List of last surviving veterans of military insurgencies and wars
This a chronological list of the last surviving veterans of military insurgencies, conflicts, and wars around the world. The listed wars span from the 13th century BC to the beginning of World War II. Most last survivors of particular campaigns or wars were junior officers or soldiers/naval ratings of non-commissioned rank in the early years of their service careers at the time.
- 1 Classical and Biblical eras
- 2 Middle Ages
- 3 Early modern period
- 4 English Civil War
- 5 First Anglo-Dutch War
- 6 Great Northern War
- 7 War of the Polish Succession, War of the Austrian Succession
- 8 Russo-Turkish War
- 9 Jacobite rising
- 10 Seven Years' War
- 11 French and Indian War
- 12 Gaspée Affair
- 13 American Revolutionary War
- 14 French Revolution
- 15 Napoleonic Wars
- 16 War of 1812
- 17 Finnish War
- 18 Greek War of Independence
- 19 July Revolution (1830)
- 20 Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
- 21 Texas War of Independence
- 22 Black Hawk War
- 23 Rebellions of 1837
- 24 Mexican-American War
- 25 Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849)
- 26 First Schleswig War (1848–1851)
- 27 Crimean War
- 28 Indian Mutiny (1857-1859)
- 29 Italian Unification
- 30 Expedition of the Thousand
- 31 Third Italian War of Independence
- 32 New Zealand Wars
- 33 American Civil War
- 34 French invasion of Mexico
- 35 January Uprising
- 36 Second Schleswig War
- 37 Fenian Raids
- 38 Expedition to Abyssinia (1867-68)
- 39 Indian Wars
- 40 Franco-Prussian War
- 41 Paris Commune
- 42 Third Anglo-Ashanti War (1873-1874)
- 43 Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
- 44 Second Anglo-Afghan War
- 45 Zulu War
- 46 War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
- 47 First Boer War (1880-81)
- 48 Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)
- 49 Nile Expedition (1884-85)
- 50 Northwest Rebellion
- 51 Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898)
- 52 Spanish-American War
- 53 Second Boer War (1899-1902)
- 54 Potemkin Mutiny
- 55 Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
- 56 Mexican Revolution
- 57 Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)
- 58 Balkan Wars (1912–1913)
- 59 World War I
- 60 October Revolution
- 61 Finnish Civil War
- 62 Russian Civil War
- 63 Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919)
- 64 German Revolution of 1918–19
- 65 Polish-Ukrainian War
- 66 Estonian War of Independence
- 67 Latvian War of Independence
- 68 Irish War of Independence
- 69 Polish–Soviet War
- 70 Silesian Uprisings
- 71 Lithuanian Wars of Independence
- 72 Turkish War of Independence
- 73 Greco-Turkish War
- 74 March on Rome
- 75 Northern Expedition
- 76 Nanchang Uprising
- 77 Chittagong armoury raid
- 78 Brazilian Revolution of 1930
- 79 Xi'an Incident
- 80 Battle of Lake Khasan
- 81 See also
- 82 References
Classical and Biblical eras
- Ramesses II (1303-1213 BC) - Egyptian Pharaoh who, as a young man, fought many battles with the Hittites and Shardana pirates and died aged 90.
- Aristodemus of Sparta (c. 530-479 BC)- The "Coward of Thermopylae" who was the only Spartan to survive the battle.
- Marcus Valerius Corvus (died 270 BC) - Led the Roman army in the First Samnite War and reputedly lived to the age of 100.
- King Masinissa (c. 240 or 238 BC - c. 148 BC) - Led the Numidians during the Second Punic War and died at the age of 90.
- Egill Skallagrímsson (910-990 AD) - Viking Berserker and last veteran of the Battle of Brunanburh.
- Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (1040-1118) - Last of the Norman noblemen proven to have fought alongside William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings.
- Thomas "Old Tom" Parr (died 1635) - English centenarian who claimed to have been born in 1483 and served under Henry VIII.
