List of lieutenant generals in the United States Army before 1960

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This is a complete list of lieutenant generals in the United States Army before 1960. The grade of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is ordinarily the second-highest in the peacetime Army, ranking above major general and below general.

Originally created for George Washington during the Quasi-War with France, the grade lapsed for most of the 19th century and early 20th century because it was considered too lofty for the diminutive peacetime establishment. Unlike grades of major general and below, the grade of lieutenant general was not considered a functional office during this period, but the penultimate military honor reserved for only the most eminent of wartime generals. After the Spanish-American War, the lieutenant generalcy slowly transitioned from extraordinary accolade to routine appointment, and from permanent personal grade to temporary ex officio rank. The grade was revived permanently just before World War II and has been in continuous existence ever since.[1]

Before World War I there was at most one lieutenant general on active duty at any time. In 1918 two field army commanders received wartime commissions as lieutenant general to accord them rank equal to allied counterparts, the first time the grade had been conferred purely to facilitate future command instead of to reward past service. Dozens of lieutenant generals were appointed during World War II to lead the vastly expanded military establishment, and by January 1, 1960, the official Army register listed 33 lieutenant generals on active duty in the peacetime Army.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

  • A lieutenant general of the line was an officer who was commissioned in the permanent grade of lieutenant general in the Regular Army and therefore maintained that rank regardless of assignment.[3]
  • A lieutenant general of the staff was an officer who held the temporary rank of lieutenant general in the Regular Army only while occupying an office designated by statute to carry that rank, and who reverted to a lower permanent grade upon relinquishing that office.[3]
  • An emergency lieutenant general was an officer whose Regular Army grade of lieutenant general was authorized only during the World War I emergency, which expired on June 30, 1920.
  • A temporary lieutenant general was an officer who was commissioned in the temporary grade of lieutenant general in the Army of the United States, typically in addition to a lower permanent grade in the Regular Army.
  • A brevet lieutenant general was an officer who held the rank of lieutenant general only by brevet, and remained commissioned in the permanent grade of major general.

List of U.S. Army lieutenant generals before 1960[edit]

The following list of lieutenant generals includes all officers appointed to that rank in the United States Army prior to January 1, 1960, including brevet and temporary lieutenant generals.[4]

Entries are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was appointed to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the officer's name, date of rank,[5] date the officer vacated the active-duty rank,[6] number of years on active duty as lieutenant general (Yrs),[7] positions held as lieutenant general, and other biographical notes.[8]

The list is sortable by active-duty appointment order, last name, date of rank, date vacated, and number of years on active duty as lieutenant general.

