List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign

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Victoria
63 years, 216 days
Elizabeth II
62 years, 228 days (as of 22 September 2014)
George III
59 years, 96 days
James VI of Scotland
57 years, 246 days
James I of England[1]
22 years, 3 days
Edward III of England
50 years, 147 days
William I of Scotland
48 years, 360 days
Llywelyn I of Wales
c. 45 years
Elizabeth I of England
44 years, 127 days
David II of Scotland
41 years, 260 days
Henry VI of England
First Reign
38 years, 185 days
Second Reign
162 days

The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (... Northern Ireland after 1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England since A.D. 925, the Kingdom of Scotland since A.D. 1107, and the Principality of Wales from A.D. 1170.

Since 23 September 1896, Queen Victoria has had the longest reign of any king or queen in the various kingdoms of the British Isles.

Overall[edit]

# Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Victoria of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
2 Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 6 February 1952 Present 22,874 62 years, 228 days
3 George III of the United Kingdom 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
4 James VI of Scotland 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days
5 Henry III of England 18 October 1216 16 November 1272 20,483 56 years, 29 days
6 Edward III of England 25 January 1327 21 June 1377 18,410 50 years, 147 days
7 William I of Scotland 9 December 1165 4 December 1214 17,892 48 years, 360 days
8 Llywelyn of Gwynedd 1195 11 April 1240 unknown 45 years (approximately)
9 Elizabeth I of England 17 November 1558 24 March 1603 16,198 44 years, 127 days
10 David II of Scotland 7 June 1329 22 February 1371 15,235 41 years, 260 days

Post-Treaty of Union[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

On 1 January 1801 the Kingdom of Great Britain united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, later becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland following the independence of the Republic of Ireland.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Victoria 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
Elizabeth II 6 February 1952 Present 22,874 62 years, 228 days
George III 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
George V 6 May 1910 20 January 1936 9,390 25 years, 259 days
George VI 11 December 1936 6 February 1952 5,535 15 years, 57 days
George IV 29 January 1820 26 June 1830 3,801 10 years, 148 days
Edward VII 22 January 1901 6 May 1910 3,391 9 years, 104 days
William IV 26 June 1830 20 June 1837 2,551 6 years, 359 days
Edward VIII 20 January 1936 11 December 1936 326 326 days

Great Britain[edit]

On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England united with the Kingdom of Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The longest claimed reign was that of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"), whose reign as King over the Water lasted 64 years, 3 months and 16 days as the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, then to the thrones of Great Britain and Ireland (17 September 1701 – 1 January 1766).

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
George III[2] 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
George II 11 June 1727 25 October 1760 12,179 33 years, 125 days
George I 1 August 1714 11 June 1727 4,697 12 years, 314 days
Anne[3] 8 March 1702 1 August 1714 4,529 12 years, 146 days

England[edit]

