List of lemur species

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Ring-tailed lemur resting with hands on wooden branch
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is one of 105 recognized species and subspecies of lemur found only in Madagascar.

Lemurs are strepsirrhine primates, all species of which are endemic to Madagascar. They include the smallest primate in the world, Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs 30 grams (1.1 oz), and range up to the size of the indri, which can weigh as much as 9.5 kilograms (21 lb). However, recently extinct species grew much larger. As of 2010, five families, 15 genera, and 101 species and subspecies of lemur were formally recognized.[1] Of the 101 species and subspecies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classified eight as Critically Endangered, 18 as Endangered, 15 as Vulnerable, four as Near Threatened, eight as Least Concern and 41 as Data Deficient; seven were yet to be evaluated.[2] From 2000 through 2008, 39 new species were described and nine other taxa resurrected.[3] By 2014, the number of species and subspecies recognized had increased to 105; of these, the IUCN classified 24 as Critically Endangered, 49 as Endangered, 20 as Vulnerable, three as Near Threatened, three as Least Concern and four as Data Deficient; two were yet to be evaluated.

The number of lemur species is likely to continue growing in the coming years, as field studies, cytogenetic and molecular genetic research continues.[3] There is not complete agreement over the latest revisions to lemur taxonomy, with some experts preferring an estimated 50 lemur species.[4] The debates are likely to continue, as some scholars label the explosive growth of species numbers as taxonomic inflation. In many cases, classifications will ultimately depend upon which species concept is used.[5] In the case of the lemurs of Madagascar, which have suffered extensively from deforestation and habitat fragmentation, nearly 25% of all species are either Endangered or Critically Endangered, most have yet to be extensively studied, and nearly all populations are in decline. For these reasons, taxonomists and conservationists favor splitting them into separate species to develop an effective strategy for the conservation of the full range of lemur diversity.[3] Implicitly, this means that full species status will help grant genetically distinct populations added environmental protection.

At least 17 species and eight genera are believed to have become extinct in the 2,000 years since humans first arrived in Madagascar.[6][7] All known extinct species were large, ranging in weight from 10 to 200 kg (22 to 441 lb). The largest known subfossil lemur was Archaeoindris fontoynonti, a giant sloth lemur, which weighed more than a modern female gorilla. The extinction of the largest lemurs is often attributed to predation by humans and possibly habitat destruction.[6] Since all extinct lemurs were not only large (and thus ideal prey species), but also slow-moving (and thus more vulnerable to human predation), their presumably slow-reproducing and low-density populations were least likely to survive the introduction of humans.[6] Gradual changes in climate have also been blamed, and may have played a minor role; however since the largest lemurs also survived the climatic changes from previous ice ages and only disappeared following the arrival of humans, it is unlikely that climatic change was largely responsible.[6]

There is strong evidence of extensive declines in extant populations since the introductions of humans, particularly among the larger and more specialized lemurs.[6] As long as habitats continue to shrink, degrade and fragment, extinctions are likely to continue.

Taxonomic classification[edit]

Main article: Taxonomy of lemurs

Lemurs are classified under eight families, three of which are extinct:

Three images of silky sifakas: First (left) of mother clinging vertically to small tree with two infants holding on to her chest; second (upper right) of adult turning head to look at camera; and third (bottom right) of adult beginning leap from one tree to another, with one hand extended in the direction it is moving
The silky sifaka, one of the most endangered primates in the world.
Mouse lemur perched on branch
Mouse lemurs are the smallest primates in the world.
Bamboo lemur perched on a horizontal piece of bamboo
As of 2014 there are 5 species and 3 subspecies of bamboo lemurs recognized.