Name Date of rank[5] Date vacated[6] Yrs[7] Position Notes[8]
1 George Washington 3 Jul 1798   14 Dec 1799   1   (1732–1799) Promoted to General of the Armies posthumously, 4 Jul 1976.
2 Winfield Scott 29 Mar 1847   1 Nov 1861   15   (1786–1866) Brevet rank.
3 Ulysses S. Grant 2 Mar 1864   25 Jul 1866   2   (1822–1885) Promoted to general, 25 Jul 1866.
4 William T. Sherman 25 Jul 1866   4 Mar 1869   3   (1820–1891) Promoted to general, 4 Mar 1869.
5 Philip H. Sheridan 4 Mar 1869   1 Jun 1888   19   (1831–1888) Promoted to general, 1 Jun 1888.
6 John M. Schofield 8 Feb 1895   29 Sep 1895   1   (1831–1906)
7 Nelson A. Miles 6 Jun 1900   8 Aug 1903   3   (1839–1925)[9]
8 Samuel B. M. Young 8 Aug 1903   9 Jan 1904   0   (1840–1924)
9 Adna R. Chaffee 9 Jan 1904   1 Feb 1906   2   (1842–1914)
10 John C. Bates 1 Feb 1906   14 Apr 1906   0   (1842–1919)
11 Henry C. Corbin 15 Apr 1906   15 Sep 1906   0   (1842–1909)
12 Arthur MacArthur Jr. 15 Sep 1906   2 Jun 1909   3   (1845–1912)
13 Hunter Liggett 16 Oct 1918   30 Jun 1920   2   (1857–1935)[10]
14 Robert L. Bullard 16 Oct 1918   30 Jun 1920   2   (1861–1947)[10]
* Edgar Jadwin 7 Aug 1929   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1865–1931)
15 Hugh A. Drum 5 Aug 1939   15 Oct 1943   4   (1879–1951)[11][12]
16 Stanley H. Ford 5 Aug 1939   30 Sep 1940   1   (1877–1954)[13]
17 Stanley D. Embick 5 Aug 1939   27 Jun 1946   6   (1877–1957)[11][14]
18 Albert J. Bowley 5 Aug 1939   30 Nov 1939   0   (1875–1945)[15]
19 John L. DeWitt 5 Dec 1939   10 Jun 1947   8   (1880–1962)[16][17] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
20 Charles D. Herron 31 Jul 1940   7 Feb 1941   1   (1877–1977)[18]
21 Daniel Van Voorhis 31 Jul 1940   18 Sep 1941   1   (1878–1956)[19]
22 Herbert J. Brees 1 Oct 1940   15 May 1941   1   (1877–1958)[20][21]
23 Ben Lear 1 Oct 1940   31 Dec 1945   5   (1879–1966)[11][22] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
24 Delos C. Emmons 25 Oct 1940   30 Jun 1948   8   (1888–1965)[23][24]
25 Walter C. Short 8 Feb 1941   16 Dec 1941   1   (1880–1949)[25]
26 Walter Krueger 16 May 1941   5 Mar 1945   4   (1881–1967)[26] Promoted to general, 5 Mar 1945.
27 Lesley J. McNair 9 Jun 1941   25 Jul 1944   3   (1883–1944) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Killed in action.
28 Douglas MacArthur 27 Jul 1941   18 Dec 1941   0   (1880–1964)[27] Promoted to general, 18 Dec 1941; to general of the Army, 18 Dec 1944.
29 Frank M. Andrews 19 Sep 1941   3 May 1943   2   (1884–1943)[28] Died in office.
30 Henry H. Arnold 15 Dec 1941   19 Mar 1943   1   (1886–1950)[23] Promoted to general, 19 Mar 1943; to general of the Army, 21 Dec 1944; to general of the Air Force, 7 May 1949.
31 George H. Brett 7 Jan 1942   10 May 1946   4   (1886–1963)[20][23][29]
32 William S. Knudsen 28 Jan 1942   1 Jun 1945   3   (1879–1948) Resigned, 1945.
33 Joseph W. Stilwell 25 Feb 1942   1 Aug 1944   2   (1883–1946) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1944.
34 Brehon B. Somervell 9 Mar 1942   6 Mar 1945   3   (1892–1955)[30] Promoted to general, 6 Mar 1945.
35 Jonathan M. Wainwright IV 19 Mar 1942   6 Sep 1945   3   (1883–1953) Promoted to general, 6 Sep 1945.
36 Joseph T. McNarney 15 Jun 1942   7 Mar 1945   3   (1893–1972)[23] Promoted to general, 7 Mar 1945.
37 Dwight D. Eisenhower 7 Jul 1942   11 Feb 1943   1   (1890–1969) Promoted to general, 11 Feb 1943; to general of the Army, 20 Dec 1944.
* James G. Harbord 9 Jul 1942   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1866–1947)
* William M. Wright 9 Jul 1942   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1863–1943)
38 Jacob L. Devers 6 Sep 1942   8 Mar 1945   3   (1887–1979) Promoted to general, 8 Mar 1945.
39 Robert L. Eichelberger 15 Oct 1942   31 Dec 1948   6   (1886–1961) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
40 George C. Kenney 15 Oct 1942   9 Mar 1945   2   (1889–1977)[23] Promoted to general, 9 Mar 1945.
41 Mark W. Clark 11 Nov 1942   10 Mar 1945   2   (1896–1984) Promoted to general, 10 Mar 1945.
42 Millard F. Harmon 2 Feb 1943   27 Feb 1946   3   (1888–1946) Died in office.
43 Courtney H. Hodges 16 Feb 1943   26 Apr 1945   2   (1887–1966)[31] Promoted to general, 26 Apr 1945.
44 George S. Patton Jr. 12 Mar 1943   14 Apr 1945   2   (1885–1945) Promoted to general, 14 Apr 1945.
45 Carl A. Spaatz 12 Mar 1943   11 Mar 1945   2   (1891–1974)[23] Promoted to general, 11 Mar 1945.
46 Simon B. Buckner Jr. 4 May 1943   18 Jun 1945   2   (1886–1945) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Killed in action.
47 Robert C. Richardson Jr. 1 Jun 1943   31 Oct 1946   3   (1882–1954)[11][32] Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954.
48 Lloyd R. Fredendall 1 Jun 1943   31 Mar 1946   3   (1883–1963)[11][33]
49 Omar N. Bradley 2 Jun 1943   12 Mar 1945   2   (1893–1981) Promoted to general, 12 Mar 1945; to general of the Army, 22 Sep 1950.
50 Barton K. Yount 13 Sep 1943   30 Jun 1946   3   (1884–1949)[11][23]
51 Ira C. Eaker 13 Sep 1943   30 Aug 1947   4   (1896–1987)[20][23][34] Promoted to general on the retired list, 26 Apr 1985.
52 George Grunert 8 Oct 1943   31 Jul 1945   2   (1881–1971)[11][35]
53 William H. Simpson 13 Oct 1943   30 Nov 1946   3   (1888–1980)[11][36] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
54 Walter Bedell Smith 13 Jan 1944   1 Jul 1951   7   (1895–1961) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1951.
55 Richard K. Sutherland 20 Feb 1944   30 Nov 1946   3   (1893–1966)[11]
56 John C. H. Lee 21 Feb 1944   31 Dec 1947   4   (1887–1958)[11]
57 Raymond A. Wheeler 21 Feb 1944   28 Feb 1949   5   (1885–1974)
58 James H. Doolittle 13 Mar 1944   10 May 1946   2   (1896–1993)[23][37] Promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Apr 1985.
59 Lewis H. Brereton 28 Apr 1944   1 Sep 1948   4   (1890–1967)[23]
60 Barney M. Giles 28 Apr 1944   30 Jun 1946   2   (1892–1984)[11][23]
61 Alexander M. Patch 7 Aug 1944   21 Nov 1945   1   (1889–1945) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Died in office.
62 Daniel I. Sultan 2 Sep 1944   14 Jan 1947   2   (1885–1947) Died in office.
63 Thomas T. Handy 2 Sep 1944   13 Mar 1945   1   (1892–1982) Promoted to general, 13 Mar 1945.
64 Lucian K. Truscott Jr. 2 Sep 1944   30 Sep 1947   3   (1895–1965)[11] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
65 Wilhelm D. Styer 7 Nov 1944   29 Apr 1947   2   (1893–1975)[16]
66 Leonard T. Gerow 1 Jan 1945   31 Jul 1950   6   (1888–1972) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
67 Albert C. Wedemeyer 1 Jan 1945   31 Jul 1951   7   (1897–1989) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
68 Harold L. George 16 Mar 1945   30 Dec 1946   2   (1893–1986)[20][23]
69 John K. Cannon 17 Mar 1945   29 Oct 1951   7   (1892–1955)[23] Promoted to general, 29 Oct 1951.
70 Hoyt S. Vandenberg 17 Mar 1945   1 Oct 1947   3   (1899–1954)[23] Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1947.
71 Edmund B. Gregory 14 Apr 1945   30 Jun 1946   1   (1882–1961)[11]
72 Oscar W. Griswold 14 Apr 1945   31 Oct 1947   3   (1886–1959)[11]
73 Eugene Reybold 15 Apr 1945   30 Jan 1946   1   (1884–1961)[16]
74 Walton H. Walker 15 Apr 1945   23 Dec 1950   6   (1889–1950) Promoted to general posthumously, 2 Jan 1951. Died in office.
75 Wade H. Haislip 15 Apr 1945   1 Oct 1949   4   (1889–1971) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1949.
76 Levin H. Campbell Jr. 16 Apr 1945   30 May 1946   1   (1886–1976)[16]
77 J. Lawton Collins 16 Apr 1945   24 Jan 1948   3   (1896–1987) Promoted to general, 24 Jan 1948.
78 Geoffrey Keyes 17 Apr 1945   1 Aug 1954   9   (1888–1967)[38]
79 Lucius D. Clay 17 Apr 1945   28 Mar 1947   2   (1897–1978) Promoted to general, 28 Mar 1947.
80 George E. Stratemeyer 28 May 1945   31 Jan 1952   7   (1890–1969)[23]
81 Alvan C. Gillem Jr. 3 Jun 1945   31 Aug 1950   5   (1888–1973)
82 Willis D. Crittenberger 3 Jun 1945   31 Dec 1952   8   (1890–1980)
83 Charles P. Hall 4 Jun 1945   31 Dec 1948   4   (1886–1953)
84 Matthew B. Ridgway 4 Jun 1945   11 May 1951   6   (1895–1993) Promoted to general, 11 May 1951.
85 LeRoy Lutes 5 Jun 1945   31 Jan 1952   7   (1890–1980)
86 Troy H. Middleton 5 Jun 1945   10 Aug 1945   0   (1889–1976)[39]
87 Nathan F. Twining 5 Jun 1945   10 Oct 1950   5   (1897–1982)[23] Promoted to general, 10 Oct 1950.
88 Ennis C. Whitehead 5 Jun 1945   31 Jul 1951   6   (1895–1964)[23]
89 John R. Hodge 6 Jun 1945   5 Jul 1952   7   (1893–1963) Promoted to general, 5 Jul 1952.
90 John E. Hull 6 Jun 1945   30 Jul 1951   6   (1895–1975) Promoted to general, 30 Jul 1951.
91 Raymond S. McLain 6 Jun 1945   30 Apr 1952   7   (1890–1954)[40]
