List of landslides
This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km³) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of Mm³) for most events.
|48 Ma||Heart Mountain, Wyoming||Heart Mountain slide||Mostly eroded now|
|Late Pleistocene||British Columbia||Cheekye Fan||Collapse of the western flank of Mount Garibaldi|
|≈ 10,000 BCE||Saidmarreh, Iran||Saidmarreh landslide||33N||47.65E||20 km³||Largest landslide yet discovered|||
|10,000 BP||Switzerland||Flims Rockslide||9 km³|||
|≈ 200 BCE||North Island, New Zealand||2.2 km³||Dammed Lake Waikaremoana|||
|Less than 2.6 Ma||off South Africa||Agulhas Slide||20,000 km³||The largest so far described|||
|ca. 170,000 BP||off North Island, New Zealand||Ruatoria debris avalanche||3,000 km³|||
|ca. 8,000 BP||Norwegian Sea||Storegga Slide||64.87||1.3||3,500 km³||Triggered a large tsunami that swept over the Shetland and Orkney Islands|||
|18 November 1929||Grand Banks of Newfoundland||1929 Grand Banks earthquake||44.54||-56.01||200 km³||Broke 12 submarine communications cables, while the tsunami killed 28 people on the Burin Peninsula.|
Pre-20th century historic landslides
|25 November 1248||Mont Granier, France||45.46||5.93||1000+||Destroyed five villages.|
|2 September 1806||Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland||Goldau Rockslide||47.05||8.55||40 Mm³||457||Destroyed four villages and caused a tsunami in Lake Lauerz|||
|24 December 1839||Lyme Regis, Dorset||The Undercliff||One of a series of slumps|
|1855–1866||British Columbia||Collapse of The Barrier|
|1881||Qiaojia County, Yunnan, China||Shigaodi Landslide||530 Mm³||Formed dam on Jinsha River|||
|19 September 1889||Cap Diamant, Quebec||Québec rockslide||46.485||-71.21||>40|||
20th Century landslides
|29 April 1903||Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada||Frank Slide||49.59||-114.39||30 Mm³||~70|||
|18 February 1911||Usoy, Tajikistan||Usoi Dam||2 km³||54||Triggered by M 7.4 earthquake. The rockslide dammed the Murgab River, impounding 65-km- long Lake Sarez,which presently still exists.|||
|1914||Neuquén and Mendoza, Argentina||Rio Barrancas & Rio Colorado debris flow||2 Mm³||190 - 300||Two small towns were devastated, and numerous ranches and farms destroyed along a 60-km- long valley. Length of flow: 300 km|||
|19 May 1919||Kelud, East Java, Indonesia||Kelut Lahars||5110||Lahars caused 5,110 deaths, and destroyed or damaged 104 villages. Length 185 km.|||
|16 December 1920||Haiyuan County, Ningxia, China||1920 Haiyuan earthquake||>100,000||Loess flows and landslides over an area of 50,000 km². Failures in loess caused extreme fissuring, landslide dams, and buried villages.|||
|1920||Veracruz, Mexico||Rio Huitzilapan debris flows||est. 600-870||Debris flows destroyed village of Barranca Grande, and were 40 to 65 m deep. Debris flows extended >40 km. Triggered by M~6.5 earthquake.|||
|1921||Almaty, Kazakhstan||Alma-Ata Debris Flows||~500||A debris flow in the Valley of Alma-Atinka River destroyed the town of Alma-Ata.|||
|26 March 1924||Amalfi Coast, Italy||~100||A series of major landslides after 18 hours of heavy rain|||
|23 June 1925||Gros Ventre Wilderness, Wyoming||Gros Ventre landslide||43.62||110.55||38 Mm³||6 (when the dam failed in 1927)||Blocked the Gros Ventre River, forming a 70 m high dam|||
|9 March 1929||Arthur's Pass, South Island||The Falling Mountain landslide||-42.89||171.68||66 Mm³||Very rapid rock avalanche triggered by the 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake|||
|25 August 1933||Diexi, Mao County, Sichuan, China||1933 Diexi earthquake||150 Mm³||~3100||The largest landslide formed a 255-m high landslide dam on the Min River. This landslide killed all but one of the 577 people in the town of Deixi. The dam then overtopped, causing a flood and 2,500 deaths.|||
