List of landslides

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This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km³) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of Mm³) for most events.

Prehistoric landslides[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Comments Sources
48 Ma Heart Mountain, Wyoming Heart Mountain slide Mostly eroded now
Late Pleistocene British Columbia Cheekye Fan Collapse of the western flank of Mount Garibaldi
≈ 10,000 BCE Saidmarreh, Iran Saidmarreh landslide 33N 47.65E 20 km³ Largest landslide yet discovered [1][2]
10,000 BP Switzerland Flims Rockslide 9 km³ [3]
≈ 200 BCE North Island, New Zealand 2.2 km³ Dammed Lake Waikaremoana [4][5]

Submarine landslides[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Comments Sources
Less than 2.6 Ma off South Africa Agulhas Slide 20,000 km³ The largest so far described [6]
ca. 170,000 BP off North Island, New Zealand Ruatoria debris avalanche 3,000 km³ [7]
ca. 8,000 BP Norwegian Sea Storegga Slide 64.87 1.3 3,500 km³ Triggered a large tsunami that swept over the Shetland and Orkney Islands [8]
18 November 1929 Grand Banks of Newfoundland 1929 Grand Banks earthquake 44.54 -56.01 200 km³ Broke 12 submarine communications cables, while the tsunami killed 28 people on the Burin Peninsula.

Pre-20th century historic landslides[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
25 November 1248 Mont Granier, France 45.46 5.93 1000+ Destroyed five villages.
2 September 1806 Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland Goldau Rockslide 47.05 8.55 40 Mm³ 457 Destroyed four villages and caused a tsunami in Lake Lauerz [9]
24 December 1839 Lyme Regis, Dorset The Undercliff One of a series of slumps
1855–1866 British Columbia Collapse of The Barrier
1881 Qiaojia County, Yunnan, China Shigaodi Landslide 530 Mm³ Formed dam on Jinsha River [10]
19 September 1889 Cap Diamant, Quebec Québec rockslide 46.485 -71.21 >40 [11]

20th Century landslides[edit]

1901–1950[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
29 April 1903 Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada Frank Slide 49.59 -114.39 30 Mm³ ~70 [12]
18 February 1911 Usoy, Tajikistan Usoi Dam 2 km³ 54 Triggered by M 7.4 earthquake. The rockslide dammed the Murgab River, impounding 65-km- long Lake Sarez,which presently still exists. [13]
1914 Neuquén and Mendoza, Argentina Rio Barrancas & Rio Colorado debris flow 2 Mm³ 190 - 300 Two small towns were devastated, and numerous ranches and farms destroyed along a 60-km- long valley. Length of flow: 300 km [13]
19 May 1919 Kelud, East Java, Indonesia Kelut Lahars 5110 Lahars caused 5,110 deaths, and destroyed or damaged 104 villages. Length 185 km. [13]
16 December 1920 Haiyuan County, Ningxia, China 1920 Haiyuan earthquake >100,000 Loess flows and landslides over an area of 50,000 km². Failures in loess caused extreme fissuring, landslide dams, and buried villages. [13]
1920 Veracruz, Mexico Rio Huitzilapan debris flows est. 600-870 Debris flows destroyed village of Barranca Grande, and were 40 to 65 m deep. Debris flows extended >40 km. Triggered by M~6.5 earthquake. [13]
1921 Almaty, Kazakhstan Alma-Ata Debris Flows ~500 A debris flow in the Valley of Alma-Atinka River destroyed the town of Alma-Ata. [13]
26 March 1924 Amalfi Coast, Italy ~100 A series of major landslides after 18 hours of heavy rain [14]
23 June 1925 Gros Ventre Wilderness, Wyoming Gros Ventre landslide 43.62 110.55 38 Mm³ 6 (when the dam failed in 1927) Blocked the Gros Ventre River, forming a 70 m high dam [15]
9 March 1929 Arthur's Pass, South Island The Falling Mountain landslide -42.89 171.68 66 Mm³ Very rapid rock avalanche triggered by the 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake [16]
25 August 1933 Diexi, Mao County, Sichuan, China 1933 Diexi earthquake 150 Mm³ ~3100 The largest landslide formed a 255-m high landslide dam on the Min River. This landslide killed all but one of the 577 people in the town of Deixi. The dam then overtopped, causing a flood and 2,500 deaths. [13]
5 July 1938 Kwansai, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan ~1000 Many landslides occurred on the slopes of Mount Rokko, 130,000 homes damaged or destroyed by landslides and floods. [13][17]
13 December 1941 Huaraz, Ancash, Peru Huaraz debris flow >10 Mm³ 4,000-6,000 Caused by rupture of a moraine dam impounding a lake, temporarily dammed the Santa River, after 2 days that failed and the flood swept down the valley to the coast. [13][18]
16 August 1945 Mantaro Valley, Peru Kuntur Sinqa rockslide 5.5 Mm³ none from landslide The rockslide formed a 100m high dam at Rio Mantaro, which failed after 73 days, causing a flood. [13]
19 December 1945 Alcalá del Júcar, Albacete, Spain 16 Worst rockfall to hit the municipality in the 20th century [19]
18 September 1948 Assam, India Guwahati landslide ~500 Triggered by heavy rain [20]
July 10, 1949 Gharm Oblast, Tajikistan Khait landslide
Yasman valley flowslide
39.17 70.90 75 Mm³
245 Mm³
~800
~4,000(7,200 for all the landslides)
Triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, largest of several landslides [21]