The placement of lemurs within the order Strepsirrhini is currently under debate, although both sides agree upon the same phylogenetic tree.[8]

Key[edit]

Scientific name Latin binomial name, or Latin name, of the species
Common name Common name of the species, per Wilson, et al. Mammal Species of the World (2005) or Mittermeier, et al. "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar" (2008)
Family Family within the Suborder Strepsirrhini to which the species belongs
Classified Date in which the species was formally described and classified, as well as the binomial authority on the species
Average size Average size of adult members of the species, in metric and English weight units
Estimated size Estimated Average size of adult members of the extinct species
Conservation status Conservation status of the species, per IUCN as of 2008
Extinction date Year of extinction or estimated date range for subfossil species, in BCE/CE

Extant species[edit]

Main article: Lemur

All lemurs belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini within the order Primates. The 101 extant species and subspecies are divided among 5 families and 15 genera. They range in weight from 30 g (1.1 oz) (Madame Berthe's mouse lemur) to as much as 9.5 kg (21 lb) (indri). Most are highly arboreal and activity patterns range widely from nocturnal to diurnal to cathemeral. Having diversified over millions of years to fill every ecological niche, diets also vary widely, though fruit, leaves, and insects make up the majority of the diet for most species.

Family: Cheirogaleidae[edit]

Family Cheirogaleidae consists of the mouse lemurs (smallest of all primates), the dwarf lemurs, and the fork-marked lemurs and their allies. There are 34 extant species.

Gray mouse lemur perched on a wood rod in a wire cage
The gray mouse lemur is one of as many as 21 tiny, nocturnal mouse lemur species.
Art depicting two fork-marked lemurs, one walking on a branch and the other poking out from a tree in the background
Fork-marked lemurs are the largest of the cheirogaleids.
Scientific name Common name Classified Average size Conservation status References
Allocebus trichotis Hairy-eared dwarf lemur 1875, Günther 65–90 g (2.3–3.2 oz) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][9][10][11]
Cheirogaleus crossleyi Furry-eared dwarf lemur 1870, A. Grandidier 250–500 g (8.8–17.6 oz)[d] Status none DD.svg

Data Deficient

[3][12][13][14][15]
Cheirogaleus lavasoensis Lavasoa dwarf lemur 2013, Thiele et al. 300 g (11 oz) Not Evaluated [16]
Cheirogaleus major Greater dwarf lemur 1812, É. Geoffroy 350–400 g (12–14 oz) Status none DD.svg

Data Deficient

[3][17][18][19]
Cheirogaleus medius Fat-tailed dwarf lemur 1812, É. Geoffroy 120–270 g (4.2–9.5 oz) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

[3][20][21][22]
Cheirogaleus minusculus Lesser iron-gray dwarf lemur 2000, Groves unknown Status none DD.svg

Data Deficient

[3][23][24][25]
Cheirogaleus sibreei Sibree's dwarf lemur 1896, Forsyth Major unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][26][27][28]
Microcebus arnholdi Arnhold's mouse lemur 2008, E. Lewis, Jr. et al. 49.7 g (1.75 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[29]
Microcebus berthae Madame Berthe's mouse lemur 2000, Rasoloarison et al. 30 g (1.1 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][30][31][32]
Microcebus bongolavensis Bongolava mouse lemur 2007, Olivieri et al. 54 g (1.9 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][33][34]
Microcebus danfossi Danfoss' mouse lemur 2007, Olivieri et al. 63 g (2.2 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][35][36]
Microcebus gerpi Gerp's mouse lemur 2012, Radespiel et al. 68 g (2.4 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[37]
Microcebus griseorufus Reddish-gray mouse lemur 1910, Kollman 46–79 g (1.6–2.8 oz) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

[3][38][39][40]
Microcebus jollyae Jolly's mouse lemur 2006, Louis et al. 60 g (2.1 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][41]
Microcebus lehilahytsara Goodman's mouse lemur 2005, Roos and Kappeler 45–48 g (1.6–1.7 oz) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][42][43]
Microcebus macarthurii MacArthur's mouse lemur 2008, Radespiel et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3]
Microcebus marohita Marohita mouse lemur 2013, Rasoloarison et al. 89 g (3.1 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[44]
Microcebus mamiratra Claire's mouse lemur 2006, Andriantompohavana et al. 61 g (2.2 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][45][46]
Microcebus margotmarshae Margot Marsh's mouse lemur 2006, Andriantompohavana et al. 41 g (1.4 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[29]
Microcebus mittermeieri Mittermeier's mouse lemur 2006, Louis et al. 40 g (1.4 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][47]
Microcebus murinus Gray mouse lemur 1777, Miller 60 g (2.1 oz) Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