Early modern period
These cases, particularly with respect to the ages claimed by the veterans, cannot be verified as it was common in pre-industrialised societies for elders to exaggerate their age.
- Anton Grolekofsky (1671/1672–1785) — Polish soldier who lived in Sweden. Claimed to have fought in the Nine Years' War, Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743) and Polish-Swedish War.
- Andreas Nielsen (1660–1782) — Norwegian soldier. Claimed to be the last Scanian War veteran, to have had a long military career and seen many battles.
- Jacob Christiansen Drakenberg (1626–1772) — Norwegian sailor. Claimed to have fought for Frederick III of Denmark in the Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658) and again from 1675–1681 in the Scanian War.
- William Hiseland (1620–1732) — Wiltshire native. Fought for royalists in this war, Williamite War in Ireland and War of the Spanish Succession. Last survivor of Battle of Edgehill. Retired with rank of sergeant. For 80-year service to the king, he became one of the earliest admitted to Royal Hospital Chelsea.
- Petro Kalnyshevsky (1691–1803) — Last Zaporozhian Host. Also fought in 1735–1739 and 1768–1774 Russo-Turkish Wars (by which time he was an Ataman). The lifespan is highly unlikely, the birthdate is probably wrong.
- Jean Thurel (1699–1807) — Died in France. Served in War of the Austrian Succession and War of the Polish Succession, Seven Years' War and American Revolutionary War. Known as "oldest soldier of Europe."
- Petro Kalnyshevsky (1691–1803) — Last Zaporozhian Host. Last known living veteran of Great Northern War. Fought in 1735–1739 and 1768–1774 Russo-Turkish Wars (by which time he was an Ataman).
- Peter Grant (1714–1824) — Scottish Jacobite Rebel. Fought at Culloden, Falkirk Muir and Prestonpans.
- George Browne (1698–1792) — Irish nobleman. Supported Old Pretender. Later became mercenary in Russian army.
- Johann Heinrich Behrens (1735–1844) — Died in Germany.
- Paul François de Quelen de la Vauguyon (1746–1828) —Died in France.
- Henry Luttrell, 2nd Earl of Carhampton (1743–1821) — Died in Britain.
- Jonathan Benjamin (1738–1841) — Also fought in American Revolutionary War. Settled in Granville, Ohio in 1802.
- Robert Abercromby of Airthrey (1740–1827) — Died in Great Britain.
- Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière (1748–1822) — Died in Montreal, Quebec, British Empire.
- James Thompson (1733–1830) — Engineer in Frasers Highlanders, settled in Quebec City 
- Ephrim Bowen (1753-1841) - Colonial American pirate
- Daniel Bakeman (1759–1869) — Alleged veteran. Awarded pension via Congress, though no support of service has been located.
- John Gray (1764–1868) — Last verifiable veteran although period of service was too short for him for pension qualification.
- Samuel Downing (1764–1867)
- Lemuel Cook (1759–1866) — Last official veteran; honorable discharge signed by George Washington.
- Nicolas Savin (1768–1894) — Enlisted in 2nd Regiment of Hussars in 1798. 1768 figure proclaims he was approximately 126 at time of death. Later served under Napoleon and was awarded the Legion d'Honneur.
- Giovanni Battista Campanella (1776–1884) — France. Served in the Italian campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars and later in the 1812 Russian campaign.
- Arthur Dardenne (1776–1872) — France. Last surviving person to have taken part in the Storming of the Bastille. 
- Vincent Markiewicz (1795–1903) –- Last Polish veteran. Fought for Napoleon
- Jean Adrin (1797–1902) — Last French veteran. In 1912 there were three Polish men who claimed to have fought at Borodino, but it is unlikely they were real veterans due to lack of documentation and age ranges relatively high from 120 to 133.
- Geert Adriaans Boomgaard (1788–1899) — Last Dutch veteran and Europe's oldest man at the time of his death. He fought for France in the 33ème Régiment Léger.
- Louis Victor Baillot (1793–1898) — French veteran. Last Battle of Waterloo veteran. Saw action at siege of Hamburg.