|5 July 1938||Kwansai, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan||~1000||Many landslides occurred on the slopes of Mount Rokko, 130,000 homes damaged or destroyed by landslides and floods.|||
|13 December 1941||Huaraz, Ancash, Peru||Huaraz debris flow||>10 Mm³||4,000-6,000||Caused by rupture of a moraine dam impounding a lake, temporarily dammed the Santa River, after 2 days that failed and the flood swept down the valley to the coast.|||
|16 August 1945||Mantaro Valley, Peru||Kuntur Sinqa rockslide||5.5 Mm³||none from landslide||The rockslide formed a 100m high dam at Rio Mantaro, which failed after 73 days, causing a flood.|||
|19 December 1945||Alcalá del Júcar, Albacete, Spain||16||Worst rockfall to hit the municipality in the 20th century|||
|18 September 1948||Assam, India||Guwahati landslide||~500||Triggered by heavy rain|||
|July 10, 1949||Gharm Oblast, Tajikistan||Khait landslide
Yasman valley flowslide
~4,000(7,200 for all the landslides)
|Triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, largest of several landslides|||
|1953||Wakayama Prefecture, Japan||Arida River landslides||1,046||Multiple slides due to typhoon. Many landslide dams were formed and subsequently failed in the Arid-Kawa valley.|||
|1953||Minamiyamashiro, Sōraku District, Kyoto, Japan||Minamiyamashiro landslides||336 dead or missing||5,122 homes were destroyed or badly damaged by landslides and floods.|||
|12 July 1954||Media Luna, Colombia||Santa Elena landslide||>100||Mudflow triggered by heavy rain|||
|26 October 1954||Salerno, Amalfi Coast||≈ 300||504 mm rain fell in 16 hours, causing soil slides & debris flows|||
|1958||Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan||Kanogawa landslides||1,094||19,754 homes were destroyed or badly damaged.|||
|8 July 1958||Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States||1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami||30 Mm³||2||Caused by M 7.5 earthquake, the landslide caused a 524m-high megatsunami in Lituya Bay.|||
|22 May 1960||Riñihue Lake, Chile||Riñihuazo||-39.84||-72.29||≈ 40 Mm³||A series of landslides triggered by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, blocked outflow of Riñihue Lake, causing it to rise more than 20 metres, actions taken to lower the water level prevented repeat of a disastrous flood after the great 1575 earthquake.|||
|10 January 1962||Ranrahirca, Peru||1962 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||-9.12||-77.6||13 Mm³||4,000 - 5,000||An avalanche of ice and rock triggered by collapse of part of a hanging glacier|||
|9 October 1963||Longarone, Italy||Vajont landslide||46.27||12.33||270 Mm³||≈ 2,000||Landslide caused by heavy rains and drawdown of the Vajont Dam reservoir. Casualties and damage caused by tsunami generated by landslide into reservoir.|||
|27 March 1964||Seward, Alaska, United States||1964 Alaska earthquake||211 Mm³ at Seward, 9.6 Mm³ at Turnagain Heights||106 from tsunami caused by Seward landslide||M 9.2 earthquake caused submarine landslide at Seward, and large landslides in Anchorage|||
|9 January 1965||British Columbia||Hope Slide||49.40||121.26||48 Mm³||4||Triggered by a small earthquake|||
|28 March 1965||El Cobre, Chile||El Cobre landslide||>200||Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine, the resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre.|||
|1965||Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan, China||Pufu Landslide||450 Mm³||Created a dam on the Pufuguo Stream, which later failed|||
|21 October 1966||Aberfan, Wales||Aberfan disaster||51.69||3.35||144||Collapse of an unstable colliery spoil-tip built over a series of springs, was triggered by heavy rain, killing nearly half the children at the village school.|
