List of languages by time of extinction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction. When the exact time of death of the last remaining speaker is not known, either an approximate time or the date when the language was last being recorded is given. However, the list is not complete.

21st century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
2014 Klallam Salishan Washington, USA after the death of Hazel Sampson[1]
2013 Livonian Uralic Latvia after the death of Grizelda Kristina[2]
2012 Cromarty dialect of Scots Germanic Northern Scotland after the death of Bobby Hogg [3]
2010 Pazeh Formosan languages Taiwan after the death of Pan Jin-yu[4]
2010 Cochin Indo-Portuguese Creole Portuguese-based Creole southern India after the death of William Rozario[5]
2010 Aka-Bo Andamanese Andaman Islands, India after the death of Boa Sr.[6]
2009 Nyawaygi Pama–Nyungan language Australia after the death of Willie Seaton[7]
2009 Aka-Kora Andamanese Andaman Islands, India after the death of Boro[8]
2008 Eyak Na-Dene Alaska, USA after the death of Marie Smith Jones[citation needed]
2003 Akkala Sami Uralic Kola Peninsula, Russia after the death of Marja Sergina
2002 Gaagudju Arnhem Land languages Northern Territory, Australia after the death of Big Bill Neidjie
2000 Sowa Malayo-Polynesian Pentecost Island, Vanuatu with the death of Maurice Tabi

20th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1998 Mlahsô Semitic Syria, Turkey Last speaker was Ibrahim Hanna [9]
late 1990s Munichi unclassified Loreto Region, Peru Last speaker was Victoria Huancho Icahuate
1997 Ofo Siouan USA Last speaker was Thomas Darko[10]
1997 Sireniki Yupik Eskimo–Aleut Chukotka Peninsula, Russia Last speaker was Valentina Wye[11]
ca. 1990s Lumaete dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia [12]
ca. 1990s Taman variety of Sak Tibeto-Burman Myanmar [13]
1994 Northern Pomo Hokan (controversial) California, USA