- Pedro Martinez (1789–1898) — Last Battle of Trafalgar veteran. Served in Spanish navy on San Juan Nepomuceno.
- Leonard Meesters (1796–1896) — Last Belgian veteran. Fought for Napoleon.
- Josephine Mazurkewicz (1794–1896) — Last female veteran. Assistant surgeon in Napoleon's army. Later partook in Crimean War.
- Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) — Canada.
- Morris Shea (1795–1892) — 73rd Foot — Last Scottish veteran.
- Vasilij Nikolaevich Kochetkov (1785-1892) Russian Imperial Army. Enlisted 7 March 1811. Served in Grenadier Lifeguard Regiment at Borodino. Served 66 1/2 years until 12 October 1877 when wounded out of service in the Russian-Ottoman War.
- Joseph Sutherland (1789–1890) — Last English veteran. Royal Navy. Last British survivor of Trafalgar.
- Hiram Cronk (1800–1905) — United States Army.
- Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) — Canadian Army. Royal Navy. Napoleonic veteran.
- Carl Gustav Polviander (1784-1876) - Finland
July Revolution (1830)
Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)
- Philippe Demoulin (1809–1912) — Belgium
- Alfonso Steele (1817–1911) — Last veteran of Battle of San Jacinto.
- James L. Allen (1815–1901) — Texan courier at Alamo.
- Henry L. Riggs (1812–1911)
- François X. Matthieu (1818–1914) — Parti Patriote.
- Douglas Labalmondière (1815–1893) — Upper Canada Rebels.
Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849)
- John Stratford (1829–1932) –- British East India Company. Fought in the battles of Ramnagar, Challianwala, and Gujrat. Later served in the Anglo-Persian War as well as the Indian Mutiny.
First Schleswig War (1848–1851)
- Jørgen Jørgensen Birkholm (1829–1931) –- Last Danish veteran
- Charles Longden (1833–1938) — Last British survivor. Served in the Royal Engineers
- Yves Prigent (1833–1938) — French sailor.
- Charles Nathan (1834–1934) — Last French soldier. Saw action in Italy, Syria, Mexico and Franco-Prussian War.
- Edwin Hughes (1830–1927) — Last survivor of Charge of the Light Brigade.
- Edwin Bezar (1838–1936) — British soldier. Also last British soldier in New Zealand Wars.
- Sir Fitzroy Maclean, 10th Baronet (1835-1936) - possible last British Army officer (he died 9 months after Bezar).
- Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton (1845–1940). Claimed to have been a naval cadet on HMS Dragon during the siege of Sevastopol, earning two campaign medals before his twelfth birthday. There is no record of his having enrolled in the Royal Navy and at time of his visits to the Crimea (mid-May to mid-July 1856), nobody was entitled to the award of the British Crimea Medal. Later Colonel in British Army in Second Boer War.
- Timothy (c.1839–2004) —Ship's tortoise mascot of HMS Queen during the first bombardment of Sevastopol in the Crimean War (she was the last survivor of this war).
Indian Mutiny (1857-1859)
- Francois Ribet (1835–1936) — Died in France.
- Edwin Bezar (1838–1936), last British soldier. Settled in New Zealand.
