List of large volcanic eruptions

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For a list of the largest recorded eruptions, see List of largest volcanic eruptions.

This is a sortable summary of the pages Timetable of major worldwide volcanic eruptions, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation[clarification needed] of the erupted tephra volume.

Overview[edit]

VEI Caldera name Volcanic arc/belt,
subregion, or hotspot
Historical Date Geological Date in Ma BP Tephra or eruption name
6 Philippines Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 1991-06-15 AD 0.000033
5 United States Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1980-05-18 AD 0.000034
5 United States Ko'olau Range Honolulu Volcanic Series 8000 BC 0.000035
6 United States Novarupta Aleutian Range 1912-06-06 AD 0.000112
6 Guatemala Santa María Central America Volcanic Arc 1902-10-24 AD 0.000112
5 New Zealand Mount Tarawera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1886-06-10 AD 0.000128
6 Indonesia Krakatoa Sunda Arc 1883-08-26 AD 0.000131
7 Indonesia Krakatoa* Sunda Arc 416 AD or 535 AD 0.001596
0.001475
*Unconfirmed, has been implicated in the 416 or 535 ice core event.[1]
5 Nicaragua Cosigüina Central America Volcanic Arc 1835-01-20 AD 0.000179
7 Indonesia Mount Tambora Lesser Sunda Islands 1815-04-10 AD 0.000199
6? Source unknown Source unknown 1809 AD 0.000205 Undocumented 1809 eruption[2]
6 Iceland Grímsvötn Iceland 1783-85 AD 0.000231 Skaftáreldar at Laki
6 Papua New Guinea Long Island (Papua New Guinea)[citation needed] Bismarck Volcanic Arc 1660 AD 0.000354
6 Greece Kolumbo, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 1650-09-27 0.000364
6 Peru Huaynaputina Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 1600-02-19 AD 0.000414
6 Papua New Guinea Billy Mitchell Bougainville & Solomon Is. 1580 AD 0.000434
6 Iceland Bárðarbunga Iceland 1477 AD 0.000541
6 Vanuatu Kuwae Vanuatu 1452-53 AD 0.000562
6 Ecuador Quilotoa Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 1280 AD 0.000734
7 Indonesia Mt.Rinjani Lombok Island 1258 0.000756 May have triggered the Little Ice Age [3]
7 China/North Korea Baekdu Mountain Balhae (China – North Korea border) 969 AD 0.001045 Tianchi eruption
6 Iceland Katla Iceland 934-940 AD 0.000948 Eldgjá eruption
6 Mexico Ceboruco Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 930 AD 0.001084
6 Papua New Guinea Dakataua Bismarck Volcanic Arc 800 AD 0.001214
6 Papua New Guinea Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 710 AD 0.001304
6 United States Mount Churchill eastern Alaska, USA 700 AD 0.001314
6 Papua New Guinea Rabaul caldera Bismarck Volcanic Arc 540 AD 0.001464
6 El Salvador Lake Ilopango Central America Volcanic Arc 450 AD 0.001974
6 Russia Ksudach Kamchatka Peninsula 240 AD 0.001754
7 New Zealand Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 230 AD 0.001794 Hatepe eruption
6 Italy Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 79 AD 0.001923 Pompeii eruption
6 United States Mount Churchill eastern Alaska, USA 60 AD 0.001954
6 Vanuatu Ambrym Vanuatu 50 AD 0.001964
6 Nicaragua Apoyeque Central America Volcanic Arc 50 BC 0.002064
6 United States Mount Okmok Aleutian Islands 100 BC 0.002114
6 New Zealand Raoul Island Kermadec Islands 250 BC 0.002264
5 Canada Mount Meager Garibaldi Volcanic Belt 400 BC 0.002414 Bridge River Ash
5 New Zealand Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 550 BC 0.002564
6 Philippines Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 1050 BC 0.003064
5 Russia Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 1350 BC 0.003364 tephra layer IIAV3
6 Papua New Guinea Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 1370 BC 0.003384
6 New Zealand Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 1460 BC 0.003474
5 Russia Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 1500 BC 0.003514
7 Greece Youngest Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 1610 BC 0.003624 Minoan eruption
6 United States Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 1645 BC 0.003659
6 United States Mount Veniaminof Aleutian Range 1750 BC 0.003764
6 United States Mount St. Helens Cascade Volcanic Arc 1860 BC 0.003874
6 Chile Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 1890 BC 0.003904
6 United States Black Peak Aleutian Range 1900 BC 0.003914
6 Papua New Guinea Long Island (Papua New Guinea) Bismarck Volcanic Arc 2040 BC 0.004054
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 2420 BC 0.004434 Avellino eruption
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 3200 BC 0.005214 tephra layer IAv20; AV3
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 3550 BC 0.005564
6 Taal Volcano Luzon Volcanic Arc 3580 BC 0.005594