1951–1975[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
1953 Wakayama Prefecture, Japan Arida River landslides 1,046 Multiple slides due to typhoon. Many landslide dams were formed and subsequently failed in the Arid-Kawa valley. [13]
1953 Minamiyamashiro, Sōraku District, Kyoto, Japan Minamiyamashiro landslides 336 dead or missing 5,122 homes were destroyed or badly damaged by landslides and floods. [13]
12 July 1954 Media Luna, Colombia Santa Elena landslide >100 Mudflow triggered by heavy rain [22]
26 October 1954 Salerno, Amalfi Coast ≈ 300 504 mm rain fell in 16 hours, causing soil slides & debris flows [23]
1958 Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan Kanogawa landslides 1,094 19,754 homes were destroyed or badly damaged. [13]
8 July 1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami 30 Mm³ 2 Caused by M 7.5 earthquake, the landslide caused a 524m-high megatsunami in Lituya Bay. [24]
22 May 1960 Riñihue Lake, Chile Riñihuazo -39.84 -72.29 ≈ 40 Mm³ A series of landslides triggered by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, blocked outflow of Riñihue Lake, causing it to rise more than 20 metres, actions taken to lower the water level prevented repeat of a disastrous flood after the great 1575 earthquake. [18]
10 January 1962 Ranrahirca, Peru 1962 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche -9.12 -77.6 13 Mm³ 4,000 - 5,000 An avalanche of ice and rock triggered by collapse of part of a hanging glacier [18]
9 October 1963 Longarone, Italy Vajont landslide 46.27 12.33 270 Mm³ ≈ 2,000 Landslide caused by heavy rains and drawdown of the Vajont Dam reservoir. Casualties and damage caused by tsunami generated by landslide into reservoir. [25]
27 March 1964 Seward, Alaska, United States 1964 Alaska earthquake 211 Mm³ at Seward, 9.6 Mm³ at Turnagain Heights 106 from tsunami caused by Seward landslide M 9.2 earthquake caused submarine landslide at Seward, and large landslides in Anchorage [13]
9 January 1965 British Columbia Hope Slide 49.40 121.26 48 Mm³ 4 Triggered by a small earthquake [26]
28 March 1965 El Cobre, Chile El Cobre landslide >200 Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine, the resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre. [27]
1965 Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan, China Pufu Landslide 450 Mm³ Created a dam on the Pufuguo Stream, which later failed [10]
21 October 1966 Aberfan, Wales Aberfan disaster 51.69 3.35 144 Collapse of an unstable colliery spoil-tip built over a series of springs, was triggered by heavy rain, killing nearly half the children at the village school.
18 February 1967 Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro -22.97 -43.20 110 Worst single event in a series of landslides caused by very heavy rain in the area around Rio de Janeiro in the summers of 1966 and 1967. A high-velocity debris avalanche struck three buildings, two of them apartment buildings. The preceding rainfall fell at up to 100 mm per hour. [18]
18 March 1967 Caraguatatuba, Brazil -23.85 -46.63 7.6 Mm³ 120 Followed heavy rain, 420 mm /24 h [28]
9 July 1967 Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan 34.25 132.57 159 Heavy rain from Typhoon Billie caused flooding and many landslides, destroying 352 buildings and damaging 551 roads [29]
18 August 1968 Hida River, Gero, Japan 35.45 137.05 104 Triggered by a rainstorm, this debris flow swept two buses off the road, where they were stopped because of an earlier landslide [30]
3–5 October 1968 Darjeeling, India 'thousands' Floods caused by rainfall of 500–1,000 mm, triggered many landslides, a 60 km long highway was cut in 92 places [31][32]
19–20 August 1969 Nelson County, Virginia, USA 150 (includes deaths from flooding) Remnants of Hurricane Camille gave at least 710 mm of rain in about 8 hours, triggering numerous debris flows [33]
31 May 1970 Yungay, Peru 1970 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche -9.12 -77.6 50-100 Mm³ >22,000 Triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake, the mass travelled 14.5 km at an average velocity of about 300 km/h and buried Yungay [18][34]
18 March 1971 Chungar, Peru Chungar avalanche and tsunami -11.12 -76.53 0.1 Mm³ 400-600 A rock avalanche from a limestone outcrop fell into Yanawayin Lake causing a wave that devastated a mining camp [18][35]
4 May 1971 Saint-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, Canada Saint-Jean-Vianney landslide 48.47 -71.22 6.9 Mm³ 31 This slide occurred in quick clay following heavy rain, destroying 41 homes [36][37]
6 July 1972 Amakusa, Japan Amakusa disaster Multiple slope failures caused by heavy rainfall [38]
12–13 July 1972 Obara, Shikoku, Japan Obara landslides 64 218 mm of rain in 5 hours triggered many landslides [39][40]
April 1974 Junín Region, Peru Mayunmarca Landslide 1.0 to 1.6 km³ 450 Rockslide dammed Río Mantaro. Slide velocity estimated at 120–140 km/hr [41]
22 July 1975 Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada Devastation Glacier landslide 0.013 km³ 4 Triggered by the collapse of a glacially debuttressed slope, descended Devastation Creek. [42][43]