Last speaker was Edna Guerrero

1993 Eastern Abnaki Algonquian Maine, USA Last speaker was Madeline Shay
1992 Ubykh Northwest Caucasian Balıkesir Province, Turkey with the death of Tevfik Esenç
1991 Pánobo Panoan Peru [14]
1990 Shasta Shastan California, USA
1990 Wappo Yuki–Wappo California, USA Last speaker was Laura Fish Somersal
1989 Kamassian Samoyedic Ural mountains, Russia Last speaker was Klavdiya Plotnikova
1989 Leliali dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia in March 1989[12][15]
1989 Miami-Illinois Algonquian along the Mississippi River, USA
1989 Kungarakany Gunwinyguan Northern Territory, Australia Last speaker was Madeline England[15][16]
1988 Atsugewi Palaihnihan California, USA
1988 Nooksack Salishan Washington, USA [15]
1988 ǁXegwi Tuu South Africa Last speaker was Jopi Mabinda[17]
between 1976 and 1999 Kw'adza Cushitic Tanzania [18]
1987 Negerhollands Dutch-based creole U.S. Virgin Islands Last speaker was Alice Stevens
1987 Basa-Gumna Benue–Congo Niger State/Plateau State, Nigeria [19]
1986 Mangala Pama–Nyungan Western Australia, Australia [20]
1984 Yavitero Arawakan Venezuela [15][21]
after 1981 Umbugarla Arnhem Land languages Northern Territory, Australia Last speaker was Butcher Knight
1980 Twana Salishan Washington, USA [15][22]
late 20th century Newfoundland Irish Celtic Newfoundland, Canada
between 1971 and 1981 Kwadi Khoe southwestern Angola [23]
1975 Yugh Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [15][24]
1970s – 1980s Chicomuceltec Mayan Mexico; Guatemala
1977 Shuadit Romance southern France [15][25]
after 1976 Muskum Chadic western Chad [26]
1976 Aasáx Cushitic Tanzania [27]
1975 Homa Bantu southern Sudan [28]
1960 Siuslaw Penutian Oregon, USA Last speaker was Mary Barrett Elliott. Last speaker of Lower Umpqua dialect was Billy Dick[29]
1974 Manx Celtic Isle of Man, UK now being revived as a second language[30]
1974 Moksela Malayo-Polynesian Maluku, Indonesia [31]
before 1974 Cacaopera Misumalpan El Salvador [32]
1972 Hanis Penutian Oregon, USA Last speaker was Martha Harney Johnson (1886-1972).[33]
1972 Mbabaram Pama–Nyungan Queensland, Australia Last speaker was Albert Bennett[34]
1970 Tillamook Salishan Oregon, USA [15]
before 1968 Sened Berber Tunisia
1965 Barbareño Chumashan California, USA
ca. 1960s Pirlatapa Pama–Nyungan South Australia [35]
1963 Galice Na-Dene Oregon, USA
1963 Jorá Tupi Bolivia [15]
1962 Wiyot Algic California, USA Last speaker was Delia Prince[36]
after 1961 Wyandot Iroquoian Oklahoma, USA; Quebec, Canada currently taught to children in school
1959 Catawba Siouan South Carolina, USA Last speaker was Chief Sam Blue [37]
1958 Salinan isolated California, USA
1958 Molala Penutian Oregon, USA Last speaker was Fred Yelkes (1885-1958)[38]
1958 Omurano Zaparoan Peru [15][39]
1954 Central Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, USA with the Santiam dialect - Last speaker was John B Hudson[40]
ca. 1950s Pijao unclassified Colombia [41]
after 1954 Tây Bồi French-based Pidgin Vietnam [42][43]
1954 Ifo Malayo-Polynesian Erromanga Island, Vanuatu [44]
1952 Martha's Vineyard Sign Language Sign language Massachusetts, USA
1950 Kaniet Malayo-Polynesian Manus Province, Papua New Guinea [15][45]
mid-20th century Ventureño Chumashan California, USA
mid-20th century Slovincian Slavic Pomerania, Poland
mid-20th century Tunica isolated Louisiana, USA
after 1949 Kunza unclassified Atacama Desert, Chile/Peru
after 1947 Gafat Semitic along the Abbay River, Ethiopia
ca. 1940s Chemakum Chimakuan Washington, USA
after 1942 Upper Umpqua Athabascan Oregon, USA
1951 Alsea Penutian Oregon, USA Last speaker was John Albert[46]
1940 Chitimacha isolated Louisiana, USA Last speaker was Delphine Ducloux[47]
1940 Pentlatch Salishan Vancouver Island, Canada [15]
1939 Miluk Penutian Oregon, USA
1939 Rumsen Penutian California, USA
1937 Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, USA with the Tualatin dialect
1937 Yoncalla Kalapuyan Oregon, USA
1937 Kitanemuk Uto-Aztecan California, USA
1936 Narungga Pama–Nyungan South Australia, Australia [48]
ca. 1930s Cayuse isolated/unclassified Oregon, USA
ca. 1930s Chimariko isolated California, USA
ca. 1930s Kathlamet Penutian Washington/Oregon, USA Last speaker was Charles Cultee[49]
ca. 1930s Lower Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, USA
ca. 1930s Mahican Algonquian New York, USA
ca. 1930s Natchez isolated Mississippi, USA
ca. 1930s Clackamas dialect of Upper Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, USA
ca. 1930s Kitsai Caddoan Oklahoma, USA
after 1934 Biloxi Siouan Louisiana, USA
1934 Juaneño Uto-Aztecan California, USA
1934 Takelma isolated Oregon, USA
1933 Gabrielino Uto-Aztecan California, USA
after 1931 Tonkawa isolated Oklahoma/Texas/New Mexico, USA
1931 Kaurna Pama-Nyungan South Australia with the death of Ivaritji,[50] now being revived
1930 Mutsun Penutian California, USA
ca. 1930 Mattole Na-Dene California, USA
between 1920 and 1940 Ajawa Chadic Bauchi State, Nigeria [51]
ca. 1929 Bear River
after 1925 Subtiaba Oto-Manguean or Subtiaba-Tlapanec Nicaragua
ca. 1920s Chochenyo Penutian California, USA
ca. 1920s Island Carib Cariban Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea
after 1921 Chagatai Turkic Central Asia
ca. 1920 Mochica Chimuan northwest Peru
after 1917 Pochutec Uto-Aztecan Oaxaca, Mexico
1916 Yahi Hokan (controversial) California, USA with death of last speaker Ishi[52]
1915 Yamhill dialect of Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, USA
before 1913 Tataviam Uto-Aztecan California, USA
1910 Kwalhioqua Athabascan language, Washington State, USA
after 1908 Siraya Austronesian southwestern Taiwan [53]
1908 Mohegan Algonquian southern New England, USA
1905 Tasmanian unclassified Tasmania, Australia
early 20th century Atakapa isolated Louisiana/Texas, USA
early 20th century Jersey Dutch Dutch-based creole New Jersey, USA
early 20th century Kazukuru Malayo-Polynesian New Georgia, Solomon Islands
early 20th century Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin Chinese/Russian-based contact language
early 20th century Chaná Charruan Uruguay

