List of languages of the North Sea
This is a list of the languages spoken on the shores of the North Sea. All living ones are Germanic.
North Germanic languages
Main article North Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
Main article West Germanic languages
Main article Anglo-Frisian languages
- English language
- Frisian languages
- Scots language
- Ulster Scots
High German languages
Main Article High German languages
Low Franconian languages
Main article Low Franconian languages
The following languages are either extinct, or no longer used on the North Sea coast
- Old Norse (North Germanic). This evolved into the modern North Germanic languages off which most except for Norn still survive.
- Pictish language (Celtic). This was spoken in what's now Scotland in the early Middle Ages by a people called the Picts. It was replaced by Scottish Gaelic and Old Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries.
- Scottish Gaelic language (Celtic) After it replaced pictish, it was spoken all over Scotland, where it was the national language. It was replaced by English/Scots in the lowlands from the High Middle Ages but until recently it was spoken on the north sea coast of the Highlands, from Nairn to John O' Groats. With the Highland Clearances of the early 19th century and due to other factors, it lost ground to English in those areas. Although a few speakers of those dialects of Gaelic remain as of the early 21st century, they are among the elderly and Gaelic is no longer the predominant language of anywhere on the north sea coast. Attempts are being made to revive it.
- Old Brythonic language (Celtic) was spoken in Britain in the Iron Age, the Roman Era and the Sub-Roman Period. It was replaced by the Germanic dialects of the Anglo-Saxon invaders that would later be Old English.