List of locomotives in China

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A list of current and defunct locomotives in the People's Republic of China.

Steam locomotives[edit]

The first steam locomotive in China is thought to be a 2'6" gauge 0-4-0T engine used on the Shanghai-Wusong railway. Towards the end of the 19th century concessions obtained from the Qing dynasty enabled foreign powers (Germany, Russia, France and Great Britain) to build railways in China, and they introduced a variety of foreign-built machines. Later Japan gained control over Manchuria as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth following the Russo-Japanese War and created the South Manchuria Railway from their acquisitions - resulting in Japanese as well as American locomotives being imported into the north-east of China.[1]

After the end of the Second World War China came back under indigenous rule. Locomotive were imported from both the United States and Russia as well as other Communist bloc countries.[1]

Production of steam locomotives continued into the late 20th century. However, steam motive power was supplanted by diesel and electric locomotives as early as the 1950s. The Chinese rail network has been increasingly electrified in the twentieth century.

Model Wheel arrangement Build year Builder Number built Notes Photo
ET7 0-8-0T ~1960 Fablok 90 Similar to the polish TKP T2D Silesia locomotives, for industrial use, not used on the main network
FD 2-10-2 1930s Voroshilovgrad 1034 Converted to standard gauge (1958-) from Russian FD class locomotives
GJ 0-6-0T 1958-61 Chengdu, Taiyuan 122 Designed at Dalian locomotive works, used in industrial lococations, and other shunting duties. Gongjian 1019.jpg
JF 2-8-2 JF304 and JF1191.jpg
JF6 2-8-2
JS 2-8-2 1957-65, 1981-88 Dalian works, Qishuyan works, Datong works, Beijing 7th Feb works 1916 Built in two tranches, revised version introduced in 1985. Many still remain on industrial lines and short lines.[when?] JS 5001.jpg
KD6 2-8-0 1942–1946 American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Lima Locomotive Works Imported USATC S160 Class 5197 at Cheddleton.jpg
KD7 2-8-0 1946-1947 American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Lima Locomotive Works 160 Built in the USA and supplied to China by UNRRA in 1946. KD7-641 SL by china.JPG
KF 4-8-4 Vulcan Foundry (UK) KF7 steam locomotive at Qishuyan.jpg
PL2 2-6-2
QJ 2-10-2 1956-88 mostly Datong 4708 Became the primary freight locomotive in China from 1960s to 1980s China Railways HP3501.jpeg
RM 4-6-2 RM1163 02.jpg
SL
SL6 4-6-2 Shengli 6 Steam locomotive 601.jpg
SL7
Pashina
4-6-2 Kawasaki / Dalian Used on the Asia Express train during Japanese control of the South Manchurian Railway, designated "SL7" under Chinese ownership Super Express Asia.jpg
SY 2-8-2 Many remain on industrial lines and short lines[when?] China Railways Steam Locomotive 0309 at beijing.jpg
XK2 0-6-0T 1942–1944 Davenport Locomotive Works, H. K. Porter, Inc, Vulcan Iron Works 20 Imported USATC S100 Class 030-TU-22.jpg
XK13 0-6-0T
YJ 2-6-2
Sources:[2]

Diesel locomotives[edit]

Diesel-hydraulic transmission[edit]

Diesel hydraulic locomotives type descriptions are prefixed either by the roman initials DFH (Diesel fuel, hydraulic) or NY (neiran yeli chuandong 内燃液力传动 also meaning diesel-hydraulic).[3] From the initials of the acronym DFH is derived from their phonetic sound the Chinese name "Dongfang Hong" meaning "Red East", matching the anthem of Communist China: "The East is Red" at the time of their introduction, as well as the well known observation of Chairman Mao Zedong that 'the east is red'. Usually DFH is used for internally produced locomotives and NY for imported or prototype machines.

Chinese made[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
prototype NY1 "Weixing"
DFH1
1959
1964-1973
120(140) 1220(1060) Sifang 107 China Railways DFH1 4290.jpg
DFH2
(NY2 "Flying Dragon",
Simplified Chinese:"飞龙")
1960 100 1470
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 1
DFH2 1966 140 1470 Sifang 1
1973 - ? 62 650 Ziyang ? China Railways DFH2 0008 20111007.jpg
DFH3 1971–1989 120 1460 Sifang 263 China Railways Dongfanghong3 locomotive.jpg
DFH4 1969 160 3675 Sifang 1
1971–1974 140 3309 Qishuyan 2
1975–1981 100 3309 Ziyang 3
DFH5 1976–1988 80 790 Ziyang
Sifang
89 China Railways DFH5 001 20111007.jpg
DFH5B 1985 80 920 Ziyang ?
DFH6 1981 ? 1740 Ziyang 1
DFH7 1988–1991 ? 790 Ziyang 4
DFH21
(narrow gauge)
1977–1985 50 640 Sifang ?
Beijing 6001 1970 100 4410
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 1
Beijing 1971–1990 120 1500 Beijing Feb. 7th 358 Beijing Diesel locomotive 3003.jpg
Beijing
(coupling of double loco)
1981 - ? 120 2×1500 Beijing Feb. 7th 12 Shi Du station dsc 4006.jpg