19th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 19th century Adai isolated Louisiana, USA
late 19th century Esselen Hokan (controversial) California, USA report of last speakers left from 1833
late 19th century Massachusett Algonquian Massachusetts, USA
late 19th century Istrian Albanian Albanian Croatia
1898 Dalmatian Romance Croatia; Montenegro with the Vegliot dialect. Last speaker was Tuone Udaina.
1898 Moriori Malayo-Polynesian Chatham Island, New Zealand Last speaker was Hirawanu Tapu.[54]
after 1894 Tsetsaut Na-Dene British Columbia, Canada
1886 Comecrudo Comecrudan Mexico; Texas, USA
1886 Cotoname isolated Mexico; Texas, USA
1884 Yaquina Penutian Oregon, USA
ca. 1880 Auregnais Romance Alderney, UK
1877 Aruá Arauan Brazil
mid-1870s Yola Germanic Wexford, Ireland [55]
1870 Clatskanie Na-Dene Washington (state), USA
1862 Caquetio Arawakan Aruba Last speaker was Nicolaas Pyclas.[56]
1858 Karankawa unclassified Texas, USA
1853 Nicoleño Uto-Aztecan California, USA Last speaker was Juana Maria
1850 Norn North Germanic Northern Isles Last speaker was Walter Sutherland
19th century Mediterranean Lingua Franca Romance-based Pidgin Tunisia; Greece; Cyprus [57]
19th century Chorotega Oto-Manguean Costa Rica; Nicaragua [58]
19th century Matagalpa Misumalpan Nicaragua
19th century Ramaytush Penutian California, USA
19th century Kemi Sami Uralic Lapland, Finland [59]
mid-19th century Shinnecock Algonquian New York, USA
ca. 1850s Kott Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [24]
ca. 1840s Mator Samoyedic Sayan Mountains, Russia
1836 Nottoway Iroquoian Virginia, USA
1829 Beothuk Algonquian? Newfoundland, Canada
1828 Garza Comecrudan Mexico
1828 Mamulique Comecrudan Nuevo León, Mexico
1821 Karkin Penutian California, USA
1815 Tambora Papuan Sumbawa speakers were killed by the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora[60]
early 19th century Cochimí Hokan (controversial) Baja California, Mexico
early 19th century Pumpokol Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [24]
ca. 19th century Crimean Gothic Germanic Crimea, Ukraine
ca. 19th century Assan Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [24]

18th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 18th century Polabian Slavic around the Elbe river, Poland/Germany
late 18th century Esuma Kwa southern Côte d'Ivoire [61]
after 1791 Quiripi Algonquian Connecticut/New York/New Jersey, USA [62]
ca. 1790s Powhatan Algonquian eastern Virginia, USA
ca. 1770s Abipón Mataco–Guaicuru Argentina
1763 Susquehannock Iroquoian Maryland/Virginia, USA
18th century Coahuilteco isolated Mexico; Texas, USA
18th century Etchemin Algonquian Maine, USA
18th century Chibcha Chibchan Colombia
18th century Classical Gaelic Celtic Scotland, UK
between 17th and 19th century Niuatoputapu Malayo-Polynesian Niuatoputapu Island, Tonga [63]
ca. 1730s Arin Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [24]
ca. 18th century Chané Arawakan Argentina a dialect of Terêna
early 18th century Apalachee Muskogean Florida, USA
early 18th century Old Prussian Baltic Poland
late 17th to early 18th century Cacán isolated northern Argentina; Chile

17th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 17th century Sudovian Baltic Lithuania
17th century Jassic Indo-Iranian Hungary
17th century Coptic Afro-Asiatic Egypt Coptic is used as a liturgical language nowadays
17th century Curonian either Finnic or Baltic Latvia
early 17th century Cuman Turkic north of Black Sea; Hungary

16th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 16th century Knaanic Slavic Czech Republic; Poland
late 16th century Laurentian Iroquoian Quebec/Ontario, Canada
16th century Semigallian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania
16th century Guanche unclassified, maybe Berber Canary Islands, Spain [64]
after 1502 Tangut Sino-Tibetan northwestern China; southern Mongolia latest text dates to 1502