|18 February 1967||Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro||-22.97||-43.20||110||Worst single event in a series of landslides caused by very heavy rain in the area around Rio de Janeiro in the summers of 1966 and 1967. A high-velocity debris avalanche struck three buildings, two of them apartment buildings. The preceding rainfall fell at up to 100 mm per hour.|||
|18 March 1967||Caraguatatuba, Brazil||-23.85||-46.63||7.6 Mm³||120||Followed heavy rain, 420 mm /24 h|||
|9 July 1967||Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan||34.25||132.57||159||Heavy rain from Typhoon Billie caused flooding and many landslides, destroying 352 buildings and damaging 551 roads|||
|18 August 1968||Hida River, Gero, Japan||35.45||137.05||104||Triggered by a rainstorm, this debris flow swept two buses off the road, where they were stopped because of an earlier landslide|||
|3–5 October 1968||Darjeeling, India||'thousands'||Floods caused by rainfall of 500–1,000 mm, triggered many landslides, a 60 km long highway was cut in 92 places|||
|19–20 August 1969||Nelson County, Virginia, USA||150 (includes deaths from flooding)||Remnants of Hurricane Camille gave at least 710 mm of rain in about 8 hours, triggering numerous debris flows|||
|31 May 1970||Yungay, Peru||1970 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||-9.12||-77.6||50-100 Mm³||>22,000||Triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake, the mass travelled 14.5 km at an average velocity of about 300 km/h and buried Yungay|||
|18 March 1971||Chungar, Peru||Chungar avalanche and tsunami||-11.12||-76.53||0.1 Mm³||400-600||A rock avalanche from a limestone outcrop fell into Yanawayin Lake causing a wave that devastated a mining camp|||
|4 May 1971||Saint-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, Canada||Saint-Jean-Vianney landslide||48.47||-71.22||6.9 Mm³||31||This slide occurred in quick clay following heavy rain, destroying 41 homes|||
|6 July 1972||Amakusa, Japan||Amakusa disaster||Multiple slope failures caused by heavy rainfall|||
|12–13 July 1972||Obara, Shikoku, Japan||Obara landslides||64||218 mm of rain in 5 hours triggered many landslides|||
|April 1974||Junín Region, Peru||Mayunmarca Landslide||1.0 to 1.6 km³||450||Rockslide dammed Río Mantaro. Slide velocity estimated at 120–140 km/hr|||
|22 July 1975||Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada||Devastation Glacier landslide||0.013 km³||4||Triggered by the collapse of a glacially debuttressed slope, descended Devastation Creek.|||
|30 November 1977||Tuve, Gothenburg, Sweden||Tuve landslide||57.75||11.94||3–4 Mm³||9||The most severe landslide in the modern history of Sweden, triggered by heavy rain|||
|8 August 1979||Abbotsford, Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand||1979 Abbotsford landslip||-45.897||170.435||5 Mm³||0||Heavy rain triggered a landslide on an unstable slope, made worse by sand quarrying at the base of the slope, destroying 69 houses|||
|18 May 1980||Mount St. Helens, Washington, United States||1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens||46.200278||-122.186667||2.9 km³||57||The largest landslide in recorded history. Unplugged the volcanic vent, triggering the eruption. Deaths were from both the landslide and the eruption.|||
|April 1983||Thistle, Utah, United States||Thistle, Utah||~15 Mm³||0||Costliest landslide in United States history; damage estimated at $200–400 million (1983 dollars). Landslide formed lake over 160 feet (49 m) deep before draining.|||
|5 October 1985||Mameyes district, Ponce, Puerto Rico||129||120 houses destroyed, greatest death toll in North American history from a single landslide.|||