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
NY5 1967 passenger: 160
freight: 120
2940 Henschel, West Germany 4
NY6[4] 1972 108 3160 Henschel, West Germany 10 China Railways NY6 0007 20111007.jpg
NY7[4] 1972 113 3680 Henschel, West Germany 20 Chinese Diesel locomotive NY7 001.jpg

Diesel-electric transmission[edit]

Chinese made[edit]

The Dongfeng (DF) series of diesel electric transmission locomotives is the most important in Chinese rail transport. The Dongfeng4 (DF4) is by far the most common locomotive to be seen on Chinese rails.

Model
(Former name)
Build year Transmission Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
Jianshe
(Simplified Chinese:"建设")
1958 DC - DC 85 441
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 1 China Railways Jianshe locomotive.jpg
Xianxing
(Simplified Chinese:"先行")
1958–1959 DC - DC 125 1471 Qishuyan 47 China Railways locomotive Xianxing.jpg
JuLong
巨龙 ('great dragon')
1958 Dalian 1 China Railways Julong locomotive.jpg
DF
(东风 (DongFeng 'East Wind')
1964–1974 DC - DC 100 1500 Dalian
Qishuyan
Chengdu
Datong
706 China Railways DF 1301.jpg
DF2
(ND2)
1964–1974 DC - DC 95 650 Qishuyan 148
DF3 1972 - 1974 DC - DC 120 1050 Dalian 226
DF4 1969–1985 AC - DC 100(freight)
120(passenger)
1920 Dalian 843 DF40001 locomotives.jpg
DF4B 1985 - AC - DC 100(freight)
120(passenger)
1985 Dalian
Ziyang
Datong
Sifang
≥4500 DF4B-H.jpg
DF4C 1985 - AC - DC 100(freight)
120(passenger)
2165 Dalian
Ziyang
Datong
Sifang
838 Df4 locomotive.jpg
DF4CK 1999 AC - DC 160 2165 Ziyang 2
DF4D(K)
(speedup version)
1996-1999 AC - DC 145 2425 Dalian 580 CNR DF4D 0471.jpg
DF4D(H)
(freight version)
1998-? AC - DC 100 2425 Dalian 206 China Railways DF4DH 4190.jpg
DF4D(Z)
(sub-highspeed version)
1999-2007 AC - DC 170 2980 Dalian 333 China Railways DF4D 3028 20090728.jpg
DF4DJ
(DF4DAC)
2000 AC - DC - AC 145 2510 Dalian
Siemens, Germany
2
DF4DF 1999–2004 AC - DC 120 2425 Dalian 31
DF4DD
(shunting version)
1999–2004 AC - DC 80 3180 Dalian ?
DF4E 1995–1997 AC - DC 100 4860
(2×2430)
Sifang 16
DF5 1976 - ? AC - DC 80 1213 Tangshan
Sifang
1141 Guangzhou DF5.jpg
DF5B ? AC - DC 100 1500 Dalian 36
DF5BG ? AC - DC 100 1500 Dalian ?
DF5C 1994 - 1998年
1998 -
AC - DC 100 1320
2000
(Diesel engine output)
Sifang ?
DF5D 1999 - ? AC - DC 80 1200 Dalian ? China Railways DF5D.jpg
DF6 1989 AC - DC 118 2425 Dalian 4
DF7 1982–1990 AC - DC 100 1470 Beijing Feb. 7th 295 DF7-0248 20100614.jpg
DF7B 1990 - ? AC - DC 100 1840 Beijing Feb. 7th 215 DF73089 159.jpg
DF7C 1991–2001 AC - DC 100 1840/1470 Beijing Feb. 7th 289 DF7C Orange.jpg
DF7D 1995–1998 AC - DC 100 1500
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 214 DF7Dgreen.jpg
DF7E 1998 AC - DC 100 2000
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th 2
DF7F 2000 AC - DC 100 2650
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th ?
DF7G 2003 - AC - DC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th
Sifang
264 DF7G-5037 20110319.jpg
DF7J 2004 AC - DC - AC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Beijing Feb. 7th ?
DF8 1984–1990 AC - DC 100 3310 Qishuyan 141 China Railways DF8 0019.jpg
DF8B 1997 - ? AC - DC 100 3100 Qishuyan
Ziyang
1013 DF8B at Fengtai Depot.jpg
DF8BJ "West Light"
(Simplified Chinese:"西部之光")
2002 AC - DC - AC 120 4000 Ziyang 1
DF8CJ "Sunlight"
(Simplified Chinese:"霞光")
2002 AC - DC - AC 120 3650 Qishuyan 3
DF8DJ
(DF8B 5672)
2003 AC - DC - AC 120 3350 Ziyang 1
DF9 1991 AC - DC 170 3040 Qishuyan 2
DF10 ? AC - DC 100 2×1600 Dalian 1
DF10C 1995 AC - DC 160 2×2130
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 1
DF10D ? AC - DC 120 2×1600 Dalian 1
DF10DD 2003 - AC - DC 100 2200
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian ?
DF10F 1996–1998 AC - DC 160 2×2200
(Diesel engine output)
Dalian 6
DF11 1992–2005 AC - DC 170 3040 Qishuyan 460 China Railways DF11 0350.jpg
DF11G 2003- AC - DC 170 6080
(2×3040)
Qishuyan 79 DF11G.jpg
DF11Z 2002 AC - DC 160 6080
(2×3040)
Qishuyan 4
DF12 1997–2001 AC - DC 100 1990 Ziyang ? China Railways DF12.jpg
DF21
(narrow gauge)
? AC - DC 60 1500
(Diesel engine output)
Sifang 11
NJ1 1999 AC - DC - AC 80 1320
(Diesel engine output)
Sifang 3
HXN3
"Harmony"
2008 - AC - DC - AC 120 3700 Dalian
EMD, USA
?
HXN5
"Harmony"
2008 - AC - DC - AC 120 3700 Qishuyan
GE, USA
?
Sources[5][6]