92 Clarence R. Huebner 17 Mar 1947   30 Nov 1950   4   (1888–1972)
93 Manton S. Eddy 24 Jan 1948   31 Mar 1953   5   (1892–1962)
94 Stephen J. Chamberlin 24 Jan 1948   31 Dec 1951   4   (1889–1971)
95 Henry S. Aurand 24 Jan 1948   31 Aug 1952   5   (1894–1980)
96 Willard S. Paul 24 Jan 1948   31 Dec 1948   1   (1894–1966)
97 Leslie R. Groves 24 Jan 1948   29 Feb 1948   0   (1896–1970)[41]
98 James A. Van Fleet 19 Feb 1948   31 Jul 1951   3  
  • Director, Joint U.S. Military Advisory and Planning Group in Greece, 1948–1950.
  • Commanding General, Second Army, 1950–1951.
  • Commanding General, Eighth Army, 1951–1953.
(1892–1992) Promoted to general, 31 Jul 1951.
99 Edward H. Brooks 18 Mar 1949   30 Apr 1953   4   (1893–1978)
100 Thomas B. Larkin 21 Mar 1949   31 Dec 1952   4   (1890–1968)
101 Harold R. Bull 25 Jul 1949   31 Jul 1952   3   (1893–1976)
102 Alfred M. Gruenther 30 Sep 1949   1 Aug 1951   2   (1899–1983) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1951.
103 William H. H. Morris Jr. 1 Oct 1949   31 Mar 1952   2   (1890–1971)
104 Stafford L. Irwin 15 Oct 1950   31 May 1952   2   (1893–1955)
105 Frank W. Milburn 8 Feb 1951   30 Apr 1952   1  
  • Commanding General, I Corps, 1950–1951.
  • Inspector of Infantry, Office of the Chief of Army Field Forces, 1951–1952.
(1892–1962)
106 Joseph M. Swing 9 Feb 1951   28 Feb 1954   3   (1894–1984)
107 John W. Leonard 10 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1952   1   (1890–1974)
108 John B. Coulter 11 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1952   1   (1891–1983)
109 Edward M. Almond 12 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1953   2   (1892–1979)
110 Charles L. Bolte 13 Feb 1951   30 Jul 1953   2   (1895–1989) Promoted to general, 30 Jul 1953.
111 William M. Hoge 31 May 1951   23 Oct 1953   2   (1894–1979) Promoted to general, 23 Oct 1953.
112 Doyle O. Hickey 1 Jun 1951   31 Jul 1953   2   (1891–1961)
113 Maxwell D. Taylor 29 Jul 1951   23 Jun 1953   2   (1901–1987) Promoted to general, 23 Jun 1953.
114 Andrew D. Bruce 30 Jul 1951   31 Aug 1954   3   (1894–1969)
115 Lewis A. Pick 31 Jul 1951   30 Nov 1952   1   (1890–1956)
116 Anthony C. McAuliffe 1 Aug 1951   1 Mar 1955   4   (1898–1975) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1955.
117 John W. O'Daniel 20 Dec 1951   29 Feb 1956   4   (1894–1975)[42]
118 Horace L. McBride 29 Apr 1952   30 Jun 1954   2   (1894–1962)
119 Willard G. Wyman 8 Jun 1952   1 Mar 1956   4   (1898–1969) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1956.
120 Williston B. Palmer 9 Jun 1952   1 May 1955   3   (1899–1973) Promoted to general, 1 May 1955.
121 George H. Decker 10 Jun 1952   31 May 1956   4   (1902–1980) Promoted to general, 31 May 1956.
122 John T. Lewis 4 Jul 1952   30 Sep 1954   2   (1894–1983)
123 George P. Hays 5 Jul 1952   30 Apr 1953   1   (1892–1978)
124 Daniel Noce 29 Jul 1952   31 Oct 1954   2   (1894–1976)
125 Alexander R. Bolling 30 Jul 1952   31 Jul 1955   3   (1895–1964)
126 William B. Kean 31 Jul 1952   30 Sep 1954   2   (1897–1981)
127 Lyman L. Lemnitzer 1 Aug 1952   25 Mar 1955   3   (1899–1988) Promoted to general, 25 Mar 1955.
128 William K. Harrison Jr. 5 Sep 1952   28 Feb 1957   4   (1895–1987)
129 Paul W. Kendall 16 Sep 1952   31 Aug 1955   3   (1898–1983)
130 Reuben E. Jenkins 6 Nov 1952   28 Feb 1954   1  
  • Commanding General, IX Corps, 1952–1953.
  • Commanding General, X Corps, 1953.
(1896–1975)
131 Isaac D. White 7 Nov 1952   22 Jun 1955   3   (1901–1990) Promoted to general, 22 Jun 1955.
132 Withers A. Burress 1 Jan 1953   30 Nov 1954   2   (1894–1977)
133 Ralph J. Canine 16 Mar 1953   30 Apr 1957   4   (1895–1969)
134 John E. Dahlquist 1 May 1953   18 Aug 1954   1   (1896–1975) Promoted to general, 18 Aug 1954.
135 William H. Arnold 22 Jun 1953   31 Jan 1961   8   (1901–1976)
136 Bruce C. Clarke 23 Jun 1953   1 Aug 1958   5   (1901–1988) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1958.
137 Cortlandt V. R. Schuyler 3 Jul 1953   18 May 1956   3   (1900–1993) Promoted to general, 18 May 1956.
138 Floyd L. Parks 13 Oct 1953   29 Feb 1956   2   (1896–1959)
139 Walter L. Weible 23 Oct 1953   31 Jan 1957   3   (1896–1980)
140 Thomas F. Hickey 25 Jan 1954   Sep 1961   7   (1898–1983)[43]
141 Blackshear M. Bryan 26 Jan 1954   1 Mar 1960   6   (1900–1977)
142 Carter B. Magruder 6 Apr 1954   1 Jul 1959   5   (1900–1988) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1959.
143 Lemuel Mathewson 7 Apr 1954   1 Jul 1961   6   (1899–1970)[44]
144 Henry I. Hodes 16 Aug 1954   1 Jun 1956   2   (1899–1962) Promoted to general, 1 Jun 1956.
145 John H. Collier 17 Aug 1954   1 Oct 1958   4   (1898–1980)
146 Charles E. Hart 18 Aug 1954   1 Aug 1960   6   (1900–1991)
147 Hobart R. Gay 30 Sep 1954   31 Aug 1955   1   (1894–1983)
148 Stanley R. Mickelsen 1 Oct 1954   31 Oct 1957   3   (1895–1966)
149 Thomas W. Herren 9 Dec 1954   31 Jul 1957   3   (1895–1985)
150 Claude B. Ferenbaugh 10 Dec 1954   30 Sep 1955   1   (1899–1975)
151 Laurin L. Williams 1 Mar 1955   30 Jun 1957   2   (1895–1975)
152 James M. Gavin 25 Mar 1955   31 Mar 1958   3   (1907–1990)
153 Robert N. Young 29 Jun 1955   30 Sep 1957   2   (1900–1964)
154 Robert M. Montague 13 Jul 1955   20 Feb 1958   3   (1899–1958) Died in office.
155 George W. Read Jr. 14 Jul 1955   1 Aug 1960   5  
  • Commanding General, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe (LANDSOUTHEAST), 1955–1957.
  • Commanding General, Second Army, 1957–1960.
(1900–1974)
156 Samuel D. Sturgis Jr. 23 Jul 1955   30 Sep 1956   1   (1897–1964)
157 Clovis E. Byers 8 Aug 1955   1 Jun 1959   4   (1899–1973)
158 Charles D. Palmer 19 Aug 1955   1 Oct 1959   4   (1902–1999) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1959.
159 Samuel T. Williams 15 Sep 1955   1 Sep 1960   5   (1897–1984)
160 Clyde D. Eddleman 10 Oct 1955   1 Apr 1959   3   (1902–1992) Promoted to general, 1 Apr 1959.
161 Alonzo P. Fox 12 Nov 1955   31 May 1959   4   (1895–1984)[45]
162 James E. Moore 17 Feb 1956   21 Apr 1960   4   (1902–1986) Promoted to general, 21 Apr 1960.
163 Edward T. Williams 1 Mar 1956   28 Feb 1961   5   (1901–1973)
164 Lewis B. Hershey 23 Jun 1956   23 Dec 1969   14   (1893–1977)[46] Promoted to general on the retired list, 23 Dec 1969.
165 Emerson L. Cummings 18 Jul 1956   31 Mar 1962   6   (1902–1986)
166 Francis W. Farrell 19 Jul 1956   1 Jul 1960   4   (1900–1981)
167 John F. Uncles 20 Jul 1956   1 Sep 1958   2  
  • Commanding General, VII Corps, 1956–1958.
(1898–1967)
168 Ridgely Gaither 27 Jul 1956   30 Apr 1962   6   (1903–1992)
* Hanford MacNider 7 Aug 1956   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1889–1968)
169 Arthur G. Trudeau 18 Oct 1956   30 Jun 1962   6   (1902–1991)
170 David A. D. Ogden 24 Mar 1957   31 Oct 1957   1   (1897–1969)
171 Donald P. Booth 21 Feb 1957   28 Feb 1962   5   (1902–1993)
172 Garrison H. Davidson 25 Mar 1957   30 Apr 1964   7   (1904–1992)
173 William S. Lawton 1 Jul 1957   1 Jun 1960   3   (1900–1993)
174 Robert M. Cannon 30 Jun 1957   31 Aug 1961   4   (1901–1976)
175 Paul D. Harkins 1 Jul 1957   2 Jan 1962   5  
  • Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe (LANDSOUTHEAST), 1957–1960.
  • Deputy Commander in Chief/Chief of Staff, U.S. Army Pacific, 1960–1962.
(1904–1987) Promoted to general, 2 Jan 1962.
176 Thomas J. H. Trapnell 4 Feb 1958   31 Jul 1962   4   (1902–2002)
177 James F. Collins 15 Mar 1958   1 Apr 1961   3   (1905–1989) Promoted to general, 1 Apr 1961.
178 Herbert B. Powell 8 Apr 1958   1 Oct 1960   2   (1903–1998) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1960.
179 Clark L. Ruffner 1 May 1958   1 Mar 1960   2   (1903–1982) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1960.
180 James D. O'Connell 11 Jul 1958   1 May 1959   1   (1899–1984)
181 Thomas L. Harrold 1 Aug 1958   30 Jun 1961   3   (1902–1973)
182 Gordon B. Rogers 1 Sep 1958   31 Aug 1961   3   (1901–1967)
183 Guy S. Meloy Jr. 1 Oct 1958   1 Jul 1961   3   (1903–1968) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1961.
184 Paul D. Adams 1 Apr 1959   3 Oct 1961   3  
  • Commanding General, V Corps, 1959–1960.
  • Commanding General, Third Army, 1960–1961.
(1906–1987) Promoted to general, 3 Oct 1961.
185 Robert W. Colglazier Jr. 17 Jul 1959   1 Feb 1966   7   (1904–1993)[47]
186 Emerson C. Itschner 6 Sep 1959   31 Aug 1961   2   (1903–1991)
187 John H. Hinrichs 7 Sep 1959   31 May 1962   3   (1904–1990)
188 Robert F. Sink 8 Sep 1959   1 Feb 1961   1   (1905–1965)
189 Leonard D. Heaton 9 Sep 1959   1 Sep 1969   10   (1902–1983)
190 John C. Oakes 1 Nov 1959   31 Dec 1962   3   (1906–1982)

