List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

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Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for often engaging in same-sex sexual behavior more than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

For these mammals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sex, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting, as noted in researcher and author Bruce Bagemihl's 1999 book Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not 'officially' observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people making the bull homosexual theme[clarify] taboo.[3][4] Bagemihl devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been observed in close to 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.[6][7] Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[8][9] Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[10][11][12][13] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This list is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish etc.

Selected images[edit]

Mammals[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kick (2001)
  2. ^ Imaginova (2007f)
  3. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  7. ^ Harrold (1999)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  9. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  10. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  11. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  12. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  13. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  15. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  16. ^ a b c Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  32. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  34. ^ de Waal (2001)
  35. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  36. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999) page 467
  39. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  41. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  42. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  43. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  46. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  47. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  48. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  49. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  50. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  51. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  52. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  53. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  54. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  55. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  57. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 324–330
  58. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  59. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  60. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  61. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  62. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  63. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  64. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  65. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  66. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  67. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  68. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  71. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  72. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  73. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  74. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  75. ^ Cooper
  76. ^ Eaton (1974)
  77. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  78. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  79. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  80. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  81. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  82. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  83. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  84. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  85. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  86. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  87. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  88. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  89. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  90. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  91. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  93. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  94. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  96. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  97. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  98. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  99. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  100. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  101. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 330–335
  104. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  105. ^ Sommer (2006)
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  107. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  108. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  109. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  110. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  111. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  112. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  113. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pagepage 421
  114. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  115. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  116. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  117. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424


See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]