List of languages by number of native speakers

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Current distribution of human language families

The following tables list languages of the world with the largest number of native speakers, as estimated in various ways at different times by various sources.

Since the definition of a single language is to some extent arbitrary, some mutually intelligible idioms with separate national standards or self-identification have been listed together, including Indonesian and Malay; Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian; etc.

Half of the world's population speak the 13 most spoken languages, the other half speak the rest.

For a list of languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, please see Lists of endangered languages.

Nationalencyklopedin (2007)

The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of speakers in the 2007 edition of Nationalencyklopedin. As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is based on estimates. Updated estimates from 2010 are also provided.[1]

Note: Languages with an asterisk (*) have been updated with figures from the 2010 edition of the Nationalencyklopedin.

Language Native speakers
(millions)
 % of world population Mainly spoken in Notes
Mandarin
官话
955* 14.4% China, Taiwan, Singapore Part of Chinese language family
Spanish
Español
407* 6.15% Spain, Mexico, United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile,
Colombia Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara
Partially mutually intelligible with Portuguese[2][3][4]
English 359* 5.43% United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, United States, Canada, Commonwealth of Nations
Hindi
हिन्दी
311* 4.70% India, Nepal Part of Hindi languages family. Includes approx. 100 million speakers of other Hindi languages not counted below. Mutually intelligible with Urdu.
Arabic
العربية
293* 4.43% Arab League The Arabic language contains many different dialects. Most are mutually intelligible. See Varieties of Arabic
Portuguese
Português
216* 3.27% Portugal, Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Mozambique , São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste Partially mutually intelligible with Spanish[2][3][4]
Bengali
বাংলা
206* 3.11% Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura, Assam)
Russian
Русский
154* 2.33% Russia, Ukraine, Commonwealth of Independent States Partially mutually intelligible with Ukrainian[5] and Belarusian[5]
Japanese
日本語
126* 1.90% Japan
Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
نجابی
102* 1.44% India, Pakistan (Punjab region)
German
Deutsch
89* 1.39% Germany, Austria, Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy), Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Italy (South Tirol)
Javanese
ꦧꦱꦗꦮ
82 1.25% Indonesia (Java) Javanese is the largest language without an official status anywhere (and thus the largest minority language in the world), despite being used throughout Southeast Asia and Suriname.
Wu
吳語
吴语
80 1.20% China (Zhejiang, Shanghai, southern Jiangsu) Part of Chinese language family
Malay/Indonesian
Bahasa Melayu
Bahasa Indonesia
77 1.16% Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore
Telugu
తెలుగు
76 1.15% India (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry)
Vietnamese
Tiếng Việt
76 1.14% Vietnam
Korean
한국어/조선말
76 1.14% South Korea, North Korea
French
Francais
74 1.12% France and its territories, Belgium, Canada, Switzerland, Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Francophonie
Marathi
मराठी
73 1.10% India (Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat)
Tamil
தமிழ்
70 1.06% India (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry), Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius
Urdu
اُردُو
66 0.99% India, Pakistan Mutually intelligible with Hindi
Persian
فارسی
65 0.99% Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
Turkish
Türkçe
63 0.95% Turkey, Cyprus
Italian
Italiano
59 0.90% Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
Cantonese
粤语
粵語
59 0.89% China (Guangdong (Canton), southern Guangxi), Hong Kong, Macau Part of Chinese language family
Thai
ภาษาไทย
56 0.85% Thailand
Gujarati
ગુજરાતી
49 0.74% India ( Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli)
Jin
晋语
48 0.72% China (Shanxi, parts of Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi) Part of Chinese language family
Min Nan
闽南语
47 0.71% China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan), Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore Part of Chinese language family
Polish