Least Concern

[3][48][49][50]
Microcebus myoxinus Pygmy mouse lemur 1852, Peters 43–55 g (1.5–1.9 oz) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][51][52][53]
Microcebus ravelobensis Golden-brown mouse lemur 1998, Zimmerman et al. 56–87 g (2.0–3.1 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][54][55][56]
Microcebus rufus Brown mouse lemur 1834, É. Geoffroy 40–50 g (1.4–1.8 oz) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][57][58][59]
Microcebus sambiranensis Sambirano mouse lemur 2000, Rasoloarison et al. 38–50 g (1.3–1.8 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][60][61][62]
Microcebus simmonsi Simmons' mouse lemur 2006, Louis et al. 78 g (2.8 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][63]
Microcebus tanosi Anosy mouse lemur 2013, Rasoloarison et al. unknown Not Evaluated [44]
Microcebus tavaratra Northern rufous mouse lemur 2000, Rasoloarison et al. 45–77 g (1.6–2.7 oz) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][64][65][66]
Mirza coquereli Coquerel's giant mouse lemur 1867, A. Grandidier 300–320 g (11–11 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][67][68][69]
Mirza zaza Northern giant mouse lemur 2005, Kappeler & Roos 287–299 g (10.1–10.5 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][70][71]
Phaner electromontis Amber Mountain fork-marked lemur 1991, Groves and Tattersall 350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][72][73][74][75]
Phaner furcifer Masoala fork-marked lemur 1839, Blainville 350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][72][76][77][78]
Phaner pallescens Pale fork-marked lemur 1991, Groves and Tattersall 330 g (12 oz) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][79][80][81]
Phaner parienti Pariente's fork-marked lemur 1991, Groves and Tattersall 350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][72][73][82][83]


Family: Lemuridae[edit]

Family Lemuridae consists of the ring-tailed lemur, the brown lemurs, the bamboo lemurs and the ruffed lemurs. There are 21 extant species and six subspecies.

Two red-fronted lemurs wrapped around each other on a tree limb
The red-fronted lemur, like other brown lemurs, is sexually dichromatic (the sexes have different colorations).
Close-up of five ring-tailed lemurs, four shown clearly; 2 grooming, 1 sunning, and 1 looking at the camera
The ring-tailed lemur is highly social and is the most popularly known lemur species.
Black-and-white ruffed lemur hanging by its rear feet from a rope, holding some leaves in its hands while looking at the camera
Ruffed lemurs are the largest of the extant lemurids.
Scientific name Common name Classified Average size Conservation status References
Eulemur albifrons White-fronted brown lemur 1796, É. Geoffroy 2.2–2.6 kg (4.9–5.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][84][85][86]
Eulemur cinereiceps[b] Gray-headed lemur 1890, Grandidier and Milne-Edwards 2–2.5 kg (4.4–5.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][87][88][89]
Eulemur collaris Collared brown lemur 1812, É. Geoffroy 2.25–2.5 kg (5.0–5.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][90][91][92]
Eulemur coronatus Crowned lemur 1842, Gray 1.1–1.3 kg (2.4–2.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][93][94][95]
Eulemur flavifrons Blue-eyed black lemur 1867, Gray 1.8–1.9 kg (4.0–4.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][96][97]
Eulemur fulvus Common brown lemur 1812, É. Geoffroy 2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb) Status iucn3.1 NT.svg

Near Threatened

[3][98][99][100]
Eulemur macaco Black lemur 1766, Linnaeus 2–2.9 kg (4.4–6.4 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][101][102][103]
Eulemur mongoz Mongoose lemur 1766, Linnaeus 1.1–1.6 kg (2.4–3.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][104][105][106]
Eulemur rubriventer Red-bellied lemur 1850, I. Geoffroy 1.6–2.4 kg (3.5–5.3 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][107][108][109]
Eulemur rufifrons[a] Red-fronted lemur 1833, Bennett 2.2–2.3 kg (4.9–5.1 lb) Status iucn3.1 NT.svg