15th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
end of 15th century Mozarabic Romance Spain; Portugal [65]
late 15th century Greenlandic Norse Germanic Greenland
late 15th century Selonian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania
15th century Classical Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan Mexico evolved into several dialects of modern Nahuatl
15th century Old Nubian Nilo-Saharan Northern Sudan; Southern Egypt evolved into Nobiin and other languages

10th to 14th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
14th century Galindian Baltic northern Poland; Russia
14th century Zarphatic Romance northern France; west-central Germany
13th – 14th century Bulgar Turkic Volga and Danube, Europe; Central Asia
between 1000 and 1300 Khazar Turkic northern Caucasus; Central Asia
11th – 12th century Cumbric Celtic England/Scotland, UK
11th – 12th century Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Semitic Iraq [66]
10th – 12th century Syriac Semitic Turkey; Iraq; Syria still used as a literary secular language[67]
10th – 12th century Samaritan Aramaic Semitic West Bank, Israel now only used as liturgical language[68]
ca. 1000 Lombardic Germanic central Europe; northern Italy
ca. 1000 Merya Uralic Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Muromian Uralic Vladimir Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Alanic Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Ossetian
10th century Sakan Indo-Iranian Xinjiang, China
10th century Zhang-Zhung Sino-Tibetan western Tibet (Central Asia)

5th to 9th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
9th century or later Pictish Celtic Scotland, UK
9th century Gothic Germanic Spain; Portugal; Italy with the exception of Crimean Gothic
9th century Sogdian Iranian Uzbekistan; Tajikistan evolved partly into Yaghnobi
after 840 Tocharian Indo-European Tarim Basin (Central Asia)
after 6th century Gaulish Celtic France; Belgium
6th century Dacian Indo-European Balkans
6th century Illyrian Indo-European western Balkans disputed
6th century Sabaean Semitic Horn of Africa; Arabic Peninsula
6th century Vandalic Germanic Spain; North Africa
5th – 7th century Phrygian Indo-European southeastern Bulgaria; Turkey
before 6th century Ligurian unclassified, possibly Celtic or Indo-European northwestern Italy; southeastern France [69]
after 453 Hunnic unclassified, possibly Oghuric from the Eurasian steppe into Europe
5th century Thracian Indo-European eastern and central Balkans
early 5th century Punic Semitic North Africa
ca. 400 Meroitic unclassified, maybe Nilo-Saharan Sudan
ca. 400 Sarmatian Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Alanic

1st to 4th century AD[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
4th century AD Galatian Celtic central Turkey
4th century AD Ge'ez Semitic Ethiopia; Eritrea ;[70] still used as a liturgical language
4th century AD Classical Hebrew Semitic Israel revived in the 1880s
after 300 AD Parthian Iranian Iran
3rd century AD Raetic unclassified, maybe Tyrsenian eastern Alps
after 2nd century AD Noric Celtic Austria; Slovenia
ca. 2nd century AD Celtiberian Celtic Spain
2nd century AD Lusitanian Indo-European Portugal; Spain
1st – 2nd century AD Paeonian Indo-European Macedonia; Greece; Bulgaria
1st – 2nd century AD Iberian unclassified Spain; France
100 AD Etruscan Tyrsenian central Italy
ca. 100 AD Akkadian Semitic Iraq [71]
1st century AD Liburnian Indo-European western Croatia
1st century AD Venetic Indo-European northeastern Italy

1st millennium BC[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1st century BC Carian Indo-European southwestern Turkey
1st century BC Elymian Unclassified languages western Sicily
1st century BC Lycian Indo-European southwestern Turkey
1st century BC Lydian Indo-European western Turkey
1st century BC Messapian Indo-European Puglia, Italy
1st century BC Oscan Italic southern Italy
1st century BC Sabine Italic central Italy
1st century BC Sicanian Unclassified languages central Sicily
1st century BC Sicel Indo-European languages eastern Sicily
1st century BC Umbrian Italic central Italy
ca. 150 BC Faliscan Indo-European Tuscany/Latium, Italy
ca. 3rd century BC Aequian Italic Latium, east-central Italy
ca. 3rd century BC Sidetic Indo-European southwestern Turkey
ca. 300 BC Philistine unclassified, maybe Indo-European Israel; Lebanon
ca. 300 BC Scythian Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Sarmatian
4th century BC Ancient Macedonian Indo-European northeastern Greece
ca. 350 BC Elamite isolated Iran; southern Iraq
early 4th century BC Eteocypriot isolated/unclassified Cyprus
ca. 400 BC Lepontic Celtic northern Italy
5th century BC Ammonite Semitic northwestern Jordan
5th century BC Moabite Semitic northwestern Jordan
maybe 5th century BC Phoenician Semitic Lebanon; Israel; Mediterranean coast evolved into Punic
after 6th century BC Lemnian Tyrsenian Lemnos, Greece [72]
6th century BC Edomite Semitic southwestern Jordan
ca. 600 BC Luwian Indo-European Turkey; northern Syria
7th century BC Urartian Hurro-Urartian Armenia; Georgia; Iraq; Turkey
early 1st millennium BC Eteocretan isolated/unclassified Crete, Greece