Język Polski
40 0.61% Poland
Pashto
پښتو
39 0.58% Afghanistan, Pakistan
Kannada
ಕನ್ನಡ
38 0.58% India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra)
Xiang
湘语
38 0.58% China (Hunan) Part of Chinese language family
Malayalam
മലയാളം
38 0.57% India (Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé)
Sundanese
ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
38 0.57% Indonesia (Java) Sundanese is the second largest language (after Javanese) without an official status anywhere (not counting Chinese dialects such as Wu, Yue, Jin, Min Nan, Xiang).
Hausa
هَرْشَن هَوْسَ
34 0.52% Nigeria
Oriya
ଓଡ଼ିଆ
33 0.50% India (Odisha)
Burmese
မြန်မာစာ
33 0.50% Burma
Hakka
客家话
31 0.46% China (Southern) Part of Chinese language family
Ukrainian
українська мова
30 0.46% Ukraine
Bhojpuri
भोजपुरी
29 0.43% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Tagalog 28 0.42% Philippines
Yoruba
èdè Yorùbá
28 0.42% Nigeria, Benin, Togo
Maithili
मैथिली, মৈথিলী
27 0.41% India (Bihar), Nepal Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Swahili
Kiswahili
26 0.39% Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Uzbek
Oʻzbek
Ўзбек
اوزبیک
26 0.39% Uzbekistan
Sindhi
سنڌي
सिन्धी
ਸਿੰਧੀ
26 0.39% India, Pakistan (Sindh)
Amharic
አማርኛ
25 0.37% Ethiopia
Fula
Fulfulde
24 0.37% West and Central Africa, from Senegal to Sudan
Romanian
Daco-Romanian
24 0.37% Romania, Moldova
Oromo
Afaan Oromo
24 0.36% Ethiopia, Kenya
Igbo
Asụsụ Igbo
24 0.36% Nigeria
Azerbaijani 23 0.34% Azerbaijan, Iran
Awadhi
अवधी
22 0.33% India (Uttar Pradesh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Gan
赣语
22 0.33% China (Jiangxi) Part of Chinese language family
Cebuano 21 0.32% Philippines (Central and Southern)
Dutch
Nederlands
21 0.32% Netherlands, Belgium (Flanders, Brussels), Suriname
Kurdish
كوردی
21 0.31% Kurdistan” (Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria)
Serbo-Croatian
19 0.28% Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Kosovo
Malagasy
18 0.28% Madagascar
Saraiki
سرائیکی
17 0.26% Pakistan (Sindh)
Nepali
नेपाली
17 0.25% Nepal, India (Sikkim)
Sinhalese
සිංහල
16 0.25% Sri Lanka
Chittagonian
টগাঁইয়া বুলি
16 0.24% Bangladesh (Chittagong)
Zhuang
话壮
16 0.24% China (Guangxi)
Khmer
ភាសាខ្មែរ
16 0.24% Cambodia
Assamese
অসমীয়া
15 0.23% India Assam (India)
Madurese
Madhura
15 0.23% Indonesia ( Madura, and Java)
Somali
Af-Soomaali
15 0.22% Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Dijibouti, Yemen
Marwari
मारवाड़ी
14 0.21% India, Pakistan (Rajasthan) , Nepal This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Magahi
मगही
14 0.21% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari
Haryanvi
हरियाणवी
14 0.21% India (Haryana) Part of Hindi languages family
Hungarian
Magyar
13 0.19% Hungary
Chhattisgarhi
छत्तीसगढ़ी
12 0.19% India (Chhattisgarh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Greek
ελληνικά
12 0.18% Greece, Cyprus
Chewa 12 0.17% Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Deccan 11 0.17% India (Deccan) Part of Urdu
Akan 11 0.17% Ghana, Ivory Coast
Kazakh 11 0.17% Kazakhstan]
Min Bei 10.9 0.16% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
Sylheti 10.7 0.16% Bangladesh, India
Zulu 10.4 0.16% South Africa
Czech 10.0 0.15% Czech Republic
Kinyarwanda 9.8 0.15% Rwanda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
Dhundhari 9.6 0.15% India (Rajasthan)
Haitian Creole 9.6 0.15% Haiti
Min Dong 9.5 0.14% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
Ilokano 9.1 0.14% Philippines (Luzon)
Quechua 8.9 0.13% Peru, Bolivia A language family, not a language
Kirundi 8.8 0.13% Burundi, Uganda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
Swedish 8.7 0.13% Sweden, Finland
Hmong 8.4 0.13% Laos A language family, not a language
Shona 8.3 0.13% Zimbabwe
Uyghur
ئۇيغۇرچە
8.2 0.12% China (Xinjiang)
Hiligaynon 8.2 0.12% Philippines (Western Visayas)
Mossi 7.6 0.11% Burkina Faso
Xhosa 7.6 0.11% South Africa]
Belarusian 7.6 0.11% Belarus
Balochi 7.6 0.11% Iran, Pakistan (Balochistan)
Konkani 7.4 0.11% India (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra)

Ethnologue (2013, 17th edition)

The following list derives from SIL Ethnologue.[6] Ethnologue lists 1,300 languages with 100,000 speakers or more, 750 with 300,000 or more, some 400 with a million or more, 200 with at least 3 million, 80 with 10 million, and 40 with 30 million. Figures are accompanied by dates the data was collected; for many languages, an old date means that the current number of speakers will be substantially greater. A range of dates means that the figure is the sum of data from more than one country and from different years.