|Name||Claimed birth date||Believed birth date||Death date||Status|
|Pleasant Crump||23 December 1847||31 December 1951||Verified|
|Felix M. Witkoski||5 January 1850||October 1854||3 February 1952||Dubious|
|Thomas Edwin Ross||19 July 1850||27 March 1952||Possible|
|Richard William Cumpston||23 May 1841||5 September 1952||Unknown|
|William Loudermilk||23 October 1847||April 1851||18 September 1952||Possible|
|William Jordan Bush||10 July 1845||July 1846||11 November 1952||Verified|
|Arnold Murray||10 June 1846||1842/1855||26 November 1952||Possible|
|William Townsend||12 April 1846||22 February 1953||Verified|
|William Albert Kinney||10 February 1843||10 February 1861||23 June 1953||Probable|
|Thomas Riddle||16 April 1846||1862||2 April 1954||Possible|
|William Lundy||18 January 1848||May 1860||1 September 1957||Debunked|
|John B. Salling||15 May 1846||15 May 1856||16 March 1959||Debunked|
|Walter Williams||14 November 1842||14 November 1854||19 December 1959||Debunked|
Most cases are questionable, though it should be remembered that many Confederate records were destroyed or lost to history. Unlike the U.S. military archives, the Confederate records had no official archive system after the war. However, for most of the cases investigated, the ages of the claimants alone were enough to prove their claim was false. Williams was generally acknowledged as the "last Confederate veteran" in 1950s newspapers. However, in September 1959 an exposé by The New York Times revealed that he was in fact born in 1854 in Itawamba County, Mississippi, and not 1842 as claimed. Still, since Salling and all the other claimants were dead, Williams was celebrated as the last Confederate veteran after his death on 20 December 1959.
Salling's own status is disputed. In 1991, William Marvel examined the claims of Salling and several other "last Civil War veterans" for a piece in the Civil War history magazine Blue & Gray. Marvel found census data that indicated Salling was born in 1858, not 1846. Although in 1900 Salling supplied a birthdate of March 1858, he appears to have been born around 1856, still too late to have served in the Confederate Army. The 1860 census lists him as 4 years old, and the 1870 census as 14. William Lundy is listed as 1 year old on the 1860 census, and from 1870 until 1930 he gave census marshals ages that reflected birthdates as early as 1853 and as late as 1860. He did not push his birthdate back to the 1840s until he applied for a Confederate pension from the state of Florida. In the same piece, Marvel confirmed Woolson's claim to be the last surviving Union veteran and asserted that Woolson was the last genuine Civil War veteran on either side. However, Marvel did not present research establishing who, among the several other Confederate claims from the 1950s, some of which appear to be genuine, was the real last Confederate veteran.
- Jules Pujos (1846–1942) — France.
- Francisco Arellano Zenteno (1842–1935) — Mexico. Fought at the battles of Puebla, La Carbonera and Tuxtepec. Had previously servied in the Reform War.
- Feliks Bartczuk (1846–1946) — Last veteran.
- Ove Henning Jacobsen (1841–1941) — Last Danish veteran.
Expedition to Abyssinia (1867-68)
- Adrian Jones (sculptor) (1845-1938) - served as veterinary officer, believed to be last British survivor. Also served in First Boer War and Nile Expedition.
- Josiah Allen (1800–1891) –- Enlisted at 14 to Serve in the Creek War. Later served in the War of 1812.
- David McCoy (1790–1895) — Fought in Tecumseh's War. Saw Chief Tecumseh die while fighting in the Battle of the Thames. Served in the War of 1812
- John Daw (1870–1965)
- William James Howard (1826–1924) –- fought in the Mariposa War in Yosemite Valley.
- Dewey Beard (1857–1955) — Native American from Lakota tribe. Last survivor of Battle of the Little Big Horn. Also fought at Wounded Knee.
- Hubert V. Eva (1869–1971) –- Last participant of the Battle of Sugar Point, last battle fought between Native Americans and the U.S. Army
- Frederick Fraske (1872–1973) –- Last U.S Army veteran
- Otto D. Van Norman (1876–1981) –- Served in the local posse during the Battle of Kelley Creek
- Seraphin Pruvost (1849–1955) — Last French veteran.
- Karl Glöckner (1845–1953) — Last German veteran.
- Adrien Lejeune (1847–1942) — Last Communard.
- Emile Chausse (1850–1941) — Left army and joined the communards in 1870.
- Antonin Desfarges (1851–1941) — Last Communard député.
Third Anglo-Ashanti War (1873-1874)
- Harry Figg (1855-1953) - possible last British service veteran, died in Australia. Also served in First Boer War and Second Boer War. 
