List of urban areas in the United Kingdom

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List of urban areas in the United Kingdom is a list of the most populous urban areas as at the 2011 census, as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), although the basis for the sourced list (used for its ready availability of the data) is Citypopulation.de.

The detailed methodology of the process used by ONS in 2011 is set out in 2011 Built-up Areas - Methodology and Guidance, published in June 2013. In reporting the results of the 2011 UK census, ONS use the term "built-up area" rather than the term "urban area" used for previous censuses. However, it states that the criteria used to define "built-up area" are the same as those used previously, as follows:[1]

"..the definition follows a ‘bricks and mortar’ approach, with areas defined as built-up land with a minimum area of 20 hectares (200,000 m2), while settlements within 200 metres of each other are linked. Built-up area sub-divisions are also identified to provide greater detail in the data, especially in the larger conurbations."

In reporting the 2001 census, ONS gave a clearer definition of the term "built-up" as follows:

"This comprises permanent structures and the land on which they are situated, including land enclosed by or closely associated with such structures; transportation corridors such as roads, railways and canals which have built up land on one or both sides, or which link built-up sites which are less than 200 metres apart; transportation features such as airports and operational airfields, railway yards, motorway service areas and car parks; mine buildings, excluding mineral workings and quarries; and any area completely surrounded by builtup sites. Areas such as playing fields and golf courses are excluded unless completely surrounded by builtup sites..."[2]

List of most populous urban areas[edit]

The list below shows the most populous urban areas in the United Kingdom as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), but as readily referenced at Citypopulation.de. The list includes all urban areas with a population in excess of 100,000 at the 2011 census.[3]

Rank Built-up area[4] Population

(2011 Census)

Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area[5] Notable changes between 2001 and 2011 censuses [6]
1 Greater London Built-up area 9,787,426 1,737.9 5,630 London Boroughs, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, Woking, Harlow, St Albans, Bracknell London The addition of Guildford, Harlow, Bracknell and St Albans
2 Greater Manchester Built-up area 2,553,379 630.3 4,051 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury, Trafford, Tameside Manchester The addition of Golborne, Glossop and Newton-le-Willows
3 West Midlands Built-up area 2,440,986 598.9 4,076 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Dudley, Walsall, Solihull Birmingham
4 West Yorkshire Built-up area 1,777,934 487.8 3,645 Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Keighley, Halifax Leeds-Bradford The addition of Halifax
5 Glasgow 1,209,143 368.5 3,390 Glasgow, Paisley, Clydebank Glasgow
6 Liverpool Built-up area 864,122 199.6 4,329 Liverpool, Bootle, Litherland, Crosby, Prescot, St. Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield Liverpool The addition of Ashton-in-Makerfield
7 South Hampshire Built-up area 855,569 192.0 4,455 Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean Southampton-Portsmouth Portsmouth Urban Area and Southampton Urban Area combined into one.

The addition of Hedge End, Locks Heath, Bursledon and Whiteley. Stubbington and Lee-on-the-Solent are no longer part of the built-up area.

8 Tyneside Built-up area 774,891 180.5 4,292 Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay, Jarrow Newcastle-Sunderland Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring are no longer part of the built-up area.
9 Nottingham Built-up area 729,977 176.4 4,139 Nottingham, Beeston, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ilkeston, Hucknall Nottingham-Derby
10 Sheffield Built-up area 685,368 167.5 4,092 Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh Sheffield
11 Bristol Built-up area 617,280 144.4 4,274 Bristol, Filton, Pill, Frampton Cotterell, Kingswood, Warmley, Mangotsfield, Winterbourne Bristol
12 Belfast 579,127 Belfast
13 Leicester Built-up area 508,916 109.4 4,653 Leicester, Syston, Whetstone, Birstall, Narborough, Enderby Leicester Ratby no longer part of the built-up area.