More than 100 million native speakers

Language Family Native speakers
(Ethnologue 17)[6]
Total speakers
(Ethnologue 17)[6]
Other estimates Rank
Mandarin [7] Sino-Tibetan,
Chinese
848 million (2000) 1026 1026 million One of the six official languages of the United Nations.
All varieties of Chinese: 1200 million (2000)
1
Spanish [8]
(Castilian)
Indo-European,
Romance
406 million (1995–2011) 0390 466 million 420 million native.[9] 500 million total (2009)[10]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

2
English [11] Indo-European,
Germanic
335 million (2003–2011) > 765 million Approximately 375 million L1 speakers, 375 million L2 speakers, and 750 million EFL speakers. Totalling about 1.5 billion/1500 million speakers.[12]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

3
Hindi [13] Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
260 million (2001), including partial figures from many Hindi languages 0405 380 million 490 million total speakers of Hindi/Urdu.[14] 4
Arabic [15] Afro-Asiatic,
Semitic
206 million (1999) 0452 452 million (100 million are not proficient in Standard Arabic) 280 million native.[16]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.

5
Portuguese [17] Indo-European,
Romance
202 million (1998–2005) 0193 217 million 220 million native, 240 million total.[18] 6
Bengali [19]
(Bangla)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
193 million (2001) 0250 250 million 7
Russian [20] Indo-European,
Slavic
162 million (2010) 0250 272 million One of the six official languages of the United Nations.[21] 8
Japanese [22] Japonic 122 million (1985) 0123 123 million 9

50 to 100 million native speakers

Language Family Native[6] Total[6] Other estimates
Javanese [23] Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 84.3 million (2000) 75 million (2006),[24] 70 million native speakers (1997)[25]
German [26] Indo-European, Germanic 83.8 million (standard German, 1990) 111.8 million 99 million native (2012: 80.2 million in Germany, 8.4 million in Austria, 5.6 million in Switzerland), 60 million second language in EU[27] + 5–20 million worldwide.
Lahnda [28]
(the boundary between this and Eastern Punjabi is spurious)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
82.7 million (1998–2000) 0
Wu [29]
(Shanghainese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 77.2 million (1984) 90 million,[30] Shanghainese is not mutually intelligible with some other Wu dialects/languages.
Telugu [31] Dravidian 74.0 million (2001) 79 million 84.6 million (2011 census)[32]
Marathi [33] Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 71.8 million (2001) 72 million (2001 census)[32]
Tamil [34] Dravidian 68.8 million (2001) 76.8 million
French [35] Indo-European, Romance 68.5 million (1987–2011) 118.5 million 128 million "native and real speakers" (includes 65 million French people,[36] 72 million "bilinguals".[37] More than 200 million native and second language.[38][39]

One of the six official languages of the United Nations.[21]

Vietnamese [40] Austroasiatic, Viet–Muong 67.8 million (1999) 86 million total?[citation needed]
Korean [41] language isolate 66.4 million (1986) 75 million (2007)[42]
Urdu [43] Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
63.4 million (1998) 167.4 million
Yue [44]
(Cantonese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 62.2 million (1984–2006) 70 million[45]
Malay [46]
(Malaysian-Indonesian)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 59.4 million (2000–2007)
Persian [47]
(Farsi)
Indo-European, Iranian 56.6 million (2011)
Turkish [48] Turkic, Oghuz 50.7 million (1987) 74 & 83 million (2005)[27]
Italian [49] Indo-European, Romance 61.1 million (no date) Figure includes "bilinguals" who do not use standard Italian as their main language, who may account for nearly half the population in Italy

30 to 50 million native speakers

Language Family Native[6] Total[6] Other estimates
Min Nan [50]
(Amoy, Hokkien, Taiwanese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 46.8 million (1988–2001)
Gujarati [51] Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 46.6 million (2001)
Bhojpuri [52] Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 39.8 million (2001)
(underestimated; many speakers counted under Hindi)
Polish [53] Indo-European, Slavic 39.0 million (1986)
Kannada [54] Dravidian 37.7 million (2001) 46.7 million
Ukrainian [55] Indo-European, Slavic 36.0 million (2001)
Xiang [56]
(Hunanese)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 36.0 million (1984)
Sundanese [57] Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 34 million (2000 census)
Malayalam [58] Dravidian 34 million (2001)
Maithili [59] Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 32.8 million (2000)
(the arithmetic is faulty)
Oriya [60] Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 32.1 million (2001) 2001 Indian Census: 33,017,446.[61]
Burmese [62] Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman 32 million (2000) 42 million 50–56 million total speakers, including 18 to 23 million as second language (Myanmar Language Commission)
Hakka [63] Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 30.1 million (1984)