Timeline[edit]

An officer held the active-duty grade of lieutenant general (Lt.gen.) in the U.S. Army until his death; retirement; resignation; reversion to lower permanent grade upon vacating a position carrying the ex officio rank; promotion to a higher grade such as general (Gen.) or general of the Army (Gen.Army); or transfer to the U.S. Air Force (USAF). A brevet lieutenant general (Bvt.lt.gen.) remained in the grade of major general. Grades in the Continental Army (CA) did not carry over into the U.S. Army.

History[edit]

Quasi-War[edit]

The rank of lieutenant general in the United States Army was established in 1798 when President John Adams commissioned George Washington in that grade to command the armies of the United States during the Quasi-War with France. The next year, Congress replaced the office of lieutenant general with that of General of the Armies of the United States but Washington died before accepting the new commission, remaining a lieutenant general until posthumously promoted to General of the Armies in 1976.[48]

Mexican War[edit]

In 1855 Congress rewarded the Mexican War service of Major General Winfield Scott by authorizing his promotion to brevet lieutenant general, to rank from March 29, 1847, the date of the Mexican surrender at the Siege of Veracruz.[49] As a lieutenant general only by brevet, Scott remained in the permanent grade of major general but was entitled to be paid as a lieutenant general from the date of his brevet commission, resulting in a public tussle with Secretary of War Jefferson Davis over the amount of backpay Scott was owed. Congress resolved all issues in Scott's favor once Davis left office in 1857, and allowed Scott to retire at full pay in 1861.[50]

Civil War[edit]

The grade of lieutenant general was revived in February 1864 to allow President Abraham Lincoln to promote Major General Ulysses S. Grant to command the armies of the United States during the American Civil War. After the war, Grant was promoted to general and his vacant lieutenant general grade was filled by Major General William T. Sherman. When Grant became President in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as general and Major General Philip H. Sheridan succeeded Sherman as lieutenant general. Congress suspended further promotions to general and lieutenant general in 1870, but made an exception in 1888 to promote Sheridan on his deathbed by discontinuing the grade of lieutenant general and merging it with the grade of general.[51]

In 1895 Congress briefly revived the grade of lieutenant general to promote Sheridan's successor as commanding general of the Army, Major General John M. Schofield. Schofield had lobbied for the grade to be permanently reestablished in order to cement the primacy of all future commanding generals over the Army's other major generals. However, Congress regarded the lieutenant generalcy as the penultimate military accolade, second only to promotion to full general, and refused to devalue the title's significance by conferring it on any future commanding general less eminent than previous recipients. Instead, Schofield himself was promoted to lieutenant general as a one-time personal honor eight months before he retired.[52] In retirement Schofield argued that the rank of lieutenant general ought to be permanently associated with the office of commanding general, not the individual officers occupying it, and that an officer serving as commanding general should hold the ex officio rank of lieutenant general while so detailed but revert to his permanent grade of major general upon leaving office. Over the next five decades, Schofield's concept of lieutenant general as temporary ex officio rank would slowly prevail over the concept of lieutenant general as permanent personal grade.[53]

Spanish-American War[edit]