2nd millennium BC[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 1100 BC Hittite Indo-European Turkey
after 1170 BC Ugaritic Semitic Syria following the destruction of Ugarit
ca. 1200 BC Hurrian Hurro-Urartian Turkey; Syria; Iraq
ca. 1300 BC Palaic Indo-European northwest Turkey
ca. 1500 BC Hattic isolated Turkey
2nd millennium BC Eblaite Semitic Syria
early 2nd millennium BC Sumerian isolated Iraq used as a literary and liturgical language until about 100 AD [73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/last-native-klallam-speaker-dies-in-port-angeles/2014/02/06/d8108c14-8f70-11e3-878e-d76656564a01_story.html
  2. ^ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/europe/article3782596.ece?CMP=OTH-gnws-standard-2013_06_05
  3. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2212466/Final-word-Scottish-Cromarty-dialect-silenced-forever-native-speaker-dies-aged-92.html
  4. ^ http://www.write2kill.in/critiques/people/376.html
  5. ^ http://www.write2kill.in/critiques/people/376.html
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8498534.stm
  7. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=L4zytHZWB4QC&pg=PA160
  8. ^ Andamanese tribes, languages die, The Hindu
  9. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lhs
  10. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=uz1OmxuNmncC&pg=PA113
  11. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ysr
  12. ^ a b http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kzl
  13. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tcl
  14. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pno
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Haarmann, Harald. 2002. Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen. München: Beck; p. 188
  16. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ggk
  17. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=xeg
  18. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wka
  19. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bsl
  20. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mem
  21. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yvt
  22. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twa
  23. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kwz
  24. ^ a b c d e Vajda, Edward J. Loanwords in Ket; in: Haspelmath, Martin & Uri Tadmor (eds.). "Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook, p. 471. (in press)
  25. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sdt
  26. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mje
  27. ^ http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=44605&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  28. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hom
  29. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  30. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=glv
  31. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=vms
  32. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ccr
  33. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  34. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tWHiDB9rJ5kC&pg=PA208
  35. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bxi
  36. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=UYsxiVYSxscC&pg=PA50
  37. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chc
  38. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  39. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=omu
  40. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  41. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pij
  42. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tas
  43. ^ Haarmann, Harald. 2002. Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen. München: Beck; p. 188.
  44. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iff
  45. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktk
  46. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  47. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=3JH-TPFjLk4C&pg=PA80
  48. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nnr
  49. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=glU0vte5gSkC&pg=PA1148
  50. ^ Linguist List
  51. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ajw
  52. ^ Parkvall, Mikael. 2006. Limits of Language, London: Battlebridge; p. 51.
  53. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fos
  54. ^ http://www.moriori.co.nz/_w/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/HIRAWANU-TAPU-PEACE-SCHOLARSHIP.pdf
  55. ^ http://homepage.tinet.ie/~taghmon/histsoc/vol3/chapter4/chapter4.htm
  56. ^ http://www.namaruba.org/_media/first-inhabitants.pdf
  57. ^ Haarmann, Harald. 2002. Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen. München: Beck; p. 125.
  58. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cjr
  59. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sjk
  60. ^ Parkvall, Mikael. 2006. Limits of Language, London: Battlebridge; p. 52.
  61. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esm
  62. ^ http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/cr_files/2008-038_qyp.pdf
  63. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nkp
  64. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gnc
  65. ^ http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Mozarabic/Mozarabic.htm
  66. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tmr
  67. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=syc
  68. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sam
  69. ^ Haarman, Harald. 2002. Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen. München: Beck; p. 125
  70. ^ O'Leary, De Lacy Evans (2000). Comparative grammar of the Semitic languages. Routledge. p. 23. 
  71. ^ http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=akk
  72. ^ Haarman, Harald. 2002. Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen. München: Beck; p. 124.
  73. ^ Joan Oates (1979). Babylon [Revised Edition] Thames and Hudston, Ltd. 1986 p. 30, 52-53.

See also[edit]