10 to 30 million native speakers

Language Family Native[6] Total[6] Other estimate
Eastern Punjabi [64]
(the boundary between this and Lahnda is spurious)
Indo-European,
Indo-Aryan
29.5 million (2001)
Pashto [65] Indo-European, Iranian 26.9 million (1993–2008)
Thai Tai–Kadai, Tai 26 million (2000)
20M Central (Siamese) + 6M Northern
60 million (2001) Divergent definitions of what constitutes "Thai".
Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic 25 million (1991) 40 million
Tagalog
(Filipino)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 24 million (2000) (as Tagalog)
25 million (2007) (as Filipino)
More than 90% of the population of 80 million can speak Tagalog.[66]
Romanian Indo-European, Romance 23 million (2002) The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language[67]
Dutch Indo-European, Germanic 22 million (2007)
29M incl. 7M Afrikaans
(+ 10 million Afrikaans) 25 million[27][68]
Gan Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 21 million (1984) 48 million[69][Cannot verify]
Sindhi Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 21 million (2001) (significant L2 speakers?)[citation needed]
Uzbek Turkic, Uyghur 20 million (1995) Population has grown substantially since 1995, but figures are exaggerated to hide Persian/Tajik population.
Azerbaijani Turkic, Oghuz 20 million (2001–2006)
22 million including Qashqai
28 million Data from Iran highly uncertain.
CIA: 26 million native (2010).[70]
Rajasthani Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 20 million (2000–2003) Dominant variety is Malvi
LaoIsan Tai–Kadai, Tai 19 million (1983–1991) 20 million
Yoruba Niger–Congo, Volta–Niger 19 million (1993) 21 million
Igbo Niger–Congo, Volta–Niger 18 million (1999) 18–25 million[71]
Northern Berber Afro-Asiatic, Berber 15–22 million (Total of Central Atlas Tamazight, Riff, Shilha, Kabyle, Shawiya, others.)
Amharic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic 17.5 million (1994) 22 million [need updated fig.] Significant L2 speakers.
Oromo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic 17 million (1994) 30 million ethnic Oromo. Significant L2 speakers.
Chhattisgarhi Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 17.5 million (2002) Frequently counted as "Hindi"
Assamese Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 16.8 million (2000) Many L2 speakers[citation needed]
Kurdish Indo-European, Iranian 16 million (1980–2004) ∼ 35 million ethnic Kurds ca. 2010, not all of whom speak Kurdish
Serbo-Croatian
(Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian)
Indo-European, Slavic 16 million
Sinhalese Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 16 million (2007) 18 million
Cebuano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 15.8 million (2000) Significant L2 speakers
Rangpuri Indo-European, Indo-Aryan ∼ 15 million (2007)
Malagasy Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 15 million (2006) 22 million
Khmer Austroasiatic, Mon–Khmer 15 million (2006) 16 million
Sotho–Tswana Niger–Congo, Bantu 15 million (2006) Tswana, Southern Sotho, and the various lects lumped under 'Northern Sotho' are mutually intelligible
Nepali Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 14 million (2001) As the national language of Nepal, the number total speakers is closer to 32 million.
Rwanda-Rundi Niger–Congo, Bantu 14 million (1986–1998) Given the populations of Rwanda and Burundi, the 2010 figure is likely 23 million native.
Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic 14 million (2006)
Madurese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 14 million (2000)
Haryanvi Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 13 million (1992) Frequently counted as "Hindi"
Fula
(Fulani, Fulfulde, Pulaar)
Niger–Congo, Senegambian 13 million (1991–2007)
(all varieties)
Significant L2 speakers
Bavarian Indo-European, Germanic 13 million (2005) Listed figure of 13.26 spuriously precise
Magahi Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 13 million (2002) Bihari, and so sometimes counted as "Hindi"
Greek Indo-European, Greek 13 million (2002)
Chittagonian Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 13 million (2006) sometimes considered a dialect of Bengali, but not mutually intelligible
Deccan Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 12.8 million (2000) Perhaps the same as the Dakhini "dialect" of Urdu
Hungarian Uralic, Ugric 12.5 million (2001)
Catalan
(Valencian)
Indo-European, Romance 11.5 million (2006) 15 million
Shona Niger–Congo, Bantu 10.8 million (2000)
(Shona proper)
11.6 million 15 million native (2000) including Ndau, Manyika, etc.
Min Bei Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 10.3 million (1984)
Zulu Niger–Congo, Bantu 10.3 million (2006) 26 million
Sylheti Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 10 million Similar to Bengali. Ethnologue figure of 10.3 million spuriously precise.