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 3580 BC 0.005594
6 Pago Bismarck Volcanic Arc 4000 BC 0.00614
6 Masaya Volcano Central America Volcanic Arc 4050 BC 0.006064
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 4340 BC 0.006354 tephra layer IAv12; AV4
7 Kikai Caldera Ryukyu Islands 4350 BC 0.006364 Akahoya eruption
6 Macauley Island Kermadec Islands 4360 BC 0.006374
6 Mount Hudson Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 4750 BC 0.006764
6 Mount Aniakchak Aleutian Range 5250 BC 0.007264
6 Lake Mashū Japan 5550 BC 0.007564
6 Tao-Rusyr Caldera Kuril Islands 5550 BC 0.007564
5 Mayor Island/Tuhua Taupo Volcanic Zone 5560 BC 0.007574
7 Crater Lake
(as Mount Mazama)
Cascade Volcanic Arc 5677 BC 0.007691
6 Khangar Kamchatka Peninsula 5700 BC 0.007714
6 Crater Lake Cascade Volcanic Arc 5900 BC 0.007914
5 Avachinsky Kamchatka Peninsula 5980 BC 0.007984 tephra layer IAv1
6 Menengai East African Rift 6050 BC 0.008064
5 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 6060 BC 0.008074
6 Sakurajima Japan 6200 BC 0.008214
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka Peninsula 6440 BC 0.008454 Ilinsky eruption
6 Karymsky (volcano) Kamchatka Peninsula 6600 BC 0.008615
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 6940 BC 0.008954 Mercato eruption
6 Fisher Caldera Aleutian Islands 7420 BC 0.009435
6 Mount Pinatubo Luzon Volcanic Arc 7460 BC 0.009474
6 Lvinaya Past Kuril Islands 7480 BC 0.009480
5 Rotoma Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 7560 BC 0.009560
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 8130 BC 0.010130
6 Grímsvötn Iceland 8230 BC 0.01023
6 Ulleungdo South Korea 8750 BC 0.01075
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9450 BC 0.01145
5 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 9460 BC 0.01146
5 Mount Tongariro Taupo Volcanic Zone 9650 BC 0.011660
6 Nevado de Toluca Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 0.0105 Ma Upper Toluca Pumice
6 Laacher See Eifel hotspot 0.0129 Ma
5 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 0.016 Ma Green Pumice
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.017 Ma
6 Mount Vesuvius Campanian volcanic arc 0.018.3 Ma Basal Pumice
? Cape Riva Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.021 Ma
7 Aira Caldera Japan 0.022 Ma
8 Taupo Volcano Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.0245 Ma Oruanui eruption
? Laguna Caldera Luzon Volcanic Arc 0.027-29 Ma
? Menengai East African Rift 0.029 Ma
6 Morne Diablotins Lesser Antilles island arc 0.030 Ma Grand Savanne Ignimbrite
7 Campi Flegrei Campanian volcanic arc 0.037 Ma Campanian Ignimbrite
5 Campi Flegrei Campanian volcanic arc 0.03928 Ma Campanian Tuff
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.040 Ma
7 Kurile Lake Kamchatka Peninsula 0.0415 Ma Golygin eruption
7 Okataina Volcanic Complex Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.050 Ma Rotoiti Ignimbrite
7 Maninjau Caldera Sunda Arc 0.052 Ma
? Skaros Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.070 Ma
8 Lake Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.073 Ma Youngest Toba Tuff
7 Lago de Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc 0.084 Ma Los Chocoyos eruption
7 Mount Aso Japan 0.090 Ma
6 Sierra La Primavera Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 0.095 Ma Tala Tuff
6 Mount Aso Japan 0.120 Ma
? Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.070-150 Ma magmatic
6 Mount Aso Japan 0.140 Ma
5 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.150 Ma
6 Kos-Nisyros Caldera South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.161 Ma Kos Plateau Tuff
? Southern Caldera, Santorini South Aegean Volcanic Arc 0.18 Ma
7 Rotorua Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.22 Ma
7 Maroa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ma
7 Reporoa Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.23 Ma
6 Emmons Lake caldera Aleutian Range 0.233 Ma
8 Whakamaru Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.254 Ma Whakamaru Ignimbrite
6 Mount Aso Japan 0.270 Ma
7 Haroharo Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.28 Ma Matahina Ignimbrite
6 Uzon-Geyzernaya calderas Kamchatka Peninsula 0.28 Ma
6 Roccamonfina Caldera Campania, Italy 0.385 Ma
7 Diamante Caldera Andes, Southern Volcanic Zone 0.45 Ma
? Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.501 Ma Middle Toba Tuff
6 Galeras Andes, Northern Volcanic Zone 0.56 Ma
8 Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 0.64 Ma Lava Creek Tuff
7 Long Valley Caldera eastern California, USA 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff
? Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 0.84 Ma Oldest Toba Tuff
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 0.97 Ma Rocky Hill Ignimbrite