The question of whether the lieutenant generalcy should be a permanent personal grade or a temporary ex officio rank was phrased in terms of the line of the Army, whose officers commanded combat formations, and its staff, whose officers performed specialized support functions. Permanent personal promotions to general officer grades were only available in the line, but staff officers could temporarily acquire general officer rank while detailed to an office bearing that statutory rank, so officers holding the permanent grade of general officer were called general officers of the line and ex officio general officers were called general officers of the staff.[3]

In June 1900 Schofield's successor as commanding general, Major General Nelson A. Miles, was made a lieutenant general of the staff by an amendment to the United States Military Academy appropriations bill that granted the rank of lieutenant general to the senior major general of the line commanding the Army.[54] Eight months later, the 1901 Army reorganization bill replaced this ex officio rank with the permanent grade of lieutenant general of the line.[55] When Miles retired in 1903, the senior major general was Adjutant General Henry C. Corbin, but as a staff corps officer Corbin was ineligible to command the Army, so the lieutenant generalcy went instead to the senior major general of the line, Samuel B. M. Young. Young reached the statutory retirement age five months later and was succeeded by Adna R. Chaffee. Seniority and scheduled retirements suggested that Chaffee would be succeeded in 1906 by Arthur MacArthur Jr., but both Corbin and Major General John C. Bates were scheduled to retire for age that year and it was decided that MacArthur's ascension would not be materially delayed by first promoting Bates and Corbin to lieutenant general for the few months of active duty remaining to them.[56]

Corbin's promotion became controversial when he declined to be detailed as chief of staff of the Army. Corbin felt the chief of staff should be a younger officer with the time and energy to enact a long-range program, not a superannuated placeholder on the cusp of retirement, so when Bates retired Corbin became lieutenant general but Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell became chief of staff.[57] However, by divorcing the Army's highest grade from its highest office, Corbin had again reduced the lieutenant generalcy to a personal honor. Many in Congress believed Corbin was not in the same class as Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and pressed to abolish the lieutenant generalcy immediately, but after a heated debate MacArthur's supporters managed to preserve the grade until after MacArthur's promotion.[58]

MacArthur was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1906. Since he was the last Civil War officer expected to succeed to the grade, Congress stopped further promotions to lieutenant general in March 1907 and stated that the active-duty grade would be abolished when MacArthur retired.[59] Later that month, MacArthur asked to be relieved of his duties, disgruntled at his anomalous position of being the ranking officer of the Army yet consigned to the command of a mere division and subject to orders from an officer he outranked, Chief of Staff Bell, whose four-year term extended beyond MacArthur's statutory retirement date. MacArthur returned home to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he marked time writing up travel reports until he retired in 1909.[60]

World War I[edit]

In October 1917, Congress authorized the President to appoint as generals the chief of staff of the Army and the commander of the United States forces in France, and as lieutenant generals the commanders of the field armies and army corps, so that they would not be outranked by their counterparts in allied European armies. Unlike previous incarnations, these new grades were time-limited, authorized only for the duration of the World War I emergency, after which their bearers would revert to their lower permanent grades. The commander of the American Expeditionary Force, Major General John J. Pershing, was immediately appointed emergency general, as were two successive Army chiefs of staff, but no emergency lieutenant generals were named for over a year because the armies they would command had not yet been organized.[61]

On October 21, 1918, Major Generals Hunter Liggett, commander of the First Army, and Robert L. Bullard, commander of the Second Army, were nominated to be emergency lieutenant generals, less than three weeks before the Armistice.[62] With victory imminent, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker sought legislation to reward the Army's high commanders by making their emergency grades permanent. However, Army Chief of Staff Peyton C. March had alienated many members of Congress by unilaterally reorganizing the Army without their input and his enemies blocked every effort to honor any officer but Pershing with higher rank. In the end, Pershing was promoted to permanent General of the Armies, but March, Liggett, and Bullard reverted to their permanent grades of major general when their emergency grades expired on July 1, 1920.[63]

After the war, there were a number of unsuccessful attempts to retire as lieutenant generals a list of officers that variously included Major Generals March, Liggett, Bullard, Enoch H. Crowder, Joseph T. Dickman, Leonard Wood, John F. Morrison, James G. Harbord, James W. McAndrew, Henry P. McCain, Charles P. Summerall, Ernest Hinds, Harry F. Hodges, William Campbell Langfitt, and George W. Goethals; Surgeon General Merritte W. Ireland; and Colonel William L. Kenly.[64] Finally, on August 7, 1929, the Army chief of engineers, Major General Edgar Jadwin, was retired as a lieutenant general by a 1915 law that automatically promoted officers one grade upon retirement if they had helped build the Panama Canal.[65] There was some consternation that a peacetime staff corps officer had secured more or less by chance a promotion deliberately withheld from the victorious field commanders of World War I, so the year after Jadwin's promotion all World War I officers were advanced to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list, including Liggett and Bullard.[66]

In 1942, Congress allowed retired Army generals to be advanced one grade on the retired list or posthumously if they had been recommended in writing during World War I for promotion to a higher rank which they had not since received, provided they had also been awarded the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, or the Distinguished Service Medal; retired Major Generals James G. Harbord and William M. Wright were both advanced to lieutenant general under this provision.[67]

Interwar[edit]

After Pershing retired in 1924, the rank of the Army chief of staff reverted to major general, the highest permanent grade in the peacetime Army. However, the Navy continued to maintain three ex officio vice admirals and four ex officio admirals, including the chief of naval operations, so in 1929 Congress raised the ex officio rank of the Army chief of staff to full general.[68] In 1939 Congress also assigned the ex officio rank of lieutenant general to the major generals of the Regular Army specifically assigned to command each of the four field armies, allowing President Franklin D. Roosevelt to appoint the first new active-duty lieutenant generals since World War I: First Army commander Hugh A. Drum, Second Army commander Stanley H. Ford, Third Army commander Stanley D. Embick, and Fourth Army commander Albert J. Bowley. Congress extended similar rank in July 1940 to the major generals commanding the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.[69]

As general officers of the staff, these new lieutenant generals bore three-star rank only while actually commanding a field army or department, and reverted to their permanent two-star rank upon being reassigned or retired. However, during World War II most lieutenant generals of the staff received concurrent personal appointments as temporary lieutenant generals in the Army of the United States so that they could be reassigned without loss of rank. Postwar legislation allowed officers to retire in their highest temporary grades, so most lieutenant generals of the staff eventually retired at that rank.[70] Of the lieutenant generals of the staff who were never appointed temporary lieutenant generals, Albert J. Bowley, Stanley H. Ford, Charles D. Herron, Daniel Van Voorhis, Herbert J. Brees, and Walter C. Short retired as major generals upon reaching the statutory retirement age; and Lloyd R. Fredendall qualified to retire in grade due to physical disability incurred during his term as lieutenant general. After the war, Brees and Short both applied to be advanced to lieutenant general on the retired list under a 1948 law; Brees was promoted but the administration specifically declined to advance Short, who had been relieved of command of the Hawaiian Department a few days after the defeat at Pearl Harbor.[71]

World War II[edit]