1976–2000[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
30 November 1977 Tuve, Gothenburg, Sweden Tuve landslide 57.75 11.94 3–4 Mm³ 9 The most severe landslide in the modern history of Sweden, triggered by heavy rain [44]
8 August 1979 Abbotsford, Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand 1979 Abbotsford landslip -45.897 170.435 5 Mm³ 0 Heavy rain triggered a landslide on an unstable slope, made worse by sand quarrying at the base of the slope, destroying 69 houses [45]
18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens, Washington, United States 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens 46.200278 -122.186667 2.9 km³ 57 The largest landslide in recorded history. Unplugged the volcanic vent, triggering the eruption. Deaths were from both the landslide and the eruption. [2]
April 1983 Thistle, Utah, United States Thistle, Utah ~15 Mm³ 0 Costliest landslide in United States history; damage estimated at $200–400 million (1983 dollars). Landslide formed lake over 160 feet (49 m) deep before draining. [46]
5 October 1985 Mameyes district, Ponce, Puerto Rico 129 120 houses destroyed, greatest death toll in North American history from a single landslide. [47][48]
13 November 1985 Armero, Tolima Department, Colombia Armero tragedy -5.03 -74.88 23,000 A minor eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano caused melting of its ice cap. This released a series of lahars, volcanic mudflows, that traveled at speeds of up to 50 km/h down the slopes of the volcano. These lahars swiftly moved into valleys, merging to form larger flows, one of which destroyed the town of Armero. [18]
28 July 1987 Valtellina, Lombardy, Italian Alps Val Pola landslide 34 Mm³ 29 Triggered by rapid erosion at the base of a mountain slope, created a wave that travelled 2.7 km upstream [49]
3–5 June 1993 Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England Holbeck Hall Hotel landslide ~0.5 Mm³ 0 Classic rotational failure along sea cliffs, resulting court case set important precedent in English law [50][51]
21 October 1993 Pantai Remis, Perak, Malaysia Pantai Remis landslide 0 Slope failure of an open pit tin mine near the sea resulted in forming a new cove measuring approximately 0.5 by 0.5 km.
4 March 1995 La Conchita, California, United States La Conchita Landslide of 1995 1.3 Mm³ 0 [52]
30 July 1997 Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia 1997 Thredbo landslide 18 A leaking water pipe caused a slope failure that destroyed a ski lodge [53]
1998–1999 Kelso, Washington, United States Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide 0 Slow-moving landslide which resulted in the condemnation of 137 houses, and $40 million in damage. [54]
14–16 December 1999 Vargas, Venezuela Vargas tragedy 30,000 Caused by a heavy storm that deposited 911 mm of rain in a few days [55]