Addition of Narborough and Enderby

14 Edinburgh 482,005 Edinburgh
15 Brighton and Hove Built-up area 474,485 89.4 5,304 Brighton and Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Shoreham-by-Sea Brighton Rottingdean, Saltdean and Findon are no longer part of the built-up area.
16 Bournemouth/Poole Built-up area 466,266 131.0 3,559 Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, Ferndown, New Milton, Wimborne Minster Bournemouth/Poole Ferndown and Wimborne Minster now part of the built-up area.
17 Cardiff Built-up area 447,287 102.3 4,370 Cardiff, Caerphilly, Penarth, Pontypridd Cardiff-Newport Caerphilly and Pontypridd now part of the built-up area.
18 Teesside Built-up area 376,633 108.2 3,482 Middlesbrough, Stockton-On-Tees, Billingham, Redcar Middlesbrough Eston & Southbank now part of Middlesbrough sub-division, no longer counted as separate sub-division
19 Stoke-on-Trent Built-up area 372,775 103.9 3,588 Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Kidsgrove Stoke-on-Trent
20 Coventry Built-up area 359,262 81.3 4,420 Coventry, Bedworth Birmingham
21 Sunderland Built-up area 335,415 83.5 4,018 Sunderland, Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring Newcastle-Sunderland Addition of Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring
22 Birkenhead Built-up area 325,264 88.2 3,687 Birkenhead, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Bebington Liverpool
23 Reading Built-up area 318,014 83.7 3,800 Reading, Wokingham, Woodley, Crowthorne London Bracknell no longer part of the built-up area.
24 Kingston upon Hull Built-up area 314,018 82.6 3,802 Kingston upon Hull, Cottingham, Hessle Hull
25 Preston Built-up area 313,322 82.4 3,802 Preston, Bamber Bridge, Chorley, Fulwood, Leyland Preston The addition of Longton and Adlington to the built-up area.
26 Newport Built-up area 306,844 84.2 3,643 Newport, Pontypool, Cwmbran, Blackwood, Risca, Ystrad Mynach Cardiff-Newport Pontypool, Cwmbran and Blackwood added to the built-up area.
27 Swansea Built-up area 300,352 87.6 3,431 Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Ystradgynlais, Pontardawe Swansea/Neath/Port Talbot Ystradgynlais now part of the built-up area.
28 Southend-on-Sea Built-up area 295,310 71.8 4,111 Southend-on-Sea, Hullbridge, Rayleigh, Rochford London Hullbridge now part of the built-up area.
29 Derby Built-up area 270,468 64.1 4,219 Derby, Borrowash, Duffield Nottingham-Derby
30 Plymouth Built-up area 260,203 59.7 4,356 Plymouth, Plymstock Plymouth
31 Luton Built-up area 258,018 50.7 5,088 Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis London
32 Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up area 252,397 78.5 3,217 Farnborough, Aldershot, Camberley, Farnham, Frimley, Sandhurst, Yateley London
33 Medway Towns Built-up area 243,931 52.2 4,677 Gillingham, Chatham, Rochester London
34 Blackpool Built-up area 239,409 61.3 3,908 Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Thornton, Cleveleys Blackpool Fleetwood no longer forms part of the built-up area.
35 Milton Keynes Built-up area 229,941 62.5 3,678 'Milton Keynes',[7] Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Woburn Sands Milton Keynes The addition of Woburn Sands.
36 Barnsley/Dearne Valley Built-up area 223,281 59.7 3,739 Barnsley, Wath upon Dearne, Wombwell, Hoyland Sheffield
37 Northampton Built-up area 215,963 57.9 3,731 Northampton, Collingtree Northampton
38 Norwich Built-up area 213,166 61.9 3,444 Norwich, Taverham, Costessey, Cringleford, Hellesdon Norwich
39 Aberdeen 207,932 Aberdeen
40 Swindon Built-up area 185,609 47.1 3,945 Swindon, Haydon Wick, Stratton St. Margaret, Broad Blunsdon, Blunsdon St Andrew, Wroughton Swindon
41 Crawley Built-up area 180,508 58.1 3,107 Crawley, Horley, East Grinstead, Copthorne, Crawley Down London The addition of East Grinstead, Copthorne and Crawley Down.

Reigate and Redhill no longer part of the built-up area.