Near Threatened

[3][110][111]
Eulemur rufus[a] Red lemur 1799, Audebert 2.2–2.3 kg (4.9–5.1 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][112]
Eulemur sanfordi Sanford's brown lemur 1932, Archbold 1.8–1.9 kg (4.0–4.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][113][114][115]
Hapalemur alaotrensis Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur 1975, Rumpler 1.1–1.4 kg (2.4–3.1 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][116][117][118]
Hapalemur aureus Golden bamboo lemur 1987, Meier et al. 1.3–1.7 kg (2.9–3.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][119][120][121]
Hapalemur griseus gilberti Beanamalao bamboo lemur 2007, Rabarivola et al. 0.967 kg (2.13 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[122][123]
Hapalemur griseus griseus Eastern lesser bamboo lemur 1795, Link 0.7–1 kg (1.5–2.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][106][124][125]
Hapalemur griseus ranomafanensis Ranomafana bamboo lemur 2007, Rabarivola et al. 0.7–0.85 kg (1.5–1.9 lb) Status none DD.svg

Data Deficient

[126]
Hapalemur meridionalis Southern lesser bamboo lemur 1987, Warter, et al. 0.75–1.05 kg (1.7–2.3 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][127][128][129][130]
Hapalemur occidentalis Western lesser bamboo lemur 1975, Rumpler 1 kg (2.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][131][132][133]
Lemur catta Ring-tailed lemur 1756, Linnaeus 2.3–3.5 kg (5.1–7.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][134][135][136]
Prolemur simus Greater bamboo lemur 1871, Gray 2.2–2.5 kg (4.9–5.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][137][138][139]
Varecia rubra Red ruffed lemur 1812, É. Geoffroy 3.3–3.6 kg (7.3–7.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][140][141][142]
Varecia variegata editorum Southern black-and-white ruffed lemur 1953, Osman Hill 3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][143][144][145]
Varecia variegata subcincta White-belted black-and-white ruffed lemur 1833, A. Smith 3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][146][147][148]
Varecia variegata variegata Black-and-white ruffed lemur 1792, Kerr 3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][149][150][151]


Family: Lepilemuridae[edit]

Family Lepilemuridae consists solely of the sportive lemurs. As of 2014, there are 26 extant species.

Sahamalaza sportive lemur clinging to the side of a dead tree
The Sahamalaza sportive lemur is one of 26 species of sportive lemur.
Scientific name Common name Classified Average size Conservation status References
Lepilemur aeeclis Antafia sportive lemur 2006, Andriaholinirina et al. 0.765–0.97 kg (1.69–2.14 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][152][153]
Lepilemur ahmansonorum Ahmanson's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.61 kg (1.3 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][154][155]
Lepilemur ankaranensis Ankarana sportive lemur 1975, Rumpler & Albignac 0.75 kg (1.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][156][157][158]
Lepilemur betsileo Betsileo sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 1.15 kg (2.5 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][159][160]
Lepilemur dorsalis Gray-backed sportive lemur 1870, Gray 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][161][162][163]
Lepilemur edwardsi Milne-Edwards' sportive lemur 1894, Forsyth Major 1 kg (2.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][164][165][166]
Lepilemur fleuretae Fleurete's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.98 kg (2.2 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][167][168]
Lepilemur grewcockorum Grewcock's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.78 kg (1.7 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][169][170]
Lepilemur hollandorum Holland's sportive lemur 2009, Ramaromilanto et al. 0.99 kg (2.2 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[171]
Lepilemur hubbardorum Hubbard's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.99 kg (2.2 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][172][173]
Lepilemur jamesorum James' sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.78 kg (1.7 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][174][175]
Lepilemur leucopus White-footed sportive lemur 1894, Forsyth Major 0.6 kg (1.3 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][176][177][178]
Lepilemur microdon Small-toothed sportive lemur 1894, Forsyth Major 0.8–1.0 kg (1.8–2.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][179][180][181]
Lepilemur milanoii Daraina sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.72 kg (1.6 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][182][183]
Lepilemur mittermeieri Mittermeier's sportive lemur 2006, Rabarivola et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][184]
Lepilemur mustelinus Weasel sportive lemur 1851, I. Geoffroy 1 kg (2.2 lb) Status iucn3.1 NT.svg