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Transmission Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
ND1 1958;1965 DC - DC 80 440 Hungary Ganz
(Hungarian State Railways Class M44)
26 China Railways ND1.jpg
ND2 1972–1987 DC - DC 120 1280 Electroputere, Romania Craiova
(CFR 060DA)
284 China ND2.jpg
ND3 1985 DC - DC 100 1540 Electroputere, Romania Craiova 88 China Railways ND3 0001.jpg
ND4 1973–1975 AC - DC 100 2150 Alstom, France 50
ND5 1984-1986 AC - DC 118 2550 GE, USA
(GE C36-7)
422 ND5 0360.jpg
NJ2 2005–2006 AC - DC - AC 120 3800 GE, USA 78 Qinghai-Tibet railway.jpg

Electric locomotives[edit]

AC-DC transmission[edit]

Shaoshan (SS) (Chinese: 韶山) series[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder Total production Photo
SS1
(6Y1)
1958—1988 90 3780 Zhuzhou 826 SS1-1249 200908.JPG
SS2 1969 100 4620 Zhuzhou 1
SS3 1978—1993 100 4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
677 SS3 0064 20111102.jpg
SS3(4000) 1992—2006 100 4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
Taiyuan
733 SS3 4506 20111117.jpg
SS3B
(coupling of double loco)
2003—2006? 100 2×4320 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Datong
333 SS3B 5010 20111117.jpg
SS3C 2008 100 2×4800 Taiyuan 1
SS4 1985—2003 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 158 China Railways SS4 0113.jpg
SS4G 1993—2007 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
Dalian
Datong
1347 SS4 7238 20110901.jpg
SS4B 1995—2006 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 130 SS4B 0144.jpg
SS4C 1997 100 2×3200 Zhuzhou 2
SS5 1991 140 3200 Zhuzhou 2 China Railways SS5 0001.jpg
SS6 1990—1992 100 4800 Zhuzhou 53
SS6B 1992—? 100 4800 Zhuzhou 148 China Railway SS6B.jpg
SS7 1992—2007 100 4800 Datong 113 SS7-0076.jpg
SS7B 1997 100 4800 Datong 2
SS7C 1998—2006 120 4800 Datong 171 SS7C0142.jpg
SS7D 1999—2002 170 4800 Datong 59 China Railways SS7D 0014.jpg
SS7E 2001—2006 170 4800 Datong
Dalian
146 SS7E 0035 20111017.jpg
SS8 1994—2001 170 3600 Zhuzhou 245 SS8-0077 20100614.jpg
SS9 1998—2002 170 4800 Zhuzhou 214 ハルビン駅ディーゼル機関車・韶山9型(SS9).jpg
SS9G 2002—2006 170 4800 Zhuzhou 214 SS9G 0147 20111029.jpg

Imported[edit]