42 Ipswich Built-up area 178,835 49.1 3,639 Ipswich, Kesgrave, Woodbridge Ipswich The addition of Woodbridge.
43 Wigan Built-up area 175,405 43.8 4,009 Wigan, Skelmersdale, Standish, Ince-in-Makerfield Liverpool
44 Mansfield Built-up area 171,958 48.4 3,556 Mansfield, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Mansfield Woodhouse Nottingham-Derby
45 Oxford Built-up area 171,380 37.4 4,585 Oxford, Kennington, Wheatley Oxford The addition of Kennington and Wheatley.
46 Warrington Built-up area 165,456 44.9 3,686 Warrington Liverpool
47 Slough Built-up area 163,777 34.1 4,797 Slough, Stoke Poges, Poyle London
48 Peterborough Built-up area 163,379 44.2 3,693 Peterborough, Farcet Peterborough
49 Cambridge Built-up area 158,434 42.1 3,760 Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Girton, Histon Cambridge Addition of Histon and Impington and Fen Ditton
50 Doncaster Built-up area 158,141 43.5 3,634 Doncaster, Bentley, Armthorpe, Sprotbrough Sheffield Addition of Bessacarr
51 Dundee 157,444 Dundee
52 York Built-up area 153,717 34.0 4,518 York, Earswick York
53 Gloucester Built-up area 150,053 40.4 3,718 Gloucester, Innsworth Gloucester-Cheltenham
54 Burnley Built-up area 149,422 35.7 4,183 Burnley, Padiham, Brierfield Colne, Barrowford Nelson Blackburn-Burnley
55 Telford Built-up area 147,980 47.7 3,103 Telford, Broseley Telford
56 Blackburn Built-up area 146,521 35.6 4,115 Blackburn, Darwen Blackburn-Burnley
57 Basildon Built-up area 144,859 37.1 3,902 Basildon, Wickford, Ramsden Heath, North Benfleet London The addition of Wickford to the urban area.
58 Grimsby Built-up area 134,160 35.3 3,804 Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Waltham Grimsby New Waltham is no longer part of the Built-up area.
59 Hastings Built-up area 133,422 33.2 4,019 Hastings, Bexhill Hastings
60 High Wycombe Built-up area 133,204 39.2 3,398 High Wycombe, Cookham, Hughenden Valley London
61 Thanet Built-up area 125,370 27.9 4,495 Margate, Ramsgate, Broadstairs Thanet
62 Accrington/Rossendale Built-up area 125,059 30.0 4,168 Accrington, Rawtenstall, Bacup, Great Harwood, Haslingden, Oswaldtwistle Blackburn-Burnley Accrington Urban Area and Rossendale Urban Area combined.
63 Burton-upon-Trent Built-up area 122,199 35.0 3,487 Burton-upon-Trent, Swadlincote Burton-upon-Trent The addition of Swadlincote, Stapenhill and Winshill[8]
64 Colchester Built-up area 121,859 32.7 3,732 Colchester, Marks Tey Colchester
65 Eastbourne Built-up area 118,219 25.1 4,705 Eastbourne, Polegate Brighton
66 Exeter Built-up area 117,763 28.5 4,133 Exeter, Topsham Exeter
67 Cheltenham Built-up area 116,447 28.9 4,034 Cheltenham, Gloucester-Cheltenham
68 Paignton/Torquay Built-up area 115,410 31.5 3,667 Paignton, Torquay, Marldon Torbay
69 Lincoln Built-up area 114,879 32.7 3,518 Lincoln, North Hykeham Lincoln
70 Chesterfield Built-up area 113,057 34.6 3,263 Chesterfield, Staveley, Wingerworth, Holymoorside Sheffield Addition of Wingerworth to the Built-up area.
71 Chelmsford Built-up area 111,511 26.2 4,259 Chelmsford, Little Waltham London
72 Basingstoke Built-up area 107,642 29.4 3,662 Basingstoke London
73 Maidstone Built-up area 107,627 25.4 4,229 Maidstone London
74 Bedford Built-up area 106,940 24.8 4,309 Bedford, Kempston Bedford
75 Worcester Built-up area 101,659 24.7 4,121 Worcester, Norton Worcester

List of urban areas by Metropolitan area and Region[edit]

City Rank Built-up area Population

(2011 Census)

Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area Metro population (2001) Region
1 Greater London Built-up area 9,787,426 1,737.9 5,630 London Boroughs, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, Woking, Harlow, St Albans, Bracknell London 13,709,000 London region
23 Reading Built-up area 318,014 83.7 3,800 Reading, Wokingham, Woodley, Crowthorne
28 Southend-on-Sea Built-up area 295,310 71.8 4,111 Southend-on-Sea, Hullbridge, Rayleigh, Rochford
31 Luton Built-up area 258,018 50.7 5,088 Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis
32 Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up area 252,397 78.5 3,217 Farnborough, Aldershot, Camberley, Farnham, Frimley, Sandhurst, Yateley
33 Medway Towns Built-up area 243,931 52.2 4,677 Gillingham, Chatham, Rochester
41 Crawley Built-up area 180,508 58.1 3,107 Crawley, Horley, East Grinstead, Copthorne, Crawley Down
47 Slough Built-up area 163,777 34.1 4,797 Slough, Stoke Poges, Poyle
57 Basildon Built-up area 144,859 37.1 3,902 Basildon, Wickford, Ramsden Heath, North Benfleet
60 High Wycombe Built-up area 133,204 39.2 3,398 High Wycombe, Cookham, Hughenden Valley
71 Chelmsford Built-up area 111,511 26.2 4,259 Chelmsford, Little Waltham
72 Basingstoke Built-up area 107,642 29.4 3,662 Basingstoke
73 Maidstone Built-up area 107,627 25.4 4,229 Maidstone
3 West Midlands Built-up area 2,440,986 598.9 4,076 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Dudley, Walsall, Solihull Birmingham 3,683,000 West Midlands
20 Coventry Built-up area 359,262 81.3 4,420 Coventry, Bedworth
19 Stoke-on-Trent Built-up area 372,775 103.9 3,588 Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Kidsgrove Stoke-on-Trent 456,000
55 Telford Built-up area 147,980 47.7 3,103 Telford, Broseley Telford 209,000
63 Burton-upon-Trent Built-up area 122,199 35.0 3,487 Burton-upon-Trent, Swadlincote Burton-upon-Trent 117,000
75 Worcester Built-up area 101,659 24.7 4,121 Worcester, Norton Worcester 159,000
2 Greater Manchester Built-up area 2,553,379 630.3 4,051 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury, Trafford, Tameside Manchester 2,556,000 North West
6 Liverpool Built-up area 864,122 199.6 4,329 Liverpool, Bootle, Litherland, Crosby, Prescot, St. Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield Liverpool 2,241,000
22 Birkenhead Built-up area 325,264 88.2 3,687 Birkenhead, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Bebington
43 Wigan Built-up area 175,405 43.8 4,009 Wigan, Skelmersdale, Standish, Ince-in-Makerfield
46 Warrington Built-up area 165,456 44.9 3,686 Warrington
54 Burnley Built-up area 149,422 35.7 4,183 Burnley, Padiham, Brierfield Colne, Barrowford Nelson Blackburn-Burnley 391,000
56 Blackburn Built-up area 146,521 35.6 4,115 Blackburn, Darwen
62 Accrington/Rossendale Built-up area 125,059 30.0 4,168 Accrington, Rawtenstall, Bacup, Great Harwood, Haslingden, Oswaldtwistle
25 Preston Built-up area 313,322 82.4 3,802 Preston, Bamber Bridge, Chorley, Fulwood, Leyland Preston 354,000
34 Blackpool Built-up area 239,409 61.3 3,908 Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Thornton, Cleveleys Blackpool 304,000
4 West Yorkshire Built-up area 1,777,934 487.8 3,645 Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Keighley, Halifax Leeds-Bradford 2,302,000 Yorkshire and Humber
10 Sheffield Built-up area 685,368 167.5 4,092 Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh Sheffield 1,569,000
36 Barnsley/Dearne Valley Built-up area 223,281 59.7 3,739 Barnsley, Wath upon Dearne, Wombwell, Hoyland
50 Doncaster Built-up area 158,141 43.5 3,634 Doncaster, Bentley, Armthorpe, Sprotbrough
70 Chesterfield Built-up area 113,057 34.6 3,263 Chesterfield, Staveley, Wingerworth, Holymoorside
18 Teesside Built-up area 376,633 108.2 3,482 Middlesbrough, Stockton-On-Tees, Billingham, Redcar Middlesbrough 656,000
24 Kingston upon Hull Built-up area 314,018 82.6 3,802 Kingston upon Hull, Cottingham, Hessle Hull 419,000
52 York Built-up area 153,717 34.0 4,518 York, Earswick York 234,000
58 Grimsby Built-up area 134,160 35.3 3,804 Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Waltham Grimsby 174,000
8 Tyneside Built-up area 774,891 180.5 4,292 Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay, Jarrow Newcastle-Sunderland 1,599,000 North East
21 Sunderland Built-up area 335,415 83.5 4,018 Sunderland, Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring
7 South Hampshire Built-up area 855,569 192.0 4,455 Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean Southampton-Portsmouth 1,547,000 South East
15 Brighton and Hove Built-up area 474,485 89.4 5,304 Brighton and Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Shoreham-by-Sea Brighton 769,000
