List of mammals of Alabama

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The U.S. state of Alabama is home to 62 known indigenous mammal species.[1] Historically, the state's indigenous species included one armadillo species, sixteen bat species, thirteen carnivore species, six insectivore species, one opossum species, four rabbit species, twenty-two rodent species, and three ungulate species.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Four of these native species have become extirpated within the state, including the American bison, cougar, elk, and the red wolf.[1][8]

There are six known introduced mammal species in the state. These include the black rat, brown rat, fallow deer, feral swine, house mouse, and nutria.[8] Several other mammal species have had verifiable sightings within the state, but are believed by biologists to be without established breeding populations. These include the California sea lion (in Mobile Bay), ring-tailed cat, and jaguarundi.[4]

Human predation and habitat destruction has placed several mammal species at risk of extirpation or extinction. The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources lists the conservation status of each species within the state with a rank of lowest, low, moderate, high, and highest concern.[3][5][6][7][8]

Armadillo[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Nine-banded Armadillo.jpg Dasypus novemcinctus mexicanus nine-banded armadillo
common long-nosed armadillo
Dasypodidae Low

Bats[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Tadarida brasiliensis.jpg Tadarida brasiliensis Mexican free-tailed bat
Brazilian free-tailed bat
Molossidae High
Corynorhinus rafinesquii.JPG Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque's big-eared bat Vespertilionidae Highest
Big brown bat.jpg Eptesicus fuscus big brown bat Vespertilionidae Lowest
Lasionycteris noctivagans1.jpg Lasionycteris noctivagans silver-haired bat Vespertilionidae Moderate
C-red-bat.jpg Lasiurus borealis eastern red bat Vespertilionidae Lowest
Seminole Bat (7351768292).jpg Lasiurus seminolus Seminole bat Vespertilionidae Lowest
Hoary bat.jpg Lasiurus cinereus hoary bat Vespertilionidae Moderate
Lasiurus intermedius.jpg Lasiurus intermedius northern yellow bat Vespertilionidae High
Little Brown Bat FWS.jpg Myotis lucifugus little brown bat Vespertilionidae High
Myotis austroriparius 2.jpg Myotis austroriparius southeastern myotis Vespertilionidae High
Myotis grisescens USFWS.jpg Myotis grisescens gray bat Vespertilionidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
Myotis septentrionalis 1870.jpg Myotis septentrionalis northern long-eared myotis Vespertilionidae High
Myotis leibii.jpg Myotis leibii eastern small-footed myotis Vespertilionidae Moderate
Indiana Bat FWS.jpg Myotis sodalis Indiana myotis Vespertilionidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat.JPG Nycticeius humeralis evening bat Vespertilionidae Lowest
Littlebrownbat.JPG Perimyotis subflavus eastern pipistrelle
tricolored bat
Vespertilionidae Lowest

Carnivores[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Coyote2008.jpg Canis latrans coyote Canidae Lowest
07-03-23RedWolfAlbanyGAChehaw.jpg Canis lupus rufus red wolf Canidae Extirpated/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
Red Fox Lateral.JPG Vulpes vulpes fulvus red fox Canidae Lowest
GrayFoxApr04NFla.jpg Urocyon cinereoargenteus gray fox Canidae Lowest
A Florida Black Bear.jpg Ursus americanus American black bear Ursidae Highest/
Range limited to Mobile-Tensaw River Delta and surrounding area.

Designated as state land mammal.
Procyon lotor (Common raccoon).jpg Procyon lotor raccoon Procyonidae Lowest
Long tailed weasel.jpg Mustela frenata long-tailed weasel Mustelidae High
American mink geograph.co.uk 2083077.jpg Neovison vison American mink Mustelidae Low
Lontra canadensis 01.jpg Lontra canadensis North American river otter
northern river otter
Mustelidae Low
Striped Skunk.jpg Mephitis mephitis striped skunk
polecat
Mephitidae Low
Spilogale putorius (2).jpg Spilogale putorius eastern spotted skunk
polecat
Mephitidae High
Puma concolor coryi cropped.jpg Puma concolor cougar
mountain lion
panther
puma
Felidae Extirpated
Florida Bobcat.jpg Lynx rufus bobcat Felidae Lowest

Insectivores[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
NShortTailedShrew23.jpg Blarina brevicauda northern short-tailed shrew Soricidae Moderate
Southern short-tailed shrew.jpg Blarina carolinensis southern short-tailed shrew Soricidae Moderate
Exhibit Museum of Natural History, Ann Arbor - IMG 9033.JPG Cryptotis parva North American least shrew Soricidae Moderate
Sorex hoyi American pygmy shrew Soricidae High
Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew.jpg Sorex longirostris southeastern shrew Soricidae Moderate
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg Scalopus aquaticus eastern mole Talpidae Low

Opossum[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Possum20040508.jpg Didelphis virginiana Virginia opossum
North American opossum
Didelphidae Low