In September 1940, Congress authorized the President to appoint Regular Army officers to temporary higher grades in the Army of the United States during time of war or national emergency. The first temporary lieutenant general appointed under this authority was Major General Delos C. Emmons, Commander, General Headquarters Air Force; followed by Major General Lesley J. McNair, Chief of Staff, General Headquarters, U.S. Army. In July 1941, retired four-star general Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and appointed temporary lieutenant general as Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East.[24]

Dozens of officers were promoted to temporary lieutenant general during World War II. Lieutenant generals typically commanded one of the numbered field armies or air forces; served as deputy theater commanders; or headed major headquarters staffs, administrative commands, or support organizations. Officers were only allowed to retire in their temporary grades if they were retired due to disability incurred in the line of duty, but those compelled by good health to retire in a lower grade were eventually restored to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list.[72]

Subject to Senate approval, anyone could be appointed temporary lieutenant general, even a civilian. In January 1942, the outgoing Director General of the Office of Production Management, William S. Knudsen, was commissioned temporary lieutenant general in the Army of the United States, the only civilian ever to join the Army at such a high initial rank.[73]

Postwar[edit]

The modern office of lieutenant general was established by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, which authorized the President to designate certain positions of importance and responsibility to carry the ex officio rank of general or lieutenant general, to be filled by officers holding the permanent or temporary grade of major general or higher. Officers could retire in their highest active-duty rank, subject to Senate approval. The total number of positions allowed to carry such rank was capped at 15 percent of the total number of general officers, which worked out initially to nine generals and thirty-five lieutenant generals, of whom four generals and seventeen lieutenant generals were required to be in the Air Corps. All Air Corps personnel were transferred in grade to the United States Air Force by the National Security Act of 1947.[74]

Lieutenant generals typically headed divisions of the General Staff in Washington, D.C.; field armies in Europe, Japan, and the continental United States; the Army command in the Pacific; the unified command in the Caribbean; the occupation force in Austria; and senior educational institutions such as the National War College, the Army War College, and the Armed Forces Staff College. During the Korean War, the commanding general of the Eighth Army was elevated to full general, and the Eighth Army deputy commanding general and subordinate corps commanders were elevated to lieutenant general.

By mid-1952, the number of active-duty general officers had swelled to nearly twice its World War II peak. In response, Congress enacted the Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954, which tied the maximum number of generals to the total number of officers. However, the real limit was the so-called Stennis ceiling imposed by Mississippi Senator John C. Stennis, whose Senate Armed Services Committee refused to confirm general or flag officer nominations beyond what he considered to be a reasonable total, which typically was much lower than the statutory limit. The Stennis ceiling remained in effect from the mid-1950s until the post-Vietnam War drawdown.[75]

Unlike the temporary general and flag officer ranks of World War II, the 1947 ranks were attached to offices, not individuals, and were lost if an officer was reassigned to a lesser job.[76] Army generals almost always preferred to retire rather than revert to a lower permanent grade. A rare exception was Lt. Gen. John W. O'Daniel, who temporarily relinquished his third star upon becoming chief of the Military Assistance Advisory Group in French Indochina so that he would not outrank the theater commander in chief, French lieutenant general Henri Navarre. O'Daniel got his star back five months later when France withdrew from Indochina following Navarre's defeat at Dien Bien Phu.[77]

Legislative history[edit]

The following list of Congressional legislation includes all acts of Congress pertaining to appointments to the grade of lieutenant general in the United States Army before 1960.[78]

Each entry lists an act of Congress, its citation in the United States Statutes at Large, and a summary of the act's relevance.

Legislation Citation Summary
Act of May 28, 1798    1 Stat. 558 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (George Washington).
Act of March 3, 1799    1 Stat. 752 Terminated grade of lieutenant general upon the appointment of a "general of the armies of the United States."
Joint Resolution No. 9 of February 15, 1855  10 Stat. 723 Authorized grade of lieutenant general to be specially conferred once by brevet to acknowledge eminent services of a major general of the Army during the Mexican War (Winfield Scott).
Act of August 3, 1861  12 Stat. 287 Authorized the brevet lieutenant general to retire for disability at full pay.
Act of February 29, 1864  13 Stat. 11 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Philip H. Sheridan).
Act of July 15, 1870  16 Stat. 318 Terminated grade of lieutenant general at next vacancy.
Act of June 1, 1888  25 Stat. 165 Terminated grade of lieutenant general and merged with grade of general (Philip H. Sheridan).
Joint Resolution No. 9 of February 5, 1895  28 Stat. 968 Authorized grade of lieutenant general to be specially conferred once to acknowledge distinguished services of a major general of the Army (John M. Schofield).
Act of June 6, 1900  31 Stat. 655 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to the senior major general of the line commanding the Army (Nelson A. Miles).
Act of February 2, 1901  31 Stat. 748 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (Nelson A. Miles, Samuel B. M. Young, Adna R. Chaffee, Henry C. Corbin, John C. Bates, Arthur MacArthur Jr.).
Act of March 2, 1907  34 Stat. 1160 Terminated grade of lieutenant general at next vacancy, except on retired list.
Act of March 4, 1915  38 Stat. 1191 Authorized one-grade promotion upon retirement of any officer detailed for more than three years in Panama with the Isthmian Canal Commission, if not otherwise promoted by this Act (Edgar Jadwin).
Act of October 6, 1917  40 Stat. 410 Authorized emergency grade of lieutenant general for each commander of an army or army corps during the World War I emergency (Hunter Liggett, Robert L. Bullard).
Act of June 4, 1920  41 Stat. 760 Terminated all emergency grades.
Act of June 21, 1930  45 Stat. 793 Authorized promotion on the retired list to highest grade held during World War I (Hunter Liggett, Robert L. Bullard).
Act of August 5, 1939  53 Stat. 1214 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to major generals commanding the four armies of the United States.
Act of July 31, 1940  54 Stat. 781 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to major generals commanding the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.
Act of September 22, 1941  55 Stat. 728 Authorized temporary general officer grades in the Army of the United States during the World War II emergency.
Act of July 9, 1942  56 Stat. 655 Authorized one-grade promotion on the retired list or posthumously of general officers who, for services rendered during World War I, were recommended in writing for promotion to increased rank not since received, and who also received the Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, or Distinguished Service Medal (James G. Harbord, William M. Wright).
Act of June 29, 1943  57 Stat. 149
Act of July 26, 1947

[National Security Act of 1947]

 61 Stat. 503
  • Established U.S. Air Force.
  • Transferred to U.S. Air Force all personnel in Army Air Forces, Air Corps, and General Headquarters Air Force.
Act of August 7, 1947

[Officer Personnel Act of 1947]

 61 Stat. 886
  • Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to general officers serving in positions designated by the President to carry that rank.
  • Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to senior members of the Military and Naval Staff Committee of the United Nations.
  • Capped total positions with ex officio ranks above major general at 15 percent of the total number of active-duty general officers.
  • Capped total officers above grade of major general at 44, of whom not more than nine to be above grade of lieutenant general.
  • Capped total officers above grade of major general at 17 in the Air Corps and 27 not in the Air Corps.
  • Exempted from caps general officers serving as Chief of Staff to the President or specifically authorized by act of Congress to hold appointments to diplomatic or civil offices.
  • Authorized retirement in highest rank held on active duty.
  • Authorized promotion to general or lieutenant general on the retired list of Regular Army officers who served in those grades between December 7, 1941, and June 30, 1946 (John L. DeWitt, Brehon B. Somervell, Wilhelm D. Styer, Eugene Reybold, Levin H. Campbell Jr., Troy H. Middleton).
Act of June 24, 1948

