List of languages by number of native speakers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For various estimates of the total speakers of the top languages, see List of languages by total number of speakers.
Current distribution of human language families

Half of the world's population natively speak the 13 most populous languages. The following table lists the languages of the world with the largest number of native speakers as estimated by the Swedish Nationalencyklopedin (2007, 2010).

Since the distinction of language and dialect is often arbitrary, some mutually intelligible idioms with separate national standards or self-identification have been unified, including Indonesian and Malay; Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian; etc., but not Standard Hindi and Urdu.

For a list of languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, see Lists of endangered languages.

Nationalencyklopedin

The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of speakers in the 2007 edition of Nationalencyklopedin. As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is based on estimates. Updated estimates from 2010 are also provided.[1]

Hindustani has been divided into the sociolinguistic units of Hindi and Urdu, while a number of northern Indian languages have been partially merged into "Hindi", reflecting self-identity reported in the Indian census. This Hindi is thus not a language in the linguistic sense.

Note: Languages with an asterisk (*) have been updated with figures from the 2010 edition of the Nationalencyklopedin.

Rank Language Native speakers (millions)  % of world population Mainly spoken in Notes
1 Mandarin
官話/官话
955* 14.4% China, Taiwan, Singapore Part of Chinese language family
2 Spanish
Español
405* 6.15% Spain, Mexico, Parts of the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara. See List of countries where Spanish is an official language
Partially mutually intelligible with Portuguese[2][3][4]
3 English 360* 5.43% United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and Commonwealth of Nations. See List of countries where English is an official language
4 Hindi
हिन्दी
310* 4.70% India, Nepal Part of Hindi languages family. Includes approx. 100 million speakers of other Hindi languages not counted below. Mutually intelligible with Urdu.
5 Arabic
العربية
295* 4.43% Arab world. See List of countries where Arabic is an official language Arabic also is a liturgical language of 1.6 billion Muslims.[5][6] The Arabic language contains many different dialects. Many are not mutually intelligible. See Varieties of Arabic
6 Portuguese
Português
215* 3.27% Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, Macao. See List of countries where Portuguese is an official language Partially mutually intelligible with Spanish[2][3][4]
7 Bengali
বাংলা
205* 3.11% Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura, Assam)
8 Russian
Русский
155* 2.33% Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Commonwealth of Independent States. See List of countries where Russian is an official language Partially mutually intelligible with Ukrainian[7] and Belarusian.[7]
9 Japanese
日本語
125* 1.90% Japan
10 Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
پنجابى
102* 1.44% Pakistan, India (Punjab region), United Kingdom, Canada, United States
11 German
Deutsch
89* 1.39% Germany, Austria, Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy), Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Italy (South Tirol). See List of countries where German is an official language
12 Javanese
ꦧꦱꦗꦮ
82 1.25% Indonesia (Java) Javanese is the largest language without an official status anywhere (and thus the largest minority language in the world), despite being used throughout Southeast Asia and Suriname.
13 Wu
吳語 / 吴语
80 1.20% China (Zhejiang, Shanghai, southern Jiangsu) Part of Chinese language family
14 Malay/Indonesian
Bahasa Melayu
Bahasa Indonesia
77 1.16% Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore
15 Telugu
తెలుగు
76 1.15% India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry, Andaman And Nicobar Islands)
16 Vietnamese
Tiếng Việt
76 1.14% Vietnam
17 Korean
한국어
조선말
76 1.14% South Korea, North Korea
18 French
Français
74 1.12% France and its territories, Belgium, Canada (mainly province of Quebec), Switzerland, Haiti, Luxembourg, Lebanon, Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and other Francophonie member states. See List of countries where French is an official language
19 Marathi
मराठी
73 1.10% India (Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat)
20 Tamil
தமிழ்
74* 1.06% India (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry), Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius
21 Urdu
اُردُو
66 0.99% Pakistan, India Mutually intelligible with Hindi
22 Turkish
Türkçe
63 0.95% Turkey, Northern Cyprus
23 Italian
Italiano
60 0.90% Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
=24 Cantonese
粵語 / 粤语
59 0.89% China (Guangdong (Canton), southern Guangxi), Hong Kong, Macau Part of Chinese language family
=24 Persian
فارسی
59 0.89% Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
26 Thai
ภาษาไทย
56 0.85% Thailand
27 Gujarati
ગુજરાતી
49 0.74% India (Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli)
28 Jin
晉語 / 晋语
48 0.72% China (Shanxi, parts of Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi) Part of Chinese language family
29 Min Nan
閩南語 / 闽南语
47 0.71% China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan), Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore Part of Chinese language family
30 Polish
Polski
40 0.61% Poland
31 Pashto
پښتو
39 0.58% Pakistan, Afghanistan
32 Kannada
ಕನ್ನಡ
38 0.58% India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra)
33 Xiang
湘語 / 湘语
38 0.58% China (Hunan) Part of Chinese language family
34 Malayalam
മലയാളം
38 0.57% India (Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé)
35 Sundanese
Aksara Sunda.png
38 0.57% Indonesia (Java) Sundanese is the second largest language (after Javanese) without an official status anywhere (not counting Chinese dialects such as Wu, Yue, Jin, Min Nan, Xiang).
36 Hausa
هَرْشَن هَوْسَ
34 0.52% Nigeria
37 Oriya
ଓଡ଼ିଆ
33 0.50% India (Odisha)
38 Burmese
မြန်မာစာ
33 0.50% Burma
39 Hakka
客家話 / 客家话
31 0.46% China (Southern) Part of Chinese language family
40 Ukrainian
українська мова
30 0.46% Ukraine Partially mutually intelligible with Russian[7] and Belarusian.[7]
41 Bhojpuri
भोजपुरी
29 0.43% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
42 Tagalog
Wikang Tagalog
28 0.42% Philippines
43 Yoruba
Èdè Yorùbá
28 0.42% Nigeria, Benin, Togo
44 Maithili
मैथिली, মৈথিলী
27 0.41% India (Bihar), Nepal Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
45 Swahili
Kiswahili
26 0.39% Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
46 Uzbek
Oʻzbek
Ўзбек
اوزبیک
26 0.39% Uzbekistan
47 Sindhi
سنڌي
सिन्धी
26 0.39% Pakistan (Sindh), India
48 Amharic
አማርኛ
25 0.37% Ethiopia
49 Fula
Fulfulde
25 0.37% West and Central Africa, from Senegal to Sudan
50 Romanian
Română
24 0.37% Romania, Moldova
51 Oromo
Afaan Oromo
24 0.36% Ethiopia, Kenya
52 Igbo
Asụsụ Igbo
24 0.36% Nigeria
53 Azerbaijani
Azərbaycan
23 0.34% Azerbaijan, Iran
54 Awadhi
अवधी
22 0.33% India (Uttar Pradesh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
55 Gan
贛語 / 赣语
22 0.33% China (Jiangxi) Part of Chinese language family
56 Cebuano
Binisaya
21 0.32% Philippines (Central and Southern)
57 Dutch
Nederlands
21 0.32% Netherlands, Belgium (Flanders, Brussels), Suriname Mutually intelligible with Afrikaans.
58 Kurdish
كوردی
21 0.31% Kurdistan” (Kurdis in the world, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria)
59 Lao
ພາສາລາວ
20 0.30% Laos, Thailand
60 Serbo-Croatian
Srpskohrvatski
hrvatskosrpski
српскохрватски
хрватскосрпски
19 0.28% Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo
61 Malagasy
Malagasy
18 0.28% Madagascar
62 Saraiki
سرائیکی
17 0.26% Pakistan (Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh)
63 Nepali