- Konstantin Vikent'evich Hrutskij (1855-1967) — Preobrazhenskij Lifeguard Regiment 
- Alfred Hawker (1858-1962) - last British Army survivor
- Charles Wallace Warden (died 1953) — Transferred to First Foot in 1874.
- Frank Bourne (1854–1945) — Last survivor of Rorke's Drift.
War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
First Boer War (1880-81)
- Harry Figg (1855-1953) - possibly last British Army survivor of this war, fought at Majuba Hill and Laing's Nek. (Previously served 1873 Anglo-Ashanti War.)
Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)
Nile Expedition (1884-85)
Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898)
- Juan Fajardo Vega (1881–1990) - Cuban Liberation Army. Later served in the 1912 Negro Rebellion and the Cuban Revolution.
- Jones Morgan (1882–1993)
- Nathan E. Cook (1885–1992)
- Aurelio Diaz Campillo (1878–1989) –-Spain
Second Boer War (1899-1902)
- Pieter Arnoldus Krueler (1885–1986) — Boer army. Later served in WWI, Spanish Civil War, WWII and was a mercenary in the Congo Crisis.
- Ivan Beshoff (1885–1987) — Sailor on Russian battleship Potemkin. Fled to Ireland and opened a fish and chips shop.
Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
- Juan Carlos Caballero Vega (1900–2010) — Pancho Villa's driver.
- Feliciano Mejia (1899–2008) — Last living member of Emiliano Zapata's Ejército Libertador del Sur.
- Antonio Gómez Delgado (1900–2007) — Last living member of Pancho Villa's División del Norte
- Teodoro Garcia (1889–1999) — Last Federal soldier.
Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)
- Nunzio Luigi Ciannilli (1889–1992) –- Italian Colonial Forces. Also served in World War I 
Balkan Wars (1912–1913)
- Hüseyin Kaçmaz (1884–1994) –- Ottoman Army. Also served in WWI.
- Danilo Dajković (1895–1993) –- Montenegrin Army. Also served in WWI.
- Henry Allingham (1896–2009) — Britain. Last airman.
- Harry Patch (1898–2009) — Britain. Last soldier to fight in the trenches.
- Claude Choules (1901–2011) — Britain. Last combat veteran. Served in the Royal Navy.
- Florence Green (1901–2012) — Britain. Last living veteran. Served as waitress in Women's Royal Air Force.
- Boris Gudz (1902–2006) — Red Army. Also fought in October Revolution.
- Nikolai Fyodorov (1901–2003) — White Army.
Veterans of Allied military intervention forces:
- Harold Edwin Radford (1897–2003) - last known Canadian veteran, was stationed at Vladivostok.
- Jean Piry (1896–2003) - last known French Army veteran
- Frank William Ivers (1902–2003) - last known British veteran, served in Royal Navy off north Russia.
- Harold Gunnes (1899-2003) - last US Navy veteran of the Polar Bear Expedition. Saw action against the Bolsheviks on USS Olympia (C-6) in 1918.
- Warren V. Hileman (1901-2005) - last US Army veteran of Polar Bear Expedition.
- Jan Rzepa (1899–2005) — Last Polish fighter.
- Ants Ilus (1901–2006) — Died in Estonia.
- Karl Jaanus (1899–2000) — Last surviving Cross of Liberty recipient awarded during war.
- Arnolds Hofmanis (1900–2006) — Died in Tukums, Latvia.
- Arvīds Lauris (1901–2003) — Last surviving Order of Lāčplēsis recipient awarded during war.
- Veysel Turan (1901–2007) — Turkey
- Vasco Bruttomesso (1903–2009)
- Sergey Leonidovich Sokolov (1911–2012) — Soviet Union
- Last surviving United States war veterans
- List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War
- List of centenarians (military commanders)
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- Polston, Mike. "WILLIAM LOUDERMILK, THE LAST CONFEDERATE". Couch Genealogy. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- 'George Washington Loudermilk's Ancestors." Aline Loudermilk Jones compiled this massive genealogy 2007. It is online. The 1930 census also gives him a birth date consistent with late 1847. Between 1949 and his death in 1952 three Arkansas newspapers and four nation wide papers and magazines gave his age as being consistent with a birth date of late 1847 and 'The New York Times' was specific. The stories were not syndicated.
