List of landslide victories
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In politics, a landslide victory (or just landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming margin in an election. Just what margin is needed for a victory to be "in [or by] a landslide" has not been precisely defined, and has varied from time to time.
After the 2007 federal election some commentators[who?] referred to the Labor Party's win under Kevin Rudd as a ruddslide. By historical standards though, the victory was not unusually large. Some notable election results in Australia have been:
- 1917 - Nationalist Party won 53 of the 75 seats in the House of Representatives
- 1925 - Nationalist-Country Coalition won 51 of the 75 seats in the House of Representatives
- 1929 - Australian Labor Party won 46 of the 75 seats in the House of Representatives
- The 1931 election stands as the greatest loss of seats for a government - 32 seats in a 74-seat parliament
- 1943 - Australian Labor Party won 49 of the 74 seats and a 58.2% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1946 - Australian Labor Party won 43 of the 74 seats and a 54.1% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1949 - Liberal-Country Coalition won 74 of the 121 seats and a 51.0% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1958 - Liberal-Country Coalition won 77 of the 121 seats and a 54.1% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1966 - Liberal-Country Coalition won 82 of the 124 seats and a 56.9% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1975 - Liberal-National Coalition won 91 of the 127 seats and a 55.7% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1983 - Australian Labor Party won 75 of the 125 seats and a 53.2% TPP in the House of Representatives
- 1996 - Liberal-National Coalition won 94 of the 148 seats and a 53.6% TPP in the House of Representatives
Australian elections are characterised by few changes in government — since 1949 there have been only five elections where a new party has won government. When a new party is elected, however, it is often by a landslide.
Some notable state election landslides include:
- 1911 Western Australian state election - The Labor party, previously in opposition, won 34 of the 50 seats in the state Legislative Assembly.
- 1933 Western Australian state election - The Labor party, previously in opposition, won 30 of the 50 seats in the state Legislative Assembly, reducing the previous party of government, the Nationalists, to minor party status.
- 1974 Queensland state election - Country-Liberal Coalition won 69 of the 82 seats in the state parliament (the Coalition's win, while overwhelming, was exaggerated by the Bjelkemander in operation in the state's electoral divisions at the time)
- 1981 New South Wales state election - Australian Labor Party won 69 of the 99 seats in the state Legislative Assembly.
- 1993 South Australian state election - Liberal Party, previously in opposition, won 37 of the 47 seats in the state House of Assembly.
- 2001 Queensland state election - Australian Labor Party won 66 of the 89 seats in the state Legislative Assembly.
- 2002 Victorian state election - Australian Labor Party won 62 of the 88 seats in the state Legislative Assembly.
- 2011 New South Wales state election- Liberal/National coalition won 69 of the 93 seats in the Legislative Assembly
- 2012 Queensland state election - Liberal National Party of Queensland won 78 of the 89 seats in the state Legislative Assembly.
- 2013 Western Australian state election- The Liberal and National parties won 38 of the 59 seats in the Legislative Assembly.
Considering that Brazil has a two-round system there has never been a landslide victory in presidential elections since the redemocratization in the late 1980s. The closest to a landslide victory in presidential elections happened when Fernando Henrique Cardoso was both elected and re-elected in the first round with 53% of the valid votes against about 30% of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Considering the second round, Lula had a landslide victory both in 2002 and 2006, achieving more than 60% of the valid votes against 39% of his contestants.
Prior to the Estado Novo regime, there were some landslide victories, but it should be noted that electoral corruption was widespread and voting was restricted to literate men. Those landslide vistories were:
- 1894 - Prudente de Morais had 88.4% of the votes against 11.3% of Afonso Pena
- 1898 - Campos Sales had 98.5% of the votes against 8.5% of Lauro Sodré
- 1902 - Rodrigues Alves had 93.3% of the votes against 6.7% of Quintino Bocaiuva
- 1906 - Afonso Pena had 98% against 2% of Lauro Sodré
- 1910 - Hermes da Fonseca had 65% against 35% of Ruy Barbosa
- 1914 - Venceslau Brás had 91.7% of votes against 8.3% of Ruy Barbosa and other non-registered candidates
- 1918 - Rodrigues Alves had 99% of the votes against 1% of other 130 non-registered candidates
- 1919 - Epitácio Pessoa had 71.1% of the votes against 28.9% of Ruy Barbosa
- 1926 - Washington Luís had 99% of the votes against 1% of Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil.