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Henry III 18 or 19 October 1216 16 November 1272 20,482 or
20,483
56 years, 28 days
or 29 days
Edward III 25 January 1327 21 June 1377 18,410 50 years, 147 days
Elizabeth I 17 November 1558 24 March 1603 16,198 44 years, 127 days
Henry VI[4] 31 August 1422
31 October 1470
n/a
4 March 1461
11 April 1471
n/a
14,065
162
Total: 14,227
38 years, 185 days
162 days
Total: 38 years, 347 days
Æthelred II[4] 18 March 978
3 February 1014
n/a
25 December 1013
23 April 1016
n/a
13,065
810
Total: 13,875
35 years, 282 days
2 years, 80 days
37 years, 362 days
Henry VIII 22 April 1509 28 January 1547 13,795 37 years, 281 days
Charles II[5] 30 January 1649 6 February 1685 13,156 36 years, 7 days
Henry I 3 August 1100 1 December 1135 12,903 35 years, 120 days
Henry II
(co-ruler with Henry the Young King)
25 October 1154 6 July 1189 12,673 34 years, 254 days
Edward I 20 November 1272 7 July 1307 12,646 34 years, 229 days
Alfred 24 April 871 26 October 899 10,412 28 years, 185 days
Edward the Elder 27 October 899 17 July 924 9,029 24 years, 264 days
Charles I[6] 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 8,710 23 years, 309 days
Henry VII 22 August 1485 21 April 1509 8,642 23 years, 242 days
Edward the Confessor 8 June 1042 5 January 1066 8,612 23 years, 211 days
Richard II 22 June 1377 29 September 1399 8,134 22 years, 99 days
James I[1] 24 March 1603 27 March 1625 8,039 22 years, 3 days
Edward IV[4] 4 March 1461
11 April 1471
n/a
3 October 1470
9 April 1483
n/a
3,500
4,381
Total: 7,881
9 years, 213 days
11 years, 363 days
Total: 21 years, 211 days
William I 12 December 1066 9 September 1087 7,563 20 years, 258 days
Edward II 7 July 1307 20 January 1327 7,137 19 years, 197 days
Cnut 30 November 1016 12 November 1035 6,921 18 years, 347 days
Stephen[4] 22 December 1135
1 November 1141
n/a
7 April 1141
25 October 1154
n/a
1,933
4,741
Total: 6,674
5 years, 106 days
12 years, 358 days
Total: 18 years, 99 days
John 6 April 1199 19 October 1216 6,406 17 years, 196 days
Edgar I 1 October 959 8 July 975 5,759 15 years, 280 days
Æthelstan 2 August 924
(or 925)
27 October 939 5,564 or
5,199
15 years, 86 days
or 14 years, 86 days
Henry IV 29 September 1399 20 March 1413 4,920 13 years, 172 days
William III[7]
(co-ruler with Mary II)
13 February 1689 8 March 1702 4,770 13 years, 23 days
Henry the Young King
(co-ruler with Henry II)
14 June 1170 11 June 1183 4,745 12 years, 362 days
William II 9 September 1087 2 August 1100 4,710 12 years, 327 days
Anne[3] 8 March 1702 1 August 1714 4,529 12 years, 146 days
Richard I 6 July 1189 6 April 1199 3,561 9 years, 274 days
Eadred 26 May 946 23 November 955 3,468 9 years, 181 days
Henry V 21 March 1413 31 August 1422 3,450 9 years, 163 days
Edmund I 27 October 939 26 May 946 2,403 6 years, 211 days
Edward VI 28 January 1547 6 July 1553 2,351 6 years, 159 days
Mary II[8]
(co-ruler with William III)
13 February 1689 28 December 1694 2,144 5 years, 318 days
Mary I
(co-ruler with Philip)
19 July 1553 17 November 1558 1,947 5 years, 121 days
Philip
(co-ruler with Mary I)
25 July 1554 17 November 1558 1,576 4 years, 115 days
Eadwig 23 November 955 1 October 959 1,408 3 years, 312 days
James II[9] 6 February 1685 11 December 1688 1,404 3 years, 309 days
Edward the Martyr 9 July 975 18 March 978 984 2 years, 253 days
Harold I 12 November 1037 17 March 1040 856 2 years, 126 days
Harthacnut 17 March 1040 8 June 1042 813 2 years, 83 days
Richard III 26 June 1483 22 August 1485 788 2 years, 57 days
Louis (disputed) 14 June 1216 22 September 1217 465 1 year, 100 days
Harold II 5 January 1066 14 October 1066 282 282 days
Edmund II 23 April 1016 30 November 1016 221 221 days
Matilda (disputed) 7 April 1141 1 November 1141 208 208 days
Edward V 9 April 1483 26 June 1483 78 78 days
Edgar II 15 October 1066 17 December 1066 63 63 days
Sweyn Forkbeard 25 December 1013 3 February 1014 40 40 days
Jane (disputed) 10 July 1553 19 July 1553 9 9 days

Scotland[edit]

The longest claimed reign was that of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"), whose pretence lasted 64 years, 3 months and 16 days as the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland (17 September 1701 – 1 January 1766).

