to 1499/1500
  12. Alwand ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  13. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  14. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1500/01 to 1501/2
  15. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1501/2 to 1508 (second term)

Timurid Empire (1370–1507)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Reign began Reign ended Family Relations Note
Timurid Empire (1370–1449)
1 Timur Tarmashirin Khan Barlas Timur reconstruction01.jpg Emir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405 1370 18 February 1405 Son of Muhammad Taraghai
2 Pir Muhammad Pir Muhammad Khan bin Jahangir Emir, Khan c. 1374 – 22 February 1407 18 February 1405 22 February 1407 Grandson of Timur
3 Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah Xalil-Sulton.jpg Emir, Sultan, Shah c. 1384 – 4 November 1411 18 February 1405 13 May 1409 Grandson of Timur
4 Shahrukh Mirza Shahrukh Mirza Shahruch reconstruction.jpg Mirza 30 August 1377 – 12 March 1447 18 February 1405 12 March 1447 Son of Timur
5 Ulugh Beg Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay Mirza, Sultan 22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449 12 March 1447 27 October 1449 Son of Shahrukh Mirza
Division of the Timurid Empire (1449–1507)

Rulers in Transoxiana:

  1. Abd al-Latif ibn Muhammad Taraghay Ulughbek, son of Ulugh Beg, 1449–1450
  2. 'Abdullah Mirza, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1450–1451
  3. Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad, grandson of Miran Shah, 1451–1469, conquered Khurasan in 1459

Rulers in Khurasan:

  1. Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1449–1457
  2. Shah Mahmud, son of Babur, 1457
  3. Ibrahim, 1457
  4. Jahan Shah, leader of the Black Sheep Turcomans, 1457–1458

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  1. Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  2. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  3. Masud, 1495
  4. Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  5. Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

Conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

  1. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1469
  2. Husayn Bayqarah, 1469–1506
  3. Badi' al-Zaman, son of Husayn, 1506–1507, fled to the court of Ismail I

Conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Safavid dynasty (1501–1786)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
1 Ismail I Сефи 1-й 1629-42.jpg Shah, Sultan 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan Heidar
2 Tahmasp I Tahmasb-1.jpg Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I
3 Ismail II IranianShahIsmail2.jpg Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I Poisoned (?)
4 Mohammad I Mohammen xudabende Sefevid.jpg Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I Deposed
5 Abbas I Portraits du schah de Perse Abbas Ier (1571-1629).JPG Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I
6 Safi Sam Mirza Shah Safi.png Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I
7 Abbas II Recueil. Portraits du schah de Perse Abbas II.JPG Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi
8 Suleiman I Safi Mirza Suleiman I of Persia.jpg Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II
9 Sultan Husayn Sultan Husayn by Bruyn.jpg Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I Deposed & then killed by Mahmud Hotaki
Afghan Conquest
1 Mahmud Hotaki SHAH-MAHMUD-HOTAK.jpg Shah 1697?–1725 23 October 1722 22 April 1725 son of Sultan Husayn Recognised as Shah of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan
2 Ashraf Hotaki Ashraf Shah Hotaki 1725-1729.jpg Shah  ?–1730 22 April 1725 5 October 1729 brother of Mahmud Hotaki Ruled in opposition to Tahmasp II and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan
Safavid restoration
10 Tahmasp II Persia, scià thamasp II, decuplo afshari d'oro, 1722-1732.JPG Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan Husayn Ruled in opposition to Mahmud Hotaki, later deposed & then killed by Nader
11 Abbas III Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II Under control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader

Afsharid dynasty[27] (1736–1796)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
15 Nader Shah Nadhar Qoli Khan NaderShahPainting.png Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
17 Adil Shah Ali Qoli Beig Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
18 Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar
19 Shahrukh Afshar Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Zand dynasty[28] (1751–1794)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
22 Karim Khan Mohammad Karim Karim khan Zand.jpg Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
24 Mohammad Ali Khan Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim
25 Abol Fath Khan Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim
26 Zaki Khan Khan  ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
27 Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq Khan  ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
28 Ali Murad Khan Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
29 Jafar Khan Khan  ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq
31 Sayed Murad Khan Khan  ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
32 Lotf Ali Khan Lotf Ali Khan.jpg Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja'far Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar dynasty[29] (1794–1925)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
33 Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Mohammad Khan Qajar.jpg Khan, Shah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 Son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Killed
34 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Baba Khan Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpg Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
35 Mohammad Shah Qajar Mohammadshah.jpg Shah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali
36 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Nāser al-Dīn Schah.jpg Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam 1831–1896 5 October 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad and Mahd-e Olia Killed
37 Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg Shah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din
38 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Mohammad Ali Shah.jpg Shah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed
39 Ahmad Shah Qajar AhmadShahQajar2.jpg Shah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali Deposed

Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
40 Reza Shah Reza shahpahlavi.jpg Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 Son of Abbas Ali Deposed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion
41 Mohammad Reza Shah Shah of iran.png Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza Shah Deposed during the Iranian Revolution

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Awan's geographical site is unknown. But it is very probable that it was near Poshtkuh of Lorestan.
  2. ^ The first three kings of Awan were also kings of Mesopotamia.
  3. ^ Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  4. ^ a b Cameron, 1936.
  5. ^ a b c d e Potts, 1999.
  6. ^ a b Hinz, 1972.
  7. ^ Some archaeologists have suggested that Simashki was located in the north of Elam and Anshan near modern Isfahan.
  8. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  9. ^ a b c d Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  10. ^ a b Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  11. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings. See Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  12. ^ a b c Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam.
  13. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Vallat, 1995; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998; Reade, 2000; Henkelman, 2003; Tavernier, 2004.
  14. ^ a b Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov 1956; The Cambridge History of Iran
  15. ^ a b Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C." Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  18. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C."
  19. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  20. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  21. ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. A.D. 140)
  22. ^ See: Tiridates III (c. A.D. 224 – 228?)
  23. ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings"
  24. ^ "The great king of Armenians"
  25. ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders"
  26. ^ a b "Queen"
  27. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 960.
  28. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 961.
  29. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 962.

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]