All three national referendums were marked with landslide victories. In 1963, Presidentialism was restored with 80% of the votes. Thirty years later, the Republican regime was preferred in a referendum by 86% of voters and Presidentialism by 69%. In all states, the Republican option had over 80% of the votes. In 2005, almost 64% voted against the prohibition of firearms and ammunition commercialization.
British Virgin Islands 
- In the 2007 general election the opposition Virgin Islands Party won 10 out of the 13 available electoral seats (76.9%). One of the three remaining seats was won by an independent endorsed by, and who subsequently joined, the party, leaving the opposition with just two out of 13 seats (15.4%).
- In federal elections in 2010, the New Flemish Alliance won 32% votes cast in the Senate election, almost double of the second party, Christian Democratic and Flemish party.
- Burmese general election, 1990: Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy won 392 of 492 seats in the Burmese Parliament (although the military junta refused to accept the results and continued their rule until democracy was restored in 2010).
- Burmese general election, 2010: The Union Solidarity and Development Party won 259 of 330 elected seats in the House of Representatives.
- Saskatchewan general election, 1944, in which the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Tommy Douglas won 47 of the 52 seats in the legislature, the first time a socialist government was elected anywhere in North America.
- Prince Edward Island general election, 1935, in which the Liberal Party of Prince Edward Island under Walter Lea won every seat in the legislature, the first time in the history of the British Empire that that happened.
- Canadian federal election, 1958, in which the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada won 208 seats out of 265.
- Quebec general election, 1973, in which the Quebec Liberal Party under Robert Bourassa won 102 out of 110 seats in the Quebec National Assembly.
- Canadian federal election, 1984, in which the Progressive Conservatives won 211 seats out of 282.
- New Brunswick general election, 1987, in which the Liberal Party of New Brunswick won every seat in the legislature.
- Prince Edward Island general election, 1993, in which the Liberal Party of Prince Edward Island under Catherine Callbeck won 31 of 32 seats in the legislature.
- Prince Edward Island general election, 2000 in which the Progressive Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island under Pat Binns won 26 of 27 seats in the legislature.
- British Columbia general election, 2001, in which 77 of 79 seats were won by the British Columbia Liberal Party.
- Newfoundland and Labrador general election, 2007, in which Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador won 44 of 48 seats.
- Saskatchewan general election, 2011, in which the Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall won 49 out of 58 seats in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.
- Colombian presidential election, 2010: Juan Manuel Santos won with 69% of the vote in the second round.
- French legislative election, 1919, in which the "Bloc National", an alliance of Right and Centrist parties seeking to continue the "Sacred Union" of parties which saw France through the First World War, won 433 MPs seats out of a total of 613, a majority of 70%; because of its Nationalist convictions and of the colour of the French Army uniforms at the time, this legislature was nicknamed "Chambre bleu horizon".
- French legislative election, 1968, in which an alliance of Right and Centrist parties united in their support of President Charles de Gaulle following the massive street demonstrations of May and June 1968, won 52% of the votes and 394 MPs seats out of a total of 485, a majority of 81%.
- French legislative election, 1993, in which the "Union For France" (alliance of the Rally for the Republic and Union for French Democracy) won 485 of 577 seats in the National Assembly.
- French presidential election, 2002, in which incumbent Jacques Chirac was reelected in a runoff election against Jean-Marie Le Pen with more than 82% of all votes.
- French regional elections, 2004, in which the Socialist Party won 20 of 22 regions in metropolitan France. This feat was repeated in the French regional elections, 2010, where the Socialist Party won with an even greater margin, winning in all but 1 of the regions.
- German federal election, 1957, in which the conservative alliance between Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union of Bavaria won the absolute majority of the popular vote.
Hong Kong 
- The 1991 election: A coalition of the United Democrats of Hong Kong and the Meeting Point, together with other smaller parties, groups and independents in the pro-democracy camp, getting 17 of the 18 geographical constituency seats.