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
James VI[1] 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days
William I 9 December 1165 4 December 1214 17,892 48 years, 360 days
David II 7 June 1329 22 February 1371 15,235 41 years, 260 days
Alexander III 6 July 1249 19 March 1286 13,405 36 years, 256 days
Malcolm III 17 March 1058 13 November 1093 13,025 35 years, 241 days
Alexander II 4 December 1214 6 July 1249 12,633 34 years, 214 days
James I 4 April 1406 21 February 1437 11,281 30 years, 323 days
James V 9 September 1513 14 December 1542 10,688 29 years, 96 days
David I 23 April 1124 24 May 1153 10,623 29 years, 31 days
James III 3 August 1460 11 June 1488 10,174 27 years, 313 days
Charles II[5] 30 January 1649
29 May 1660
n/a
3 September 1651
6 February 1685
n/a
946
9,019
Total: 9,965
2 years, 216 days
24 years, 253 days
Total: 27 years, 104 days
James IV 11 June 1488 9 September 1513 9,220 25 years, 90 days
Mary I 14 December 1542 24 July 1567 8,988 24 years, 222 days
Charles I[6] 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 8,710 23 years, 309 days
James II 21 February 1437 3 August 1460 8,564 23 years, 164 days
Robert I 25 March 1306 7 June 1329 8,475 23 years, 74 days
Robert II 22 February 1371 19 April 1390 6,996 19 years, 56 days
Alexander I 8 January 1107 23 April 1124 6,315 17 years, 106 days
Robert III 19 April 1390 4 April 1406 5,828 15 years, 350 days
William II[7] 11 May 1689 8 March 1702 4,683 12 years, 301 days
Anne[3] 8 March 1702 1 August 1714 4,529 12 years, 146 days
Malcolm IV 24 May 1153 9 December 1165 4,582 12 years, 199 days
Mary II[8] 11 May 1689 28 December 1694 2,057 5 years, 231 days
James VII[9] 6 February 1685 11 December 1688
claimed until 16 September 1701
1,404
6,065 claimed
3 years, 309 days
16 years, 222 days claimed
John Balliol 17 November 1292 10 July 1296 1,331 3 years, 236 days

Wales[edit]

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Llywelyn the Great 1195 11 April 1240 unknown c. 45 years
Owain Gwynedd 1137 1170 unknown c. 33 years
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd 1253 11 December 1282 unknown c. 29 years
Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd 1170 1195 unknown c. 25 years
Owain Glyndŵr (disputed) 16 September 1400 c. 1416 unknown c. 16 years
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd 26 February 1246 1253 unknown c. 7 years
Owain Lawgoch (disputed) May 1372 July 1378 unknown c. 6 years
Dafydd ap Llywelyn 12 April 1240 25 February 1246 2,145 5 years, 319 days
Dafydd ap Gruffydd 12 December 1282 3 October 1283 295 295 days

Elizabeth II[edit]

Queen Elizabeth II marked her Diamond Jubilee (sixty years on the throne) on 6 February 2012, at the age of 85 years, 291 days.

Should she still be reigning on—

  • 10 September 2015 (at age 89 years, 142 days), she would surpass Queen Victoria as the longest-reigning British monarch, and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history.
  • 6 February 2022 (at age 95 years, 291 days), she would celebrate her Platinum Jubilee, marking 70 years on the throne.
  • 27 May 2024 (at age 98 years, 36 days), she would surpass Louis XIV of France as the longest reigning monarch of a major country in European history.
  • 17 October 2034 (at age 108 years, 179 days), she could surpass Sobhuza II as the longest reigning monarch in world history, depending on whether and when the reign of Bhumibol Adulyadej had ended.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c James VI, King of Scots, became James I, King of England, in 1603.
  2. ^ George III, King of Great Britain, became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.
  3. ^ a b c Anne, Queen of England and Queen of Scots, became Queen of Great Britain in 1707.
  4. ^ a b c d Monarch's total length of reign is the sum of the two reigns displayed.
  5. ^ a b Charles II King of England and King of Scots concurrently from 30 January 1649 to 6 February 1685.
  6. ^ a b Charles I was King of England and King of Scots concurrently.
  7. ^ a b William of Orange became William III, King of England, on 13 February 1689 and William II, King of Scots, on 11 May 1689.
  8. ^ a b Mary II became Queen of England on 13 February 1689 and Queen of Scots on 11 May 1689.
  9. ^ a b James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scots, concurrently.

See also[edit]