Rabbits[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Swamp Rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus).jpg Sylvilagus aquaticus swamp rabbit Leporidae Low
Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).JPG Sylvilagus floridanus eastern cottontail Leporidae Lowest
Sylvilagus obscurus 1.jpg Sylvilagus obscurus Appalachian cottontail Leporidae High
Marsh Rabbit.jpg Sylvilagus palustris marsh rabbit Leporidae High

Rodents[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
Tamias striatus2.jpg Tamias striatus eastern chipmunk Sciuridae Lowest
Groundhog3.jpg Marmota monax woodchuck
groundhog
Sciuridae Lowest
Sciurus carolinensis - 2012-07-13.jpg Sciurus carolinensis eastern gray squirrel Sciuridae Lowest
Sciurus niger (on fence).jpg Sciurus niger fox squirrel
eastern fox squirrel
Bryant's fox squirrel
Sciuridae Low

Note: Alabama examples often have a black facial mask with white nose and ears.
Glaucomys volans.jpg Glaucomys volans southern flying squirrel Sciuridae Lowest
Geomys bursarius.jpg Geomys pinetis southeastern pocket gopher Geomyidae High

Note: Geomys bursarius is pictured, however Geomys pinetis is nearly identical in appearance.
Castor canadensis1.jpg Castor canadensis North American beaver Castoridae Lowest
Oryzomys palustris in vegetation.jpg Oryzomys palustris marsh rice rat Cricetidae Lowest
Reithrodontomys humulis 2.jpg Reithrodontomys humulis eastern harvest mouse Cricetidae Moderate
Peromyscus polionotus oldfield mouse.jpg Peromyscus polionotus oldfield mouse
beach mouse
Cricetidae Moderate
Alabama Beach Mouse.jpg Peromyscus polionotus ammobates Alabama beach mouse Cricetidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered.

Range limited to Fort Morgan Peninsula and Ono Island in Baldwin County.
Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis.jpg Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis Perdido Key beach mouse Cricetidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered.

Range limited to the barrier island of Perdido Key in Baldwin County, Alabama and Escambia County, Florida.
Peromyscus gossypinus.jpg Peromyscus gossypinus cotton mouse Cricetidae Lowest
White-footed Mouse, Quetico.jpg Peromyscus leucopus white-footed mouse Cricetidae Lowest
Ochrotomys nuttalli golden mouse Cricetidae Lowest
Sigmodon hispidus1.jpg Sigmodon hispidus hispid cotton rat Cricetidae Lowest
Neotoma floridana smalli close.jpg Lasiurus cinereus eastern woodrat
Florida woodrat
Cricetidae Moderate
Lasiurus intermedius Allegheny woodrat Cricetidae High
Prairie vole.gif Microtus ochrogaster prairie vole Cricetidae Moderate
Woodland Vole Microtus Pinetorum.jpg Microtus pinetorum pine vole
woodland vole
Cricetidae Low
Muskrat Foraging.JPG Ondatra zibethicus muskrat Cricetidae Lowest
Roofrat hagenbeck 01.jpg Rattus rattus black rat Muridae Exotic/
Considered a pest species
Rattus norvegicus Sieg.jpg Rattus norvegicus Norway rat
brown rat
Muridae Exotic/
Considered a pest species
Verletzte Hausmaus.JPG Mus musculus house mouse Muridae Exotic/
Considered a pest species
Zapus hudsonius.jpg Zapus hudsonius meadow jumping mouse Dipodidae High
Charlottenburg muskrat.jpg Myocaster coypus nutria
coypu
river rat
Myocastoridae Exotic/
Considered a pest species

Ungulates[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
NCElk-27527-1.jpg Cervus canadensis elk Cervidae Extirpated
White-tailed deer.jpg Odocoileus virginianus white-tailed deer
Virginia deer
Cervidae Lowest
Fallow deer in field.jpg Dama dama fallow deer Cervidae Exotic
Wild Pig KSC02pd0873.jpg Sus scrofa feral swine Suidae Exotic

Note: A significant threat to the ecosystem, they compete heavily with native wildlife and destroy natural plant communities
American bison k5680-1.jpg Bison bison American bison
American buffalo
Bovidae Extirpated

Note: Domestic herds have been reintroduced on farms.[9][10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mirarchi, Ralph E. (2004). Alabama Wildlife: Volume One. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. pp. 185–202. ISBN 978-0-81735-1304. 
  2. ^ Alden, Peter (1999). National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Southeastern States. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 350–375. ISBN -0-679-44683-4. 
  3. ^ a b "Bats". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Carnivores". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Insectivores". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Rabbits". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "Rodents". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c "Mammals". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  9. ^ "On a farm in south Alabama, the buffalo roam in herds". Gadsden Times. April 2, 2000. 
  10. ^ "Former aerospace manager raising bison". The Tuscaloosa News. December 28, 1996. 
  11. ^ "Wiregrass Buffalo". WTVY 4. February 23, 2007. Retrieved October 15, 2012.