- 1900 US Census gives age as 49. The censuses give Loudermilk a wide range of ages, some make him younger than a decade before, other age him nineteen years in ten
- "Last Surviving Confederate Veterans". Genealogy Trails. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- William Joshua Bush shows up as enlisted in Company B Ramah Guards, 14th Georgia Infantry where he served form July 1861 to his discharge that October. His service with the Georgia State Militia from October 1864 to their surrender in late April 1865 was also verified by the Georgia State Pensions in 1936 (see http://cdm.sos. state ga.us 2011/cdm/compoundobject collection/Testapps/id/149449/rec/1)apart from the muster rolls the adjutant-general verified his other documents. These include his soldier's card, a pay slip and his 1861 discharge. Between them these documents bear five different signatures. Bush may have also served in the 66th Georgia between August 1863 and October 1864.
- "ARNOLD MURRAY Confederate Veteran living in 1950". Sons of Confederate Veterans. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- "ARNOLD MURRAY Confederate Veteran living in 1950." Posted J. Block August 5th 2005. This article mentions the stated 1854/1855 census birthdate - and also the 1920 census birthdate for 1847-1848. The censuses of 1910 1930 and 1940 also give 1840s birthdates. Life magazine in the May 30th issue on page 9 gives his age as 101. In The South's Last Boys in Gray Professor J S. Hoar lists twenty-two known enlisted Confederates under eleven. See pp1733-1734.
- Find a Grave "Arnold Murray 1846-1952" has a civil War era photo of Arnold Murray as a young soldier. TennRebGirl.com 3/4/14 has him in a group photo at a 1913 Confederate reunion. In the 1930 census he affirmed both Civil War service and a birthdate in the later 1840s.
- Find A grave
- Townsend's 1861 enlistment in Company B. 27th Louisiana Infantry is recorded on their muster roll in Andrew B. Booth's Military Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands. and also in the LouisianaInfantryDataBase. ancestry.com has six primary source documents in his name; an 1862 sickness furlough, a clothing allocation, a Vicksburg prisoner of war roll where he is listed and his signed parole.
- In Professor Jay S. Hoar's The South's Last Boy's in Gray(page 1700) he states that Kiney lied about his age by three years so as to be old enough to enlist. The 1850 census gives his age as four and his birthplace as Bracken County Kentucky. The first names of his parents in that document match those in a 1991 letter to Professor Hoar written by Kiney's granddaughter.
- This birthdate comes from the February 1991 article "The Great Imposters" by William Marvel and is also in the 1900 and 1920 censuses for a man who spells his name Kinney. This birthdate also appears in a March 1920 marriage record for William A. Kiney of Indianapolis. Kiney lived in this city. These documents are discussed in the entry "William A. Kiney" in Find A Grave Forum.
- Kiney has three primary source records of his enlistments apart from records kept by his family. In Official Records it states that he was in 5th Regiment Kentucky Mounted Infantry. This enlistment is also mentioned in Kentucky Adjutant General's Report - Confederate Volunteers 1861-1865, Vol.1 page 254 entry 80, where Kiney's enlistment is dated on November 1st 1861. Wikipedia's entry on this unit states that they were disbanded in October 1862 and the troops were given a three way choice, discharge, reenlistment or joining the Kentucky Cavalry. Kiney went with the last option as he enlisted in Company l of Diamond's 10th Kentucky Cavalry on 18th November 1863. (This extract is from the book The 10th Kentucky Cavalry CSA by John B. Wells & Jim Pritchard. See Roster of Diamond's 10th Kentucky Cavalry CSA www.potterflats.com10thKyhtml) Professor Hoare's segment on Kiney in The South's Last Boys in Gray reproduces an excerpt of Lloyd B. Walton's article "He's a Man Even at 109" from The Indianapolis Times September 14th 1952. Here Kiney speaks of his Civil War experience, recalling that he was in most of the war and that Shiloh was his toughest fight. Find a Graveshows his tombstone with the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry inscribed as his unit. They are not known to have had a muster roll.