- The 1995 election: The Democratic Party, together with other smaller parties, groups and independents in the pro-democracy camp, getting 17 of the 20 geographical constituency seats.
- Hungarian parliamentary election, 2010: The largest opposition party Fidesz won the election with 52,7% of the vote and 263 of 386 seats, gaining a two-thirds majority.
- Indonesian presidential election, 2004: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of the Democratic Party defeated incumbent Megawati Sukarnoputri with 60.6% of votes in the second round.
- Indonesian presidential election, 2009: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was reelected in the first voting round on 60.8% of the vote, defeating former president Megawati Sukarnoputri who won only 26.8%.
- Fianna Fáil won landslide victories in the 1938 and 1977 General Elections
These were the only times a party has won a majority of the vote in an Irish General Election.
- Jamaican general election, 1972: The Michael Manley-led opposition People's National Party (PNP) defeated the Edward Seaga-led governing Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) with 37 of the 53 parliamentary seats.
- Jamaican general election, 1976: The Michael Manley-led governing PNP defeated the Edward Seaga-led opposition JLP with 47 of the 60 parliamentary seats.
- Jamaican general election, 1980: The Edward Seaga-led opposition JLP defeated the Michael Manley-led opposition PNP with 51 of the 60 parliamentary seats.
- Jamaican general election, 1983: The Edward Seaga-led JLP won all 60 seats in the house of representatives and 89.7% of the popular vote in an election which was not contested by the PNP.
- Jamaican general election, 1989: The Michael Manley-led PNP was returned to governance by securing 45 of the 60 parliamentary seats over the Edward Seaga-led JLP.
- Jamaican general election, 1993: The P.J. Patterson-led governing PNP dedeated the Edward Seaga-led JLP with 52 of the 60 parliamentary seats and 60.0% of the popular vote.
- Jamaican general election, 1997: The P.J. Patterson-led governing PNP dedeated the Edward Seaga-led JLP with 50 of the 60 parliamentary seats.
- Jamaican general election, 2011: The Portia Simpson-Miller-led opposition PNP was returned to power over the Andrew Holness-led JLP with 42 of the 63 parliamentary seats.
The once-dominant Liberal Democratic Party has held large parliamentary majorities in the 1960s until the 1970s when it had to govern with coalitions to command workable majorities.
- Japanese general election, 2005: The ruling Liberal Democratic Party under prime minister Junichiro Koizumi won 296 of the 480 seats in the House of Representatives of Japan
- Japanese general election, 2009: Yukio Hatoyama's Democratic Party of Japan defeated the ruling Liberal Democratic Party of Prime Minister Taro Aso, winning 308 of the 480 seats in the House of Representatives of Japan, ending over five decades of near-continuous LDP rule.
- Japanese general election, 2012: Shinzō Abe's Liberal Democratic Party defeated the ruling Democratic Party of Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda, winning 294 of the 480 seats in the House of Representatives of Japan and returning to government after three years in opposition.
- In the first round of the Kyrgyzstani presidential election, 2011 Almazbek Atambayev won 63.24% of votes against 14.77% of Adakhan Madumarov.
New Zealand 
Therefore, landslides have not happened since then as no single party has won a majority of seats under proportional representation.
Instances of landslides under first-past-the-post voting:
- 1935: Labour under Michael Joseph Savage won 53 of 80 seats
- 1938: Labour under Michael Joseph Savage won 53 of 80 seats
- 1951: National under Sidney Holland won 50 of 80 seats in the wake of the 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute
- 1972: Labour Party under Norman Kirk won 55 of 87 seats
- 1975: National Party under Robert Muldoon won 55 of 87 seats
- 1990: National Party led by Jim Bolger won 67 of 97 seats - the largest majority to be won by any party in New Zealand history.
In the Philippines, the positions of president and vice president are directly elected separately, without runoff election.
From 1935 to 1946, the Philippines was under de facto one-party rule by the Nacionalista Party; as such all presidential elections were landslides; Manuel L. Quezon won with 68% of the vote in 1935 and an even bigger margin of 82% on 1941. Sergio Osmeña won even larger margins in the vice presidential elections: 80% in 1935 and 85% in 1942.