[Private Law 80-394-A]

 62 Stat. 1393 Authorized promotion of Leslie R. Groves to lieutenant general on the retired list, with retired pay of a major general and honorary date of rank as lieutenant general from July 16, 1945.
Act of June 29, 1948

[Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948]

 62 Stat. 1085 Authorized promotion on the retired list of Regular Army and Regular Air Force officers to the highest temporary grades in which they served satisfactorily for at least six months between September 6, 1940, and June 30, 1946 (Herbert J. Brees, George H. Brett, Ira C. Eaker, Harold L. George).
Act of October 12, 1949

[Career Compensation Act of 1949]

 63 Stat. 806 Established pay grade O-8 for general, lieutenant general, and major general.
Joint Resolution of January 2, 1951

[Private Law 81-1083]

 64 Stat. A271 Authorized posthumous promotion of Walton H. Walker to general.
Act of May 5, 1954

[Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954]

 68 Stat. 65
  • Capped total number of general officers as a function of total commissioned officer strength.
  • Capped total officers above grade of brigadier general at 50 percent of all general officers.
Act of July 19, 1954  68 Stat. 492 Authorized promotion to general on the retired list or posthumously of any officer who, while a lieutenant general, was:
Act of August 7, 1956

[Private Law 84-892]

 70 Stat. A201 Authorized promotion of Hanford MacNider to lieutenant general on the retired list.
Act of May 20, 1958  72 Stat. 124 Established pay grade O-9 for lieutenant general.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part One.
  2. ^ U.S. Army Register, 1960; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Parts One and Four.
  3. ^ a b c For statutory definitions of "general officer of the line" and "general officer of the staff," see Sec. 4, Act of June 3, 1916.
  4. ^ The list of lieutenant generals is taken from the 1947 World Almanac, pp. 809–810; the Army Almanac, pp. 330–331; and the Army Register.
  5. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken from the Army Register.
  6. ^ a b Dates vacated are taken from the Army Register. An officer could vacate the active-duty rank of lieutenant general via death, retirement, resignation, promotion to a higher permanent grade, or reversion to a lower permanent grade upon relinquishing an office bearing the statutory rank of lieutenant general.
  7. ^ a b The number of years on active duty as lieutenant general is taken to be the difference between the officer's date of rank and the date on which his active duty commission as lieutenant general was vacated, rounded to the nearest whole year.
  8. ^ a b Biographical notes include years of birth and death; dates of promotion to higher permanent grade; and other unusual career events such as death in office or resignation. Dates are taken from Heitman, the Army Register, Eicher and Eicher, or Marquis Who's Who.
  9. ^ Senior major general of the line commanding the Army with rank of lieutenant general, 6 Jun 1900–1 Feb 1901; promoted to lieutenant general, 2 Feb 1901.
  10. ^ a b Emergency lieutenant general, 16 Oct 1918–30 Jun 1920. Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 21 Jun 1930.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Retired as lieutenant general for disability in line of duty.
  12. ^ Commanding General, First Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939–7 Oct 1943.
  13. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939–30 Sep 1940. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1941.
  14. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939–30 Sep 1940. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1941; recalled as major general, 1 Feb 1941; appointed temporary lieutenant general, 7 Jan 1942–27 Jun 1946; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 15 Feb 1946.
  15. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939–30 Nov 1939. Retired as major general, 30 Nov 1939.
  16. ^ a b c d Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948.
  17. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Dec 1939–15 Sep 1943. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1944; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Feb 1944–10 Jun 1947; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  18. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1940–7 Feb 1941. Retired as major general, 31 Mar 1941.
  19. ^ Commanding General, Panama Canal Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1940–18 Sep 1941. Retired as major general, 31 Oct 1942.
  20. ^ a b c d Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  21. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940–15 May 1941. Retired as major general, 30 Jun 1941; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  22. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940–30 May 1943. Appointed temporary lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940; retired as major general, 31 May 1943; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943–31 Dec 1945; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1943; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Transferred to United States Air Force, 26 Sep 1947.
  24. ^ a b Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 17 Dec 1941–1 Jun 1943.
  25. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 8 Feb 1941–16 Dec 1941. Retired as major general, 28 Feb 1942; recalled as major general, 3 Oct 1945–28 Feb 1946.
  26. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 16 May 1941–15 Feb 1943. Appointed temporary lieutenant general, 16 May 1941; retired as major general, 31 Jan 1945; recalled as temporary lieutenant general, 1 Feb 1945; promoted to temporary general, 5 Mar 1945–20 Jul 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 12 Jul 1946.
  27. ^ Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, with rank of general, 21 Nov 1930–1 Oct 1935; retired as general, 31 Dec 1937; recalled as major general, 26 Jul 1941; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 27 Jul 1941; promoted to temporary general, 18 Dec 1941, to rank from 16 Sep 1936; promoted to temporary general of the Army, 18 Dec 1944; promoted to general of the Army, 11 Apr 1946; restored to active list, 9 Jul 1948.
  28. ^ Commanding General, Panama Canal Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 19 Sep 1941–9 Nov 1942.
  29. ^ Chief of Air Corps with rank of major general, 31 May 1941–30 Apr 1945; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 7 Jan 1942; retired as major general, 30 Apr 1945; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 May 1945–10 May 1946; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  30. ^ Retired as major general, 30 Apr 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948.
  31. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 16 Feb 1943–26 Mar 1944.
  32. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943–16 Mar 1946; promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954.
  33. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943–31 Mar 1946. Not appointed temporary lieutenant general.
  34. ^ Retired as major general, 31 Aug 1947; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948; promoted to general on the retired list, 26 Apr 1985.
  35. ^ Commanding General, First Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 8 Oct 1943–28 Jan 1944.
  36. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 13 Oct 1943–7 Feb 1945; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  37. ^ Army Air Corps Reserve. Appointed brigadier general in the Regular Army, 14 Mar 1946; reverted to inactive reserve status as lieutenant general, 10 May 1946; resigned as Regular Army brigadier general, 22 Jul 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Apr 1985.
  38. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 31 Oct 1950; recalled as lieutenant general, 26 Jan 1951–1 Aug 1954.
  39. ^ Retired as colonel, 31 Oct 1937; recalled as colonel, 20 Jan 1942; appointed temporary colonel, 1 Feb 1942; promoted to temporary brigadier general, 25 Jun 1942; promoted to temporary major general, 27 Oct 1942; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 5 Jun 1945; retired as colonel, 10 Aug 1945; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 16 Aug 1948.
  40. ^ Oklahoma National Guard. Appointed brigadier general in the Regular Army, 14 Mar 1946; retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1952.
  41. ^ Retired as brigadier general, 29 Feb 1948; appointed major general, effective 29 Feb 1948, with retired pay as major general and honorary rank from 16 Jul 1945 as lieutenant general on the retired list.
  42. ^ Reverted to major general, 11 Apr 1954; reappointed lieutenant general, 30 Aug 1954, with date of rank 8 May 1952; retired as lieutenant general, 29 Feb 1956.
  43. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1958; recalled as lieutenant general, Dec 1958–Sep 1961.
  44. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1958; recalled as lieutenant general, 15 Sep 1959–1 Jul 1961.
  45. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1957; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Aug 1957–31 May 1959.
  46. ^ Retired as major general, 31 Dec 1946; recalled as major general, 1 Jan 1947; promoted to lieutenant general, 23 Jun 1956; promoted to general, 23 Dec 1969; retired as general, 10 Apr 1973.
  47. ^ Army Reserve. Retired as major general, 1 Feb 1966; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 14 Oct 1966.
  48. ^ Acts of May 28, 1798, and March 3, 1799. Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part One.
  49. ^ Senate Journal, 33rd Congress, 2nd session, 28 February 1855, 409: Nomination of Winfield Scott
  50. ^ Acts of March 3, 1857, and August 3, 1861. Fry, pp. 208–209; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Five.
  51. ^ Acts of July 28, 1866; July 15, 1870; and June 1, 1888. Bell, p. 24.
  52. ^ Act of February 5, 1895. Connelly, p. 313.
  53. ^ "Our Military Needs—Set Forth by General Miles to House Military Committee", The Daily Review, December 13, 1898: 1 ; Connelly, p. 331.
  54. ^ Act of June 6, 1900.
  55. ^ Act of February 2, 1901.
  56. ^ "Sumner And Wood To Be Major Generals; Thirty-three Officers to be Promoted and Retired", The New York Times, July 18, 1903: 3 ; "Bates To Succeed Chaffee; He Will Be Retired Soon to Make Way for Corbin", The New York Times, June 18, 1905: 3 .
  57. ^ "The Chief Of Staff", The New York Times, December 17, 1905: 6 ; "Gen. Corbin", The New York Times, April 22, 1906: 10 .
  58. ^ "Corbin And MacArthur Win - Plan to Abolish Grade of Lieutenant General Is Defeated", The New York Times, February 28, 1906: 3 .
  59. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Three.
  60. ^ Act of March 2, 1907. "Gen. MacArthur Plans To Retire; Ranking Officer of the Army Tires of His Anomalous Position", The New York Times, March 30, 1907: 6 ; Young, The General's General, pp. 332–334.
  61. ^ Acts of July 15, 1870, and October 6, 1917. "Pershing To Be Given Rank Solely Of "General"—Measure Providing for Chief of Staff and Other Promotions—Need Prestige—American Officers in Europe Now Too Far Outranked", The Fresno Morning Republican, October 3, 1917: 1 .
  62. ^ "Liggett Promoted, Bullard Also - Commanders of First and Second Field Armies to be Lieutenant Generals", The New York Times, October 22, 1918: 10 .
  63. ^ Act of June 4, 1920. Coffman, pp. 194–195.
  64. ^ "Chamberlain Wants Wood and Goethals Made Lieutenant Generals With Crowder", The New York Times, October 7, 1919: 21 ; "Senate Votes Rank To Crowder Only - Rejects Chamberlain's Amendment to Promote Other Army Leaders Also", The New York Times, October 8, 1919: 5 ; "Pershing For His Generals - Asks Higher Rank for Liggett, Bullard, Harbord, McAndrew, Dickman", The New York Times, November 6, 1919: 12 ; "Six Lieutenant Generals; House Bill Names Liggett, Bullard, Dickman, Crowder, Wood, Morrison", The New York Times, January 10, 1923: 48 .
  65. ^ Act of March 4, 1915. "Jadwin To Get Pay Of Obsolete Rank - Retired Officer Is on List as Lieutenant General; Grade Abolished", The Washington Post, September 22, 1929: R9 .
  66. ^ Act of June 21, 1930. "Promotion Deserved And Withheld", The New York Times, August 10, 1929: 12 ; "Retired Officers Get Army War Rank - Under Law Passed in June 695 Are Advanced Without Increased Pay", The New York Times, August 20, 1930: 37 .
  67. ^ Acts of June 13, 1940, and July 9, 1942. Army Register.
  68. ^ Act of February 23, 1929. "Proposes Rankings Of General In Army; War Secretary Submits Bill to Raise Chief of Staff and Territorial Heads", The New York Times, January 22, 1928: 12 ; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Four.
  69. ^ Acts of August 5, 1939, and July 31, 1940. "Army Renews Rank of Lieutenant General; H.A. Drum, S.H. Ford, S.D. Embick and A.J. Bowley Advanced to World War Grade", The New York Times, August 8, 1939: 38 .
  70. ^ Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]. Army Register.
  71. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943, and June 29, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948]. Army Register; Anderson, pp. 193–197; Dorn, p. I-1.
  72. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943; August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]; and June 24, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948].
  73. ^ "Knudsen the Only Civilian To Enter Army at His Rank", The New York Times, January 17, 1942: 9 .
  74. ^ Acts of July 27, 1947 [National Security Act of 1947], and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947].
  75. ^ Mylander, pp. 26–27.
  76. ^ Norris, John G. (December 16, 1947), "Truman Picks Five Generals For High Command Promotion", The Washington Post: 1 
  77. ^ Eckhardt, p. 11; "'Iron Mike' O'Daniel Gets Back Third Star", Associated Press, September 6, 1954 
  78. ^ Legislative history compiled from: Wiener; Callan; Eicher and Eicher; Military Laws of the United States, 1915; Military Laws of the United States, 1939; the Army Register; and the Army Almanac.