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.01 Ma Unit E
7 Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA
(Raton hotspot)
1.15 Ma Upper Bandelier eruption
? Toba Caldera Sunda Arc 1.2 Ma Haranggoal Dacite Tuff
7 Mangakino Caldera Taupo Volcanic Zone 1.23 Ma Ongatit Ignimbrite
7 Henry's Fork Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 1.3 Ma Mesa Falls Tuff
? Valles Caldera New Mexico, USA 1.47 Ma Lower Bandelier eruption
? Source unknown Japan 1.75 Ma Ebisutoge-Fukuda tephras
7 Lake Atitlán Central America Volcanic Arc 1.8 Ma
8 Island Park Caldera Yellowstone hotspot 2.1 Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff
8 Cerro Galán Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2.2 Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 2.9 Ma Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite
8 Pacana Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 4 Ma Atana Ignimbrite
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 4.45 Ma Kilgore Tuff
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 5.51 Ma Conant Creek Tuff
7 Cerro Panizos Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 6.1 Ma Panizos Ignimbrite
? Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.27 Ma Walcott Tuff
8 Heise volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 6.62 Ma Blacktail Tuff
7 Black Mountain Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 7 Ma Thirsty Canyon Tuff
7 Pastos Grandes Caldera Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 8.3 Ma Sifon Ignimbrite
? Twin Falls volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 8.6 to 10 Ma
? Picabo volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 10.09 and 10.21 Ma Arbon Valley Tuffs
8 Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera Yellowstone hotspot 10.0 to 12.5 Ma Ashfall Fossil Beds eruption
7 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.45 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff - Ammonia Tanks member
8 Timber Mountain caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 11.6 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff - Rainer Mesa member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.7 Ma Paintbrush Tuff - Topopah Spring member
8 Paintbrush Caldera Southwest Nevada volcanic field 12.8 Ma Paintbrush Tuff - Tiva Canyon member
7 Silent Canyon caldera complex Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13 Ma Belted Range Tuff
7 Crater Flat Group Southwest Nevada volcanic field 13.25 Ma Crater Flat Tuff, Bullfrog member
? Owyhee-Humboldt volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot 12.8 to 13.9 Ma
6 Campi Flegrei Campanian volcanic arc 14.9 Ma Neapolitan Yellow Tuff
8 Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 15 Ma Huaylillas Ignimbrite
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15 Ma Whitehorse Creek Tuff
? Lake Owyhee volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15 to 15.5 Ma
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Ma Longridge Tuff member 2-3
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.6 Ma Longridge Tuff member 5
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 15.7 Ma Double H Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, North Yellowstone hotspot 15.8 Ma Trout Creek Mountains Tuff
? McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16 Ma Hoppin Peaks Tuff
7 McDermitt volcanic field, South Yellowstone hotspot 16.548 Ma Oregon Canyon Tuff
? Northwest Nevada volcanic field Yellowstone hotspot? 15.5 to 16.5 Ma
? Columbia River Basalt Group Yellowstone hotspot 17 Ma
? Source unknown Andes, Central Volcanic Zone 19 Ma Oxaya Ignimbrites
7 Mount Belknap Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 19 Ma Joe Lott member
7 Monroe Peak Caldera Marysvale volcanic field 23 Ma Osiris Tuff
8 La Garita Caldera San Juan volcanic field 27.8 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff
7 Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex Skukum Group 50 Ma

Further reading[edit]

  • Scott E. Bryan; Ingrid Ukstins Peate, David W. Peate, Stephen Self, Dougal A. Jerram, Michael R. Mawby, J.S. Marsh, Jodie A. Miller (2010). "The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth". Earth-Science Reviews 102 (3–4): 207–229. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.07.001. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ How the Earth Was Made "Krakatoa" and How the Earth Works "Can Krakatoa Stop Time"
  2. ^ "Undocumented volcano contributed to extremely cold decade from 1810-1819". Sciencedaily.com. 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  3. ^ http://www.wired.com/2013/09/samalas-in-indonesia-identified-source-of-the-1258-a-d-missing-eruption/