From 1946 to 1972, the Philippines was under a two-party system, but landslides were rarer except for these instances:
- Philippine presidential election, 1953: Ramon Magsaysay won with 68% of the vote.
- Vice presidential election: Magsaysay's running mate Carlos P. Garcia won 62% of the vote.
- Philippine presidential election, 1969: Ferdinand Marcos won with 61% of the vote to be reelected as president.
In 1972, martial law was declared and political opposition was suppressed. It was lifted in 1981, but other major parties boycotted that year's election.
- Philippine presidential election, 1981: Ferdinand Marcos won with 88% of the vote with token opposition. This is the largest margin to date.
Since 1987, the country is under a multi-party system; with the winner always winning via a plurality leading to smaller margins of victory. However, two landslides are recognized:
- Philippine presidential election, 1998: Joseph Estrada won with 40% of the vote, with a margin of victory of 6,453,812 votes (24%) against Jose de Venecia who got 16% of the vote.
- Philippine presidential election, 2010: Benigno Aquino III won with 42% of the vote, with a margin of victory of 5,720,841 votes (16%) against Joseph Estrada who got 26% of the vote.
- In the runoff of the Polish presidential election, 1990 Lech Wałęsa won 74.25% of votes against 25.75% of Stan Tymiński. This remains, to date, the biggest victory;
- During Polish presidential election, 2000 incumbent Aleksander Kwaśniewski won 53.90%, avoiding (the only time in history), a second round. His closest rival, Andrzej Olechowski, won just 17.30%. In Polish politics this election, because of quick victory and large margin, is also considered a landslide;
- During Polish parliamentary election, 2001 Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union won 47.2% (216 Sejm seats) against closest opposition party, Civic Platform (14.1% and 65 seats). This is, to date, the biggest victory margin and is also considered a landslide (In Senate, DLA-LU won 75 of 100 seats).
- Portuguese legislative election, 1987: The Social Democratic Party won 50.22% of votes and 148 seats against the 22.24% and 60 seats of the Socialist Party. This was the first time a single party won an absolute majority since democracy was restored in 1974;
- Portuguese legislative election, 1991: The Social Democratic Party reached a higher result than in 1987 as it won 50.6% of the vote and 135 seats compared with the 29% of the vote and 72 seats won by the Socialist Party.
- Portuguese legislative election, 2005: The Socialist Party won an absolute majority of 121 seats and 45.03% of the vote against the 28.77% and 75 seats won by the Social Democratic Party. It was the first time the Socialist Party won an absolute majority.
- Romanian general election, 1990: Ion Iliescu was elected president of Romania with 85% of the vote, while Iliescu's National Salvation Front won 263 of 395 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
- Romanian general election, 2000: Ion Iliescu, running under the banner of the Social Democratic Party was elected president of Romania with 66.8% of the vote in the second round.
- Romanian legislative election, 2012: The Social Liberal Union won 273 of 412 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
- The 2004 presidential election was won by incumbent president Vladimir Putin with 71.3% of the vote, with closest runner-up Nikolay Kharitonov only receiving 13.7%. This is the largest margin in a Russian presidential election.
- The United Russia party collected 64% of votes during the 2007 Duma elections. The next highest vote total was achieved by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, which received 11% of votes cast. The elections have been criticized for being unfair.
- The 2008 presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev with 71% of the vote
- The 2012 presidential election was won by prime minister Vladimir Putin with 63.6% of the vote, returning to the Kremlin a second time with closest runner-up Gennady Zyuganov only receiving 17.2% (another election criticized for being fraudulent)
- Scottish Parliament general election, 2011: The Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond won 69 of the 129 seats in the Scottish Parliament, leading to the first majority government in Scottish history since the establishment of a devolved Scottish Parliament. The electoral system in Scotland is specifically designed to prevent majority government. In second place was the Scottish Labour Party, with only 37 seats.
The People's Action Party has continuously enjoyed winning large parliamentary majorities since its first victory in 1959, when Singapore was under British colonial rule.
- Singaporean general election, 1959: The People's Action Party led by Lee Kuan Yew won 43 of 51 seats in the Singapore Legislative Assembly with 54.1% of the vote under the first past the post system.
