List of mammals of Canada

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The North American Beaver, Castor canadensis, is the national animal of Canada

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Canada. There are approximately 200 mammal species native to Canada. Its large territorial size and variety of ecosystems, ranging from mountains to plains to urban housing, mean that Canada can harbour a great variety of species, including nearly half of the known cetaceans. The most well represented order is that of the rodents, and the smallest that of the Didelphimorphia (common opossums).

Studies of mammals in Canada hearken back to the 1795 northern explorations of Samuel Hearne, whose account is considered surprisingly accurate. The first seminal work on Canadian mammals, however, was John Richardson's 1829 Fauna Boreali-Americana. Joseph Burr Tyrrell was the first to attempt to produce, in 1888, a comprehensive list of Canadian mammalian species. Ernest Thompson Seton and Charles-Eusèbe Dionne's work were also important. Modern Canadian publications with interest in mammalogy include The Canadian Field Naturalist, the Canadian Journal of Zoology and the French-language Le Naturaliste Canadien.[A]

Several species of mammal have particular symbolism. The Canadian Horse and Beaver are official symbols of Canada,[B] and several provinces have designated native species as symbols.

Extinction Extinction Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered species Vulnerable species Near Threatened Threatened species Least Concern Least ConcernIUCN conservation statuses
Summary of 2006 IUCN Red List categories.

Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

EX - Extinct, EW - Extinct in the Wild
CR - Critically Endangered, EN - Endangered, VU - Vulnerable
NT - Near Threatened, LC - Least Concern
DD - Data Deficient, NE - Not Evaluated
(v. 2013.2, the data is current as of March 5, 2014[1])

Superorder Euarchontoglires[edit]

Order Rodentia: Rodents[edit]

Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara, a rodent native to South America, can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Common name

(French name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Erethizontidae: New World porcupines
North American Porcupine

Erethizon dorsatum
(Porc-épic d'Amérique)

Erethizon dorsatum
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Forests South of the tree line
Family Aplodontiidae: The Mountain Beaver
Mountain Beaver

Aplodontia rufa
(Castor de montagne)

Aplodontia rufa
(Rafinesque, 1817)
Montane forests Southern British Columbia
Family Castoridae: Beavers
North American Beaver

Castor canadensis
(Castor)

Castor canadensis
(Kuhl, 1820)
Humid areas of forests. All of Canada below the tree line except drier parts of the Prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Sciuridae: Squirrels
Eastern Gray Squirrel

Sciurus carolinensis
(Écureuil gris)

Sciurus carolinensis
(Gmelin, 1788)
Prefers deep forests, but frequent in urban areas. Southern Manitoba and northwestern Ontario, southern Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Eastern Fox Squirrel

Sciurus niger
(Écureuil fauve)

Sciurus niger
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Edge of forests and groves Southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, British Columbia and Pelee Island
  • I: LC Least Concern
Douglas Squirrel

Tamiasciurus douglasii
(Écureuil de Douglas)

Tamiasciurus douglasii
(Bachman, 1839)
Coniferous forests Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
American Red Squirrel

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
(Écureuil roux)[3]

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
(Erxleben, 1839)
Forests Mainland Canada south of the Tree line, except the southern prairies and southwestern British Columbia; Vancouver and Cape Breton Islands.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northern flying squirrel

Glaucomys sabrinus
(Grand polatouche)

Glaucomys sabrinus
(Shaw, 1801)
Boreal forest Mainland Canada south of the tree line except the southern Prairies, and Cape Breton Islands
  • I: LC Least Concern
Southern flying squirrel

Glaucomys volans
(Petit polatouche)

Glaucomys volans
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Deciduous forests Southern Ontario, part of Quebec, southern Nova Scotia
  • I: LC Least Concern[4]
  • QC: Listing Candidate
Black-tailed Prairie Dog

Cynomys ludovicianus
(Chien de prairie à queue noire)

Cynomys ludovicianus
(Ord, 1815)
Dry prairies Small part of southern Saskatchewan
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
Hoary Marmot

Marmota caligata
(Marmotte des Rocheuses)

Marmota caligata
(Eschscholtz, 1829)
Alpine tundra Rockies, Columbia, and Coast Mountains
  • I: LC Least Concern
Yellow-bellied Marmot

Marmota flaviventris
(Marmotte à ventre jaune)

Marmota flaviventris
(Audubon and Bachman, 1841)
Mountains Central British Columbia and southernmost Alberta
  • I: LC Least Concern
Groundhog

Marmota monax
(Marmotte commune, Siffleux)

Marmota monax
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Broken ground Much of mainland Canada west of the Rockies, inland valleys and part western Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
Vancouver Island Marmot


(Marmotte de Vancouver)

Marmota vancouverensis
(Swarth, 1911)
Near the mountain tree line Vancouver Island
Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel

Callospermophilus lateralis
(Spermophile à mante dorée)

Callospermophilus lateralis
(Say, 1823)
Montane coniferous forests Southeastern Rockies
  • I: LR/cd Lower Risk/conservation dependent
Cascade Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel

Callospermophilus saturatus
(Spermophile à mante dorée des Cascades)

Callospermophilus saturatus'
(Rhoads, 1895)
Southern British Columbia Cascade Range British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Franklin's ground squirrel

Poliocitellus franklinii
(Écureuil terrestre de Franklin)

Poliocitellus franklinii
(Sabine, 1822)
Parklands Northwestern Ontario and southern Prairies except short-grass prairies

*I: LC Least Concern

Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel

Ictidomys tridecemlineatus
(Spermophile rayé)

Ictidomys tridecemlineatus
(Mitchill, 1821)
Groves, swamps, uncultivated land Southern Prairie Provinces
  • I: LC Least Concern
Columbian Ground Squirrel


(Spermophile du Columbia)

Urocitellus columbianus
(Ord, 1815)
Montane open areas Southern Rocky mountains
  • I: LC Least Concern
Arctic Ground Squirrel

Urocitellus parryii
(Spermophile arctique)

Urocitellus parryii
(Richardson, 1825)
Tundra without permafrost Mainland Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Richardson's Ground Squirrel

Urocitellus richardsonii
(Spermophile de Richardson)

Urocitellus richardsonii
(Sabine, 1822)
Prairies South of the Prairie provinces
  • I: LC Least Concern
Yellow-pine Chipmunk


(Tamia amène)

Tamias amoenus
(Allen, 1821)
Dry montane forests Southern and central British Columbia and Alberta
  • I: LC Least Concern
Least Chipmunk

Tamias minimus
(Tamia mineur)

Tamias minimus
(Bachman, 1839)
Edges of forests, groves, but also open spaces Western Quebec to Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • ssp. selkirki
  • AB:
Red-tailed Chipmunk

Tamias ruficaudus
(Tamia à queue rousse)

Tamias ruficaudus
(A. H. Howell, 1839)
High altitude forests and valley pine groves. Southern British Columbia and Alberta
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Vulnerable
  • AB: May Be At Risk
  • BC: Imperiled
Eastern Chipmunk

Tamias striatus
(Tamia rayé, Petit suisse)

Tamias striatus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Deciduous forests Southern half of Ontario and Quebec, and southern Manitoba
  • I: LC Least Concern
Townsend's Chipmunk


(Tamia de Townsend)

Tamias townsendii
(Bachman, 1839)