4.9 to 10 million native speakers

Language Family Native[6] Total Other estimates
Czech Indo-European, Slavic 9.5 million (2001) 15 million Czech-Slovak
Kanauji Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 9.5 million (2001) Generally considered Hindi
Bulgarian Indo-European, Slavic 9.1 million (1986)
Min Dong
(Fuzhou)
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 8.6 million (2000)
Uyghur Turkic, Uyghur 8.9 million (2000)
Chewa
(Nyanja)
Niger–Congo, Bantu 8.7 million (2001)
Belarusian Indo-European, Slavic 8.6 million (2001)
Kazakh Turkic, Kypchak 8.3 million (1979) 10 million in Kazakhstan alone (Census 2009)
Swedish Indo-European, Germanic 8.3 million (1998)
Akan
(Twi, Fante)
Niger–Congo, Kwa 8.3 million 9.3 million 10 million native (∼ 20 million total)[72]
Makuwa
(Lomwe)
Niger–Congo, Bantu 8.0 million (2006)
(incl. Lomwe/West Makua)
Bagheli Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 7.9 million (2004) Generally considered Hindi
Xhosa Niger–Congo, Bantu 7.8 million (2006)
Haitian Creole French creole 7.7 million (2001)
Konkani Indo-European, Indo-Aryan ca. 7.6 million (2001)
Albanian Indo-European, isolate 7.5 million (1989–2007)
Gikuyu Niger–Congo, Bantu 7.2 million (undated)
Afrikaans Indo-European, Germanic 7.1 million (2011) 15.2 million See Dutch above.
Ilokano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 7.0 million (2000) significant L2 use
Balochi Indo-European, Iranian 7.0 million (1998)
Southern Quechua Quechuan 6.9 million (1987–2002)
Batak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 6.85 million (1991–2000)
(all varieties)
Turkmen Turkic, Oghuz 6.6 million (1995–1997)
Mossi-Dagomba Niger–Congo, Gur 6.4 million (1991–2003) Does not include Frafra.
Armenian Indo-European, isolate 6.4 million (?–2001)
Sukuma-Nyamwezi Niger–Congo, Bantu 6.4 million (2006)
Tshiluba
(Luba-Kasai)
Niger–Congo, Bantu 6.3 million (1991) 7.0 million
Santali Austroasiatic, Munda 6.2 million (1997)
Kongo Niger–Congo, Bantu ∼ 6 million (?–2007) ∼ 11 million Figures are only approximate.
Hiligaynon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 5.8 million (2000) Significant L2 use.
Tigrinya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic 5.8 million (1994–2006) 6.0 million
Mongolian Mongolic 5.7 million (1982–1995) Some L2 use.
Neapolitan
(Calabrese) [73]
Indo-European, Romance 5.7 million (1976)
Bhili
(Wagdi, etc.)
Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 5.6 million (1998–2007)
(all varieties)
Danish Indo-European, Germanic 5.6 million (2007)
Minangkabau Austronesian 5.5 million (2007)
Kashmiri Indo-European, Indo-Aryan 5.6 million (undated) data apparently post-2000
Tatar Turkic, Kypchak 5.5 million (2010)
Hebrew Afro-Asiatic, Semitic 5.3 million (1998) Number is L1 use, not nec. native. Significant L2 use.
Finnish Uralic, Finnic 5.0 million (1993)
Slovak Indo-European, Slavic 5.0 million (2001) See Czech above.
Guarani Tupi 4.9 million (1995)

See also

References

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007. In parentheses are the 2010 estimates for the top languages.
  2. ^ a b GAVILANES LASO, J. L. (1996) Algunas consideraciones sobre la inteligibilidad mutua hispano-portuguesa In: Actas del Congreso Internacional Luso-Español de Lengua y Cultura en la Frontera, Cáceres, Universidad de Extremadura, 175–187.
  3. ^ a b Comparação Português e Castelhano
  4. ^ a b Algumas observações sobre a noção de língua portuguesa
  5. ^ a b Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60–121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..."
    C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language."
    Bernard Comrie. 1981. The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge). Pg. 145–146: "The three East Slavonic languages are very close to one another, with very high rates of mutual intelligibility...The separation of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian as distinct languages is relatively recent...Many Ukrainians in fact speak a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian, finding it difficult to keep the two languages apart...
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Ethnologue". SIL Haley. 
  7. ^ Mandarin at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  8. ^ Spanish at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  9. ^ Instituto Cervantes and British Council (2012)
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  51. ^ Gujarati at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  52. ^ Bhojpuri at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
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  54. ^ Kannada at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
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  58. ^ Malayalam at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
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External links