List of monarchs of Afghanistan

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Monarchy of Afghanistan
Former Monarchy
Emblem of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg
State Emblem
King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan in 1963.jpg
Mohammed Zahir Shah
First monarch Mirwais Hotak
Last monarch Mohammed Zahir Shah
Style His Majesty
Official residence
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 1709
Monarchy ended 17 July 1973
Current pretender(s) Ahmad Shah Khan

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak and his Afghan tribal chiefs from Kandahar organized themselves and successfully freed their land from Persian rule.[1] Mirwais built a large fortress for himself and turned the town of Kandahar to serve as the capital of the Hotaki Empire.[2][3] After a long series of wars, this empire was eventually replaced by the Durrani Afghan Empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747.[4][5] Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as "the Father of the Nation",[6][7][8] Mirwais Hotak as "the Grandfather" and Mohammed Zahir Shah as the last King of Afghanistan.

Hotaki Empire (1709–1738)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Mirwais Hotak
  • Ghafar Hotak
1673 – 1715 1709 1715 Hotak Mirwais Hotak of Afghanistan
Abdul Aziz Hotak
? – 1717 1715 1717 Brother of Mirwais Hotak Hotak Abdul Aziz Hotak of Afghanistan
Mahmud Hotaki
1697 – 22 April 1725 1717 22 April 1725 Son of Mirwais Hotak Hotak Mahmud Hotaki of Afghanistan
Ashraf Hotaki
? – 1730 22 April 1725 1730 Nephew of Mirwais Hotak Hotak Ashraf Hotaki of Afghanistan
Hussain Hotaki
? – 1738 22 April 1725 24 March 1738 Son of Mirwais Hotak Hotak Hussain Hotaki of Afghanistan

Durrani Empire (1747–1823)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ahmad Shah Durrani
  • the Father of the Nation
1722 – 16 October 1772 1747 16 October 1772 Durrani Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Timur Shah Durrani
1748 – 18 May 1793 16 October 1772 18 May 1793 Son of Ahmad Shah Durrani Durrani Timur Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Zaman Shah Durrani
1770–1844 18 May 1793 25 July 1801
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Zaman Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
1769 – 18 April 1829 25 July 1801 13 July 1803
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Mahmud Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Shuja Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842 13 July 1803 3 May 1809
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
1769 – 18 April 1829 3 May 1809 1818
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Mahmud Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Ali Shah Durrani
? – ? 1818 1819
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Ali Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Ayub Shah Durrani
? – 1 October 1837 1819 1823
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Ayub Shah Durrani of Afghanistan

Emirate of Afghanistan (1823–1926)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Dost Mohammad Khan
(1st reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 1863 1823 2 August 1839
(deposed)
Son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Shuja Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
  • Shah Shujah
4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842 7 August 1839 5 April 1842 Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan
Akbar Khan
1816–1845 5 April 1842 1845 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai Akbar Khan of Afghanistan
Dost Mohammad Khan
(2nd reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 1863 1845 9 June 1863 Son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(1st reign)
1825 – 21 February 1879 9 June 1863 1865
(deposed)
Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai Sher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Afzal Khan
1811 – 7 October 1867 1865 7 October 1867 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai Mohammad Afzal Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Azam Khan
? – 21 February 1868 7 October 1867 21 February 1868 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai Mohammad Azam Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(2nd reign)
1825 – 21 February 1879 7 October 1868 21 February 1879 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai Sher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan
1849 – 15 November 1923 21 February 1879 12 October 1879
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali Khan Barakzai Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Ayub Khan
1857 – 7 April 1914 12 October 1879 31 May 1880
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali Khan Barakzai Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Abdur Rahman Khan
1840/44 – 1 October 1901 31 May 1880 1 October 1901 Son of Mohammad Afzal Khan Barakzai Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan
Habibullah Khan
3 June 1872 – 20 February 1919 1 October 1901 20 February 1919 Son of Abdur Rahman Khan Barakzai Habibullah Khan of Afghanistan
Nasrullah Khan
1874–1920 20 February 1919 28 February 1919
(deposed)
Son of Abdur Rahman Khan Barakzai Nasrullah Khan of Afghanistan
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 1960 28 February 1919 9 June 1926 Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 1960 9 June 1926 14 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan
Inayatullah Khan
20 October 1888 – 12 August 1946 14 January 1929 17 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai Inayatullah Khan of Afghanistan
Habibullah Kalakani
1890 – 3 November 1929 17 January 1929 16 October 1929
(deposed)
Non-Dynastic Habibullah Kalakani of Afghanistan
Mohammed Nadir Shah
9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933 16 October 1929 8 November 1933 Great-nephew of Dost Mohammed Khan Barakzai Mohammed Nadir Shah of Afghanistan
Mohammed Zahir Shah
15 October 1914 – 23 July 2007 8 November 1933 17 July 1973
(deposed)
Son of Mohammed Nadir Shah Barakzai Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan

Royal Standard[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  2. ^ Otfinoski, Steven (2004). Afghanistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 0-8160-5056-2. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  3. ^ Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  4. ^ "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-10-23. "Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747." 
  5. ^ "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree and others. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  6. ^ Ganḍā, Singh (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Asia Pub. House. p. 457. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  7. ^ "Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  8. ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.