- This information comes from the 1850 census. Later censuses give a wide range of dates.
- 1910 Census gives age as 48
- Thomas Evans Riddle is enlisted under his full name in the reproduced muster roll in Terry D. Lowry's History of the 22nd Virginia Infantry. He is also listed as just Thomas Riddle and in the same company in John C. Wayland's Muster Roll of Confederate Soldiers. He apparently transferred regiments for in Official Recordshe appears on the muster roll of Company I 33rd Virginia Infantry. John B. Sheets of that same company kept a diary where Thomas Riddle is mentioned on February 26th 1863. Against this evidence is the fact that Lowry cautions against believing Riddle and that some of Riddle's descendants warn that due to census information, he could not have served in the Civil War. See their website "Our Family" by David Autry.
- Marvel, William (1991). The great imposters VIII (3). Columbus: Blue and Gray. pp. 32–33.
- Associated Press (20 December 1959). "Reputed Last Civil War Veteran Dies in Texas After Long Illness: Walter Williams Put His Age at 117 – Tributes Note the End of an Era". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Murio Ayer el Ultimo Veterano del 5 de Mayo" (PDF) (in Spanish). Gobierno Municipal de Puebla. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Jakubik, Marian; Kołodziejczyk, Arkadiusz (2002). Żołnierska danina życia od 1657 roku (in Polish). IHAP. p. 158. ISBN 978-83-87088-59-0.
- Hamilton, Bill (27 November 2002). "What’s Behind The Hammond Gate?". Bill Hamilton’s Tantramar Flashback. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
-  Inventory of British National Army Museum which describes one of its archives as "Press Cutting from: Evening Standard, 11 Feb 1936; detailing experiences of Capt Adrian Jones, thought to be the last survivor of the Abyssinian Campaign; associated with Abyssinia (1867-1868)"
- "Josiah Allen". Rootsweb. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "David McCoy (1790 - 1895)". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Chicago Corral of the Westerners (1965). Westerners brand book, Volumes 22-25. Siedlce. p. 24.
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- Lawson, Michael L.; Rosier, Paul C. (2007). Little Bighorn: Winning the Battle, Losing the War. Infobase Publishing. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-7910-9347-4.
- "Colonel Hubert V. Eva". ZenithCity.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
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- Bowd, Gavin (2007). Le dernier communard: Adrien Lejeune (in French). Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-02974-3.
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- "HISTORIA DE LA UNIÓN DE OFICIALES EN RETIRO DE LA DEFENSA NACIONAL" (in Spanish). UNOFAR. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "En memoria de los veteranos" (in Spanish). El Austral de la Araucania. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "LAST SURVIVOR OF EGYPTIAN WAR". The Glasgow Herald. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Mlazgar, Brian. "JACKSON, WILLIAM HENRY (1861–1952)". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Juan Fajardo Vega" (in Spanish). EcuRed.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "La hija del último mambí cumplió 101 años" (in Spanish). CubaDebate.com. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
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- "Juan Carlos Caballero Vega". The Daily Telegraph. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
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- Servin, Fernando Camacho (13 February 2005). "De nada sirvió lo que se hizo en la Revolución" (in Spanish). La Jornada. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
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- "ÇANAKKALE ZAFERİ'NİN 96. YIL DÖNÜMÜ -ETKİNLİKLER KAPSAMINDA İSTİKLAL GAZİSİ HÜSEYİN KAÇMAZ'IN OĞLU TURGUT KAÇMAZ'IN "SAKLI HATIRALAR" FOTOĞRAF SERGİSİ AÇILDI" (in Turkish). Haber3. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
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- Meeting last surviving revolutionary
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