नेपाली
17 0.25% Nepal, India (Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam), Bhutan, Myanmar
64 Sinhalese
සිංහල
16 0.25% Sri Lanka
65 Chittagonian
টগাঁইয়া বুলি
16 0.24% Bangladesh (Chittagong)
66 Zhuang
Vahcuengh
话壮
16 0.24% China (Guangxi) Actually 13 or more languages; related to Thai, not part of Chinese language family.
67 Khmer
ភាសាខ្មែរ
16 0.24% Cambodia
68 Assamese
অসমীয়া
15 0.23% India Assam (India)
69 Madurese
Madhura
15 0.23% Indonesia ( Madura, and Java)
70 Somali
Af-Soomaali
15 0.22% Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Dijibouti, Yemen
71 Marwari
मारवाड़ी
14 0.21% India (Rajasthan), Pakistan, Nepal This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
72 Magahi
मगही
14 0.21% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari
73 Haryanvi
हरियाणवी
14 0.21% India (Haryana) Part of Hindi languages family
74 Hungarian
Magyar
13 0.19% Hungary
75 Chhattisgarhi
छत्तीसगढ़ी
12 0.19% India (Chhattisgarh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
76 Greek
ελληνικά
12 0.18% Greece, Cyprus
77 Chewa
Nyanja
12 0.17% Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
78 Deccan
دکنی
11 0.17% India (Deccan) Part of Urdu
79 Akan
Twi
Fante
11 0.17% Ghana, Ivory Coast
80 Kazakh
Qazaqşa
Қазақша
قازاق ٴتىلى;
11 0.17% Kazakhstan
81 Min Bei
閩北語 / 闽北语
10.9 0.16% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
82 Sylheti
ছিলটী
10.7 0.16% Bangladesh, India
83 Zulu
isiZulu
10.4 0.16% South Africa
84 Czech
Čeština
10.0 0.15% Czech Republic
85 Kinyarwanda
Ikinyarwanda
9.8 0.15% Rwanda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
86 Dhundhari
9.6 0.15% India (Rajasthan)
87 Haitian Creole
Kreyòl Ayisyen
9.6 0.15% Haiti
88 Min Dong
閩東語 / 闽东语
9.5 0.14% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
89 Ilokano 9.1 0.14% Philippines (Luzon)
90 Quechua 8.9 0.13% Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador A language family, not a language
91 Kirundi 8.8 0.13% Burundi, Uganda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
92 Swedish 8.7 0.13% Sweden, Finland
93 Hmong 8.4 0.13% Laos A language family, not a language
94 Shona 8.3 0.13% Zimbabwe
95 Uyghur
ئۇيغۇرچە
8.2 0.12% China (Xinjiang)
96 Hiligaynon 8.2 0.12% Philippines (Western Visayas)
97 Mossi 7.6 0.11% Burkina Faso
98 Xhosa 7.6 0.11% South Africa
99 Belarusian
беларуская мова
7.6 0.11% Belarus Only half this many use it as their home language. Partially mutually intelligible with Russian[7] and Ukrainian.[7]
100 Balochi
بلوچی
7.6 0.11% Pakistan, Iran (Balochistan region)

See also

References

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007. In parentheses are the 2010 estimates for the top languages.
  2. ^ a b GAVILANES LASO, J. L. (1996) Algunas consideraciones sobre la inteligibilidad mutua hispano-portuguesa In: Actas del Congreso Internacional Luso-Español de Lengua y Cultura en la Frontera, Cáceres, Universidad de Extremadura, 175–187.
  3. ^ a b "Comparação Português e Castelhano". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  4. ^ a b "Algumas observações sobre a noção de língua portuguesa" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  5. ^ "Executive Summary". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  6. ^ "Table: Muslim Population by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". Features.pewforum.org. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60–121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..."
    C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language."
    Bernard Comrie. 1981. The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge). Pg. 145–146: "The three East Slavonic languages are very close to one another, with very high rates of mutual intelligibility...The separation of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian as distinct languages is relatively recent...Many Ukrainians in fact speak a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian, finding it difficult to keep the two languages apart...

External links