Near Threatened

[3][185][186][187]
Lepilemur otto Otto's sportive lemur 2007, Craul et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][188]
Lepilemur petteri Petter's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.63 kg (1.4 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][189][190]
Lepilemur randrianasoloi Randrianasolo's sportive lemur 2006, Andriaholinirina et al. 0.66–0.88 kg (1.5–1.9 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][191][192]
Lepilemur ruficaudatus Red-tailed sportive lemur 1867, A. Grandidier 0.76–0.95 kg (1.7–2.1 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][164][193][194]
Lepilemur sahamalazensis Sahamalaza sportive lemur 2006, Andriaholinirina et al. 0.687–0.892 kg (1.51–1.97 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][195][196]
Lepilemur scottorum Scott's sportive lemur 2008, Lei et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3]
Lepilemur seali Seal's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.95 kg (2.1 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][197][198]
Lepilemur septentrionalis Northern sportive lemur 1975, Rumpler & Albignac 0.75 kg (1.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][199][200][201]
Lepilemur tymerlachsonorum Hawks' sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.88 kg (1.9 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][202][203]
Lepilemur wrightae Wright's sportive lemur 2006, Louis, Jr. et al. 0.95 kg (2.1 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][204][205]


Family: Indriidae[edit]

Family Indriidae consists of the indri (the largest extant lemur), the woolly lemurs and the sifakas. There are 19 extant species.

Indri sitting on a tree branch resting, with head placed on its knee
The indri is one of the two largest extant lemurs.
Sifaka perched in the "V" of a young tree
Sifakas are vertical clingers and jumpers and are represented by 9 species.
Scientific name Common name Classified Average size Conservation status References
Avahi betsileo Betsileo woolly lemur 2007, Andriantompohavana et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][206]
Avahi cleesei Cleese's woolly lemur 2005, Thalmann and Geissmann 0.83 kg (1.8 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][207][208]
Avahi laniger Eastern woolly lemur 1788, Gmelin 0.9–1.3 kg (2.0–2.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][209][210][211]
Avahi meridionalis Southern woolly lemur 2006, Zaramody et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][212]
Avahi mooreorum Moore's woolly lemur 2008, Lei et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3]
Avahi occidentalis Western woolly lemur 1898, von Lorenz-Liburnau 0.7–0.9 kg (1.5–2.0 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][213][214][215]
Avahi peyrierasi Peyrieras' woolly lemur 2006, Zaramody et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][216]
Avahi ramanantsoavani Ramanantsoavana's woolly lemur 2006, Zaramody et al. unknown Status iucn3.1 VU.svg

Vulnerable

[3][217]
Avahi unicolor Sambirano woolly lemur 2000, Thalmann and Geissmann 0.7–1 kg (1.5–2.2 lb)[d] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][218][219][220][221]
Indri indri Indri 1788, Gmelin 6–9.5 kg (13–21 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][222][223][224]
Propithecus candidus Silky sifaka 1871, A. Grandidier 5–6 kg (11–13 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][225][226][227]
Propithecus coquereli Coquerel's sifaka 1867, A. Grandidier 3.7–4.3 kg (8.2–9.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][228][229][230]
Propithecus coronatus Crowned sifaka 1871, Milne-Edwards 3.5–4.3 kg (7.7–9.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][231][232][233]
Propithecus deckenii Von der Decken's sifaka 1870, A. Grandidier 3–4.5 kg (6.6–9.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][234][235][236]
Propithecus diadema Diademed sifaka 1832, Bennett 6–8.5 kg (13–19 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][237][238][239]
Propithecus edwardsi Milne-Edwards' sifaka 1871, A. Grandidier 5–6.5 kg (11–14 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][240][241][242]
Propithecus perrieri Perrier's sifaka 1931, Lavauden 4.3–5 kg (9.5–11.0 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][243][244][245]
Propithecus tattersalli Golden-crowned sifaka 1988, Simons 3.4–3.6 kg (7.5–7.9 lb) Status iucn3.1 CR.svg