21st century landslides[edit]

Date Place Name/Article Lat. Long. Volume Casualties Comments Sources
9 November 2001 Amboori, Kerala, India 40 Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history. [56][57]
26 March 2004 Mount Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 200-300 Mm³ 32 Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall [58][59][60]
10 January 2005 La Conchita, California, United States 2005 La Conchita Landslide 200,000 m³ 10 Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow. [52]
17 February 2006 Southern Leyte, Philippines 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide 15 Mm³ 1126 Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten-day period of heavy rain [61]
11 June 2007 Chittagong, Bangladesh 2007 Chittagong mudslides 123 Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains [62][63]
6 September 2008 Cairo, Egypt 2008 Cairo landslide 119 Rockfall from cliffs, individual boulders up to 70 tonnes [64]
9 August 2009 XiaolinXiaolin (or Hsiao-Lin), Kaohsiung County, Taiwan 30–45 Mm³ 439-600 [65][66][67]
4 January 2010 Attabad, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Hunza Valley Landslide 30 Mm³ 20 Formed Attabad Lake by damming Hunza River, blocked Karakoram Highway [68][69]
20 February 2010 Madeira Island, Portugal 2010 Madeira floods and mudslides 42 [70]
1 March 2010 Bududa District, Uganda 2010 Ugandan landslide 100-300 [71]
23 May 2010 Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi, China 2010 Jiangxi train derailment 0 The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region. [72][73][74]
10 May 2010 Saint-Jude, Quebec 4 [75]
6 August 2010 Meager Creek, British Columbia, Canada 40 Mm³ 0 Second-largest landslide in Canada history [76]
8 August 2010 Gansu, China 2010 Gansu mudslide 1,287 [77]
10 April 2013 Salt Lake City, Utah, United States Bingham Canyon mine landslide 40.523°N 112.151°W 55 Mm³ 0 Possibly the largest historic, non-volcanic, terrestrial landslide in North America. [78][79][80]
16 June 2013 Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India After Uttarakhand Floods 5,700
22 March 2014 Oso, Washington, United States 2014 Oso mudslide 48.283°N 121.847°W early est. 10 Mm³ 43 49 structures destroyed or affected [81][82]
2 May 2014 Ab Barak, Badakhshan, Afghanistan 2014 Badakhshan mudslides 350-500 reported 4,000 people displaced [83]
As of
2014-05-04

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