65 Eastbourne Built-up area 118,219 25.1 4,705 Eastbourne, Polegate
35 Milton Keynes Built-up area 229,941 62.5 3,678 'Milton Keynes',[9] Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Woburn Sands Milton Keynes 271,000
45 Oxford Built-up area 171,380 37.4 4,585 Oxford, Kennington, Wheatley Oxford 244,000
59 Hastings Built-up area 133,422 33.2 4,019 Hastings, Bexhill Hastings 164,000
9 Nottingham Built-up area 729,977 176.4 4,139 Nottingham, Beeston, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ilkeston, Hucknall Nottingham-Derby 1,543,000 East Midlands
29 Derby Built-up area 270,468 64.1 4,219 Derby, Borrowash, Duffield
44 Mansfield Built-up area 171,958 48.4 3,556 Mansfield, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Mansfield Woodhouse
13 Leicester Built-up area 508,916 109.4 4,653 Leicester, Syston, Whetstone, Birstall, Narborough, Enderby Leicester 745,000
37 Northampton Built-up area 215,963 57.9 3,731 Northampton, Collingtree Northampton 288,000
69 Lincoln Built-up area 114,879 32.7 3,518 Lincoln, North Hykeham Lincoln 176,000
17 Cardiff Built-up area 447,287 102.3 4,370 Cardiff, Caerphilly, Penarth, Pontypridd Cardiff-Newport 1,097,000 Wales
26 Newport Built-up area 306,844 84.2 3,643 Newport, Pontypool, Cwmbran, Blackwood, Risca, Ystrad Mynach
27 Swansea Built-up area 300,352 87.6 3,431 Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Ystradgynlais, Pontardawe Swansea 462,000
11 Bristol Built-up area 617,280 144.4 4,274 Bristol, Filton, Pill, Frampton Cotterell, Kingswood, Warmley, Mangotsfield, Winterbourne Bristol 1,041,000 South West
16 Bournemouth/Poole Built-up area 466,266 131.0 3,559 Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, Ferndown, New Milton, Wimborne Minster Bournemouth/Poole 531,000
30 Plymouth Built-up area 260,203 59.7 4,356 Plymouth, Plymstock Plymouth 343,000
53 Gloucester Built-up area 150,053 40.4 3,718 Gloucester, Innsworth Gloucester-Cheltenham 330,000**
67 Cheltenham Built-up area 116,447 28.9 4,034 Cheltenham
40 Swindon Built-up area 185,609 47.1 3,945 Swindon, Haydon Wick, Stratton St. Margaret, Broad Blunsdon, Blunsdon St Andrew, Wroughton Swindon 260,000
66 Exeter Built-up area 117,763 28.5 4,133 Exeter, Topsham Exeter 259,000
68 Paignton/Torquay Built-up area 115,410 31.5 3,667 Paignton, Torquay, Marldon Torbay 231,000
38 Norwich Built-up area 213,166 61.9 3,444 Norwich, Taverham, Costessey, Cringleford, Hellesdon Norwich 364,000 East England
49 Cambridge Built-up area 158,434 42.1 3,760 Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Girton, Histon Cambridge 283,000
42 Ipswich Built-up area 178,835 49.1 3,639 Ipswich, Kesgrave, Woodbridge Ipswich 240,000
48 Peterborough Built-up area 163,379 44.2 3,693 Peterborough, Farcet Peterborough 219,000
74 Bedford Built-up area 106,940 24.8 4,309 Bedford, Kempston Bedford 202,000
64 Colchester Built-up area 121,859 32.7 3,732 Colchester, Marks Tey Colchester 191,000
61 Thanet Built-up area 125,370 27.9 4,495 Margate, Ramsgate, Broadstairs Thanet/Canterbury 190,000*
5 Glasgow 1,209,143 368.5 3,390 Glasgow, Paisley, Clydebank Glasgow 1,395,000 Scotland
14 Edinburgh 482,005 Edinburgh 782,000
39 Aberdeen 207,932 Aberdeen 332,000
51 Dundee 157,444 Dundee 211,000
12 Belfast 579,127 Belfast 799,000 Northern Ireland

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2011 Built-up Areas - Methodology and Guidance, p.3
  2. ^ ONS definition of urban areas[dead link]
  3. ^ "United Kingdom: Urban Areas". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July 2013.  (needs a more direct cite)
  5. ^ http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf#page=122
  6. ^ Some of the names of subdivisions and the areas they represent have changed between the two censuses. So it may look as though an area has become part of a built-up area between the two censuses but it may have already been part of the 2001 urban area but was included under a different subdivision.
  7. ^ The urban sub-area that the ONS has called 'Milton Keynes' is actually just the northern 80% (approx) of Milton Keynes proper. The ONS has separated out Bletchley (which is about 20% of MK) for reasons that are not explained.
  8. ^ Stapenhill and Winshill were treated as a separate urban area in the 2001 census but in the 2011 census they were treated as part of the Burton-upon-Trent subdivision
  9. ^ The urban sub-area that the ONS has called 'Milton Keynes' is actually just the northern 80% (approx) of Milton Keynes proper. The ONS has separated out Bletchley (which is about 20% of MK) for reasons that are not explained.

External links[edit]