Critically Endangered

[3][230][246][247]
Propithecus verreauxi Verreaux's sifaka 1867, A. Grandidier 3–3.5 kg (6.6–7.7 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][248][249][250]


Family: Daubentoniidae[edit]

Family Daubentoniidae contains only one surviving species, of the aye-aye. Wide ranging genetic studies have shown that it separated from the ancestral lemurs long before any other branch of the modern Lemuriformes.[3]

Aye-aye perched on a branch
The aye-aye has many physical traits unique for a primate and is monotypic within its family.
Scientific name Common name Classified Average size Conservation status References
Daubentonia madagascariensis Aye-aye 1788, Gmelin 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) Status iucn3.1 EN.svg

Endangered

[3][251][252][253]


Unconfirmed species[edit]

Reports of new species continue to trickle in from the field. However, these reports require further scientific evaluation before their claims can be verified.


Extinct species[edit]

Main article: Subfossil lemur

All known extinct lemurs from Madagascar are known from recent, subfossil remains.[254] Conditions for fossilization were not ideal on the island, so little is known about ancestral lemur populations. All known extinct lemurs are thought to have died out after the arrival of humans.

Scientific name Common name Family Estimated size Extinction date References
Archaeoindris fontoynonti Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 160–200 kg (350–440 lb) 1600 CE [255][256][257]
Archaeolemur edwardsi Monkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs) Archaeolemuridae 15–25 kg (33–55 lb) 1047–1280 CE [258][259]
Archaeolemur majori Monkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs) Archaeolemuridae 15–25 kg (33–55 lb) 1047–1280 CE [258][259]
Babakotia radofilai Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 16–20 kg (35–44 lb) 3050 BCE[c] [255][256]
Daubentonia robusta Giant aye-aye Daubentoniidae 14 kg (31 lb) 891–1027 CE [260][261]
Hadropithecus stenognathus Monkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs) Archaeolemuridae 27–35 kg (60–77 lb) 444–772 CE [258][259]
Megaladapis edwardsi Koala lemurs Megaladapidae 40–80 kg (88–176 lb) 1280–1420 CE [262][263]
Megaladapis grandidieri Koala lemurs Megaladapidae 40–80 kg (88–176 lb) 1280–1420 CE [262][263]
Megaladapis madagascariensis Koala lemurs Megaladapidae 40–80 kg (88–176 lb) 1280–1420 CE [262][263]
Mesopropithecus dolichobrachion Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 10–14 kg (22–31 lb) 245–429 CE [255][256]
Mesopropithecus globiceps Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 10–14 kg (22–31 lb) 245–429 CE [255][256]
Mesopropithecus pithecoides Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 10–14 kg (22–31 lb) 245–429 CE [255][256]
Pachylemur insignis Pachylemur Lemuridae 11.5 kg (25 lb) 680–960 CE [264]
Pachylemur jullyi Pachylemur Lemuridae 13 kg (29 lb) unknown [264]
Palaeopropithecus ingens Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 25–50 kg (55–110 lb) 1300–1620 CE [255][256]
Palaeopropithecus kelyus Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 35 kg (77 lb) unknown [7]
Palaeopropithecus maximus Sloth lemurs Palaeopropithecidae 25–50 kg (55–110 lb) 1300–1620 CE [255][256]