- Singaporean general election, 1963: The People's Action Party won 37 of 51 seats in the Legislative Assembly, with 46.9% of the popular vote.
From the 1968 to 1980 general elections, the PAP won a monopoly of seats in the Singapore parliament and a vote share above 70%, as a result of an opposition boycott in 1968 and weak opposition forces seeing little success. This trend ended in 1984, when the PAP won less than 65% of the vote and the opposition parties returned with a presence in the legislature, but with the PAP continuing to hold a large parliamentary majority (above 90% of seats in the parliament). This was wildly exaggerated as a result of the Group Representation Constituency bloc voting scheme implemented in 1988 with the PAP winning 60% and above vote shares.
However, one instance of a landslide (in terms of vote share) took place in:
- Singaporean general election, 2001: The People's Action Party won 75.3% of the popular vote and 82 of 84 seats in the Parliament of Singapore.
South Korea 
- In the 2007 Presidential election, Lee Myung-bak beat his nearest rival Chung Dong-young by 22.6 percentage points, garnering 48.7% of the vote against Chung's 26.1% of the vote, while independent candidate Lee Hoi-chang came in third with 15.1% of the vote. Since the beginning of direct Presidential elections in South Korea, this election was won by the widest margin in South Korea history. However, the turnout was the lowest ever for a South Korean presidential election.
- Spanish general election, 1982: The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party won 48.11% of the popular vote and 202 out of the 350 seats, nearly doubling the second party, the People's Alliance (26.36% of vote and 107 seats). The until then governing party, Union of the Democratic Centre, lost 157 seats. This is the most overwhelming victory in Spanish democratic era in a general election.
- Spanish general election, 1986: The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party renewed its mandate with 44.06% of the popular vote, albeit with a reduced (but still sizeable) majority of 184 seats (out of 350), over the 105 seats won by the second party.
- Spanish general election, 2000: The People's Party won 44.52% of the popular vote and 183 out of the 350 seats, with the second party, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party obtaining just 34.16% of the popular vote and 125 seats.
- Spanish general election, 2011: The People's Party won 44.63% of the popular vote and 186 out of the 350 seats, a 76 seat-lead over the second party, the until then governing Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, which lost 59 seats over those won in the previous election and obtained just 28.76% of the popular vote.
- Republic of China presidential election, 1996: Incumbent Lee Teng-hui of the Kuomintang won 54.0% of valid votes, while his closest rival won 21.0%.
- Republic of China presidential election, 2008: The Kuomintang returns to power in Taiwan with its candidate Ma Ying-jeou winning 58.4% of votes, while his rival Frank Hsieh of the governing Democratic Progressive Party won 41.6%.
- Thai general election, 2005: Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's Thai Rak Thai Party won 374 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives
- Thai general election, 2011: Yingluck Shinawatra, Thaksin's youngest sister of the Pheu Thai Party, won 265 out of 500 seats in the House of Representatives for first time in contest while ruling Democrat Party led by incumbent prime minister Abhisit Vejjajiva won 159 seats
Both were under parallel voting system.
United Kingdom 
In general, any British general election which results in a majority of over 100 seats tends to be described as a landslide. Landslide victories since the Reform Act 1884 (the first time a majority of adult males could vote) are:
- The 1886 election: Unionist (Conservative Party and Liberal Unionist Party) overall majority of 116
- The 1895 election: Unionist overall majority of 152
- The 1900 election: Unionist overall majority of 134
- The 1906 election: Liberal Party overall majority of 128 (356 when assuming Labour and Irish Nationalist support)
- The 1918 election: Coalition overall majority of 239
- The 1924 election: Conservative overall majority of 209
- The 1931 election: National government overall majority of 493 (including Conservative majority of 324)
- The 1935 election: National government overall majority of 247
- The 1945 election: Labour Party overall majority of 146
- The 1959 election: Conservative overall majority of 100
- The 1983 election: Conservative overall majority of 144
- The 1987 election: Conservative overall majority of 102
- The 1997 election: Labour overall majority of 179
- The 2001 election: Labour overall majority of 167
Labour's general election victory in 2001 with an overall majority of 167 was dubbed "the quiet landslide" by the media. Though the Government did score a very high majority, turnout and public interest in the election was not excited and, unlike most of the landslide results listed above, there was little change from the previous election and no change of governing party.