Model Build year Top speed (In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
6Y2 1958—1961 101 4740 Alstom, France
SNCF Class CC 7100
25 China Railways 6Y2.jpg
6G1 1971 120 5100 Romania
CFR Class 40
2
6G 1973 112 5400 Alstom, France 40
6K 1986–1987 100 5100 Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan
JNR Class EF66JNR Class ED75
85 6K-052 Srbd.jpg
8G 1987–1990 100 2×3200 Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant, USSR
ВЛ80
100 Nevz8g1.jpeg
8K 1987 100 2×3200 Group: Alsthom, Siemens, BBC and others 150 8K 096 20100922.jpg

AC-DC-AC transmission[edit]

Both post 2000 introductions of asynchronous AC motor driven locomotives and high speed trains based on technology transfer arrangements with other countries have been given the common name "Harmony" series. Ministry of Railways deputy chief engineer Zhang Shuguang explained that the name was to represent energy efficiency and good environmental credentials as well as indicating smooth running of complicated systems.[7] Vehicles of the 'Harmony' series have an "H" in their type descriptions.

Model Build year Top speed
(In operation)
(km/h)
Power output
(kW)
Builder
(Family)
Total production Photo
AC4000 1996 120 4000 Zhuzhou 1
DJ "Jiufang"
(Simplified Chinese:"九方")
2000 200 4800 Zhuzhou 2
DJ1 2000–2001 120 6400 Zhuzhou
Siemens, Germany
20 DJ1-0003.jpg
DJ2 "Olympic Stars"
(Simplified Chinese:"奥星")
2001 200 4800 Zhuzhou 3
Tiansuo or "Sky Shuttle"
(Simplified Chinese:"天梭")
2003 200 4800 Datong 1
HXD1
(DJ4)
2006–2010 120 9600 (2×4800) Zhuzhou
Siemens, Germany
220 HXD10004.jpg
HXD1.1[disputed ] 2012– 120 9600 (2×4800) Zhuzhou 50
HXD1.6[disputed ] 2012 120 9600 (2×4800) Ziyang 1
HXD1.7[8] 2013– 120 14400 (3×4800) Zhuzhou
Bombardier
2
HXD1B 2009–2011 120 9600 Zhuzhou 650 ordered China Railways HXD1B 0404.jpg
HXD1C 2009 - 120 7200 Zhuzhou
Ziyang
1041 ordered HXD1C.jpg
HXD1D 2012 - 160 7200 Zhuzhou 2
HXD2
(DJ4-6000)
2006–2008 120 10000 (2×5000) Alstom, France
Datong
180 HXD2-0001.jpg
HXD2.1[disputed ] 2012 120 10000 (2×5000) Datong 1
HXD2.7[citation needed][disputed ] 2012 120 10000 (2×5000) Datong 2
HXD2B 2009–2011 120 9600 Alstom, France
Datong
500 ordered
HXD2C 2010–2011 120 7200 Datong 220[9][10][11] ordered
HXD3
(SSJ3, DJ3, SL1)
2003—2010 120 7200 Toshiba
Dalian
Datong
Beijing Feb. 7th
1080 ordered China Railways HXD3 0472.jpg
HXD3B 2009–2011 120 9600 Dalian
Bombardier
500 ordered
HXD3C 2010 - 120 7200 Dalian 1019 ordered HXD3C0059 20111017.jpg
HXD3D 2012 - 160 7200 Dalian 2

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Duncan Cotterill. "Railography : A Brief History of Standard Gauge Steam in China". www.railography.co.uk. 
  2. ^ Duncan Cotterill. "Railography : Chinese Steam Locomotive Profiles". www.railography.co.uk. 
  3. ^ Chinese diesel locomotives , sections "prefixes" , www.railwaysofchina.com
  4. ^ a b CLASSES NY6 AND NY7 HENSCHEL DIESEL-HYDRAULICS OF 4,600 AND 5,600 HP FOR FREIGHT SERVICES IN PEOPLE'S REPBULIC OF CHINA
  5. ^ Robin J Gibbons. "Chinese diesel locomotives". www.railwaysofchina.com. 
  6. ^ "东风、东风2、东风3型内燃机车" [DF, DF2, and DF3 diesel locomotives]. www.kepu.net.cn (in Chinese). 铁道馆_中国科普博览, 中国科学院计算机网络信息中心. 
  7. ^ 第六次大提速货车技术提升 速度可达120多公里 , 2007 , www.china.com.cn
  8. ^ 神华新型八轴大功率交流电力机车上线试运行. 国务院国资委. 2013-01-17 [2013-01-15].
  9. ^ zh:HXD2C型电力机车
  10. ^ 大同7200千瓦电力机车项目. 江苏常牵庞巴迪牵引系统有限公司. [2012-09-15].
  11. ^ 中国北车大连所公司HXD2C电力机车NECT牵引及网络控制系统通过技术评审. 中国北车大连所公司.2011-03-23 [2012-09-15].

External links[edit]