List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

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Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for often engaging in same-sex sexual behavior more than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

For these mammals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sexual behavior, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting.

Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people making homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.[3][4] He devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sexual activity, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[6][7] Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[8][9] On the other hand, social liberals and many gay people believe homosexuality is natural, and therefore find the existence of homosexual sex in animals unsurprising. Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[10][11][12][13] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This list is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish etc.

Selected images[edit]

Mammals[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kick (2001)
  2. ^ Imaginova (2007f)
  3. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  7. ^ Harrold (1999)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  9. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  10. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  11. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  12. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  13. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  15. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  16. ^ a b c Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ Poiani (2010) page 49
  27. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  28. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  32. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  33. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  34. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  35. ^ de Waal (2001)
  36. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  38. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999) page 467
  40. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  42. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  43. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  46. ^ Poiani (2010) page 52
  47. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 51
  48. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  49. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  50. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  51. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  52. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  53. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  54. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  55. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  56. ^ Poiani (2010) page 170
  57. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  58. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  59. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  60. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  61. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 324–330
  62. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  63. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  64. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  65. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  66. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  67. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  68. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  71. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  72. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  74. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  75. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  76. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  77. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  78. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  79. ^ Cooper
  80. ^ Eaton (1974)
  81. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  82. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  83. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  84. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  85. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  86. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  87. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  88. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  89. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  90. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  91. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  93. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  94. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  96. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  97. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  98. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  99. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  100. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  101. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  104. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  105. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  107. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 330–335
  108. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  109. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 50
  110. ^ Jiang, T., Li, J., Sheeran, L. K., Zhu, Y., Sun, B., Xia, D., & Wang, X. (2013). "Homosexual mounting in wild male Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China" (PDF). Life Science Journal 10 (1). 
  111. ^ Sommer (2006)
  112. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  113. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  114. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  115. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  116. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  117. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  118. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  119. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pagepage 421
  120. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  121. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  122. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  123. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424


See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]