Landslides are relatively common in British electoral history, and this is partly as a result of the first-past-the-post electoral system. Relatively small differences in numbers of popular votes cast can amplify the eventual result. For instance, Labour achieved a 66-seat majority in the 2005 election despite securing only 35% of the vote, only 3 percentage points ahead of the Conservatives. Conversely, parties can poll very highly and achieve disproportionately low numbers of MPs.
United States 
Presidential elections in the United States are indirect; they are not determined by the "popular vote", but by the Electoral College. Each state is allocated as many "electors" as it has Senators and Representatives in the United States Congress, and, at present, all states but Nebraska and Maine hold a "winner take all" vote, in which the winner of the popular vote in a state wins all electoral votes the state is eligible to cast (Nebraska and Maine give two electoral votes to the winner of the state and one electoral vote to the winner of each congressional district within the state.). This allows for candidates to win 1 vote more than the runner-up but still get 100% of the electoral votes.
For this reason, many presidential victories appear to be huge landslide victories when examining the electoral vote, but much less so when examining the popular vote; for example, in the 1980 election, Ronald Reagan won 90.9% of the electoral vote but 50.7% of the popular vote to Jimmy Carter's 41.0%.
- 1789 and 1792 - the highest percentage of Electoral College Votes (100% - George Washington was the only president to win a unanimous Electoral College victory. Washington received the maximum possible electoral votes in both the 1789 and 1792 election.)
- 1808 - the highest popular vote percentage for the winner (James Madison 64.7%).
- 1820 - James Monroe had all of the electoral votes except for one which was cast in by William Plumer of New Hampshire to John Quincy Adams, who specifically voted such to leave George Washington the only unanimously-elected President.
- 1920 - the greatest percentage point margin in the popular vote (Harding 60.3% to Cox 34.1%).
- 1936 - the greatest electoral votes difference between winner and opponent (Roosevelt 523 to Landon 8).
- 1984 - the highest number of electoral votes (Reagan 525).
Popular vote margin 
- 26.2% : Warren G. Harding's 60.3% to James M. Cox's 34.1% in the 1920 presidential election
- 25.2% : Calvin Coolidge's 54.0% to John W. Davis's 28.8% in the 1924 presidential election
- 24.3% : Franklin D. Roosevelt's 60.8% to Alf Landon's 36.5% in the 1936 presidential election
- 23.2% : Richard Nixon's 60.7% to George McGovern's 37.5% in the 1972 presidential election
- 22.6% : Lyndon B. Johnson's 61.1% to Barry Goldwater's 38.5% in the 1964 presidential election
Electoral votes 
- James Monroe's 231 electoral votes to John Quincy Adams's 1 electoral vote in 1820. (99.2% margin)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt's 523 electoral votes to Alf Landon's 8 electoral votes in 1936. (97% margin)
- Ronald Reagan's 525 electoral votes to Walter Mondale's 13 electoral votes in 1984. (95.2% margin)
- Richard Nixon's 520 electoral votes to George McGovern's 17 electoral votes and John Hospers's 1 in 1972. (93.3% margin)
- Dictionary.com Unabridged, based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2010.
- Military-backed party wins Burma election in landslide: 10 November 2010.
- Landslide win for Santos in Colombian election: 22 June 2010.
- "Putin party secures huge victory". BBC News. 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- Luke Harding and Tom Parfitt in Moscow (2007-11-30). "Fraud, intimidation and bribery as Putin prepares for victory". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- "Official balloting outcome". The Nation (Thailand) (Bangkok). 5 July 2011.
- Both elections were in the pre-12th Amendment electoral college, and thus the maximum available votes one could receive was 50% of available votes. Each elector had to select 2 different candidates. Thus while Washington did not get all the electoral votes, he received the maximum possible. In plain language, every elector voted for Washington, but was required by the constitution to vote for a separate 2nd candidate. The Vice-President office was not a separate election but the runner-up of the presidential election. This method of presidential election was changed with the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1804.