Bibliography[edit]

Biographical registers[edit]

  • Department of the Army (1948 A–Q, 1948 R–end), Official Army and Air Force Register, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office 
  • Department of the Army (1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956), Official Army Register, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office 
  • Ancell, R. Manning; Miller, Christine M. (1996), The Biographical Dictionary of World War II Generals and Flag Officers: The U.S. Armed Forces, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press 
  • Eicher, John H.; Eicher, David J. (1999), Civil War High Commands, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press 
  • McHenry, Robert (1978), Webster's American Military Biographies, Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co. 
  • Who Was Who in American History — The Military, Chicago, Illinois: Marquis Who's Who, Inc., 1975 
  • Young, Gordon R. (1959), The Army Almanac, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company 

Other publications[edit]

  • Coffman, Edward M. (1966), The Hilt of the Sword: The Career of Peyton C. March, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press 
  • Connelly, Donald B. (2006), John M. Schofield & the Politics of Generalship, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press 
  • Millett, Allan R. (1975), The General: Robert L. Bullard and Officership in the United States Army, 1881–1925, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press 
  • Mylander, Maureen (1974), The Generals: Making It, Military Style, New York City, New York: The Dial Press 
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  • Wiener, Frederick B. (July 1945), "Three Stars and Up: Part Two", Infantry Journal LVII: 33–37 
  • Wiener, Frederick B. (September 1945), "Three Stars and Up: Part Three", Infantry Journal LVII: 37–40 
  • Wiener, Frederick B. (October 1945), "Three Stars and Up: Part Four", Infantry Journal LVII: 41–45 
  • Wiener, Frederick B. (November 1945), "Three Stars and Up: Part Five", Infantry Journal LVII: 51–55 
  • Young, Kenneth Ray (1994), The General's General: The Life and Times of Arthur MacArthur, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press