See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  • a In 2008, the red lemur, Eulemur rufus, was split into two species, Eulemur rufus (red lemur) and Eulemur rufifrons (red-fronted lemur). Also, Eulemur rufus was previously known as the red-fronted lemur, but was renamed the red lemur, while Eulemur rufifrons assumed its former name.[3]
  • b Formerly referred to as Eulemur albocollaris or white-collared brown lemur, but was changed in 2008.[3]
  • c This extinction date for Babakotia radofilai is based on a single radiocarbon date from one specimen. For this reason, it is hard to tell when this species became extinct or how it is related to other lemur species.[255]
  • d Average weights reported for this species are based on very small sample sizes or are general ranges for its genus and thus require further research.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mittermeier et al. 2010, pp. 101–103
  2. ^ Mittermeier et al. 2010, pp. 86–87
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Mittermeier, R. A.; Ganzhorn, J. U.; Konstant, W. R.; Glander, K.; Tattersall, I.; Groves, C. P.; Rylands, A. B.; Hapke, A.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Mayor, M. I.; Louis, E. E.; Rumpler, Y.; Schwitzer, C.; Rasoloarison, R. M. (2008). "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar" (PDF). International Journal of Primatology 29 (6): 1607–1656. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y.  edit
  4. ^ Yoder, A.D. (2007). "Lemurs: a quick guide". Current Biology 17 (20): 866–868. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.050. PMID 17956741. 
  5. ^ Tattersall, I. (2007). "Madagascar's Lemurs: Cryptic diversity or taxonomic inflation?" (PDF). Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 16 (1): 12–23. doi:10.1002/evan.20126.  edit
  6. ^ a b c d e Mittermeier, pp. 50–51
  7. ^ a b Gommery, D.; Ramanivosoa, B.; Tombomiadana-Raveloson, S.; Randrianantenaina, H.; Kerloc’h, P. (2009). "A new species of giant subfossil lemur from the North-West of Madagascar (Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Primates)". Comptes Rendus Palevol 8 (5): 471–480. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2009.02.001. Lay summary (27 May 2009).  edit
  8. ^ Cartmill 2010, pp. 10–30
  9. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 130–135
  10. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Allocebus trichotis". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 111. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  11. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Allocebus trichotis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  12. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 158–159
  13. ^ Garbutt, pp. 103–104
  14. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Cheirogaleus crossleyi". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 111–112. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  15. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Cheirogaleus crossleyi. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  16. ^ Thiele, D.; Razafimahatratra, E.; Hapke, A. (2013). "Discrepant partitioning of genetic diversity in mouse lemurs and dwarf lemurs – biological reality or taxonomic bias?". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.019. PMID 23899779.  edit
  17. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 155–157
  18. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Cheirogaleus major". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  19. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Cheirogaleus major. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  20. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 160–163
  21. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Cheirogaleus medius". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  22. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Cheirogaleus medius. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  23. ^ Mittermeier, p. 166
  24. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Cheirogaleus minusculus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  25. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Cheirogaleus minusculus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  26. ^ Mittermeier, p. 168
  27. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Cheirogaleus sibreei". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  28. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Cheirogaleus sibreei. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  29. ^ a b Louis, E. E.; Engberg, S. E.; McGuire, S. M.; McCormick, M. J.; Randriamampionona, R.; Ranaivoarisoa, J. F.; Bailey, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Lei, R. (2008). "Revision of the mouse lemurs, Microcebus (Primates, Lemuriformes), of northern and northwestern Madagascar with descriptions of two new species at Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Antafondro Classified Forest" (PDF). Primate Conservation 23: 19–38. doi:10.1896/052.023.0103.  edit
  30. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 98–100
  31. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Microcebus berthae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  32. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Microcebus berthae. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  33. ^ Garbutt, pp. 98–99
  34. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). Microcebus bongolavensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  35. ^ Garbutt, p. 99
  36. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). Microcebus danfossorum. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  37. ^ Radespiel, U.; Ratsimbazafy, J. H.; Rasoloharijaona, S.; Raveloson, H.; Andriaholinirina, N.; Rakotondravony, R.; Randrianarison, R. M.; Randrianambinina, B. (2011). "First indications of a highland specialist among mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) and evidence for a new mouse lemur species from eastern Madagascar". Primates 53 (2): 157–170. doi:10.1007/s10329-011-0290-2. PMID 22198090.  edit
  38. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 101–103
  39. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Microcebus griseorufus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
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  41. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). Microcebus jollyae. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  42. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 124–125
  43. ^ Roos, C., Kappeler, P. & Hoffmann, M. (2008). Microcebus lehilahytsara. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
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  52. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Microcebus myoxinus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
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  71. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). Mirza zaza. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
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  73. ^ a b Mittermeier, pp. 181–182
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