|13 November 1985||Armero, Tolima Department, Colombia||Armero tragedy||-5.03||-74.88||23,000||A minor eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano caused melting of its ice cap. This released a series of lahars, volcanic mudflows, that traveled at speeds of up to 50 km/h down the slopes of the volcano. These lahars swiftly moved into valleys, merging to form larger flows, one of which destroyed the town of Armero.|||
|28 July 1987||Valtellina, Lombardy, Italian Alps||Val Pola landslide||34 Mm³||29||Triggered by rapid erosion at the base of a mountain slope, created a wave that travelled 2.7 km upstream|||
|3–5 June 1993||Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England||Holbeck Hall Hotel landslide||~0.5 Mm³||0||Classic rotational failure along sea cliffs, resulting court case set important precedent in English law|||
|21 October 1993||Pantai Remis, Perak, Malaysia||Pantai Remis landslide||0||Slope failure of an open pit tin mine near the sea resulted in forming a new cove measuring approximately 0.5 by 0.5 km.|
|4 March 1995||La Conchita, California, United States||La Conchita Landslide of 1995||1.3 Mm³||0|||
|30 July 1997||Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia||1997 Thredbo landslide||18||A leaking water pipe caused a slope failure that destroyed a ski lodge|||
|1998–1999||Kelso, Washington, United States||Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide||0||Slow-moving landslide which resulted in the condemnation of 137 houses, and $40 million in damage.|||
|14–16 December 1999||Vargas, Venezuela||Vargas tragedy||30,000||Caused by a heavy storm that deposited 911 mm of rain in a few days|||
21st century landslides
|9 November 2001||Amboori, Kerala, India||40||Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history.|||
|26 March 2004||Mount Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi, Indonesia||200-300 Mm³||32||Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall|||
|10 January 2005||La Conchita, California, United States||2005 La Conchita Landslide||200,000 m³||10||Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow.|||
|17 February 2006||Southern Leyte, Philippines||2006 Southern Leyte mudslide||15 Mm³||1126||Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten-day period of heavy rain|||
|11 June 2007||Chittagong, Bangladesh||2007 Chittagong mudslides||123||Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains|||
|6 September 2008||Cairo, Egypt||2008 Cairo landslide||119||Rockfall from cliffs, individual boulders up to 70 tonnes|||
|9 August 2009||XiaolinXiaolin (or Hsiao-Lin), Kaohsiung County, Taiwan||30–45 Mm³||439-600|||
|4 January 2010||Attabad, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan||Hunza Valley Landslide||30 Mm³||20||Formed Attabad Lake by damming Hunza River, blocked Karakoram Highway|||
|20 February 2010||Madeira Island, Portugal||2010 Madeira floods and mudslides||42|||
|1 March 2010||Bududa District, Uganda||2010 Ugandan landslide||100-300|||
|23 May 2010||Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi, China||2010 Jiangxi train derailment||0||The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region.|||
|10 May 2010||Saint-Jude, Quebec||4|||
|6 August 2010||Meager Creek, British Columbia, Canada||40 Mm³||0||Second-largest landslide in Canada history|||
|8 August 2010||Gansu, China||2010 Gansu mudslide||1,287|||
|10 April 2013||Salt Lake City, Utah, United States||Bingham Canyon mine landslide||40.523°N||112.151°W||55 Mm³||0||Possibly the largest historic, non-volcanic, terrestrial landslide in North America.|||
|16 June 2013||Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India||After Uttarakhand Floods||5,700|
|22 March 2014||Oso, Washington, United States||2014 Oso mudslide||48.283°N||121.847°W||early est. 10 Mm³||43||49 structures destroyed or affected|||
|2 May 2014||Ab Barak, Badakhshan, Afghanistan||2014 Badakhshan mudslides||350-500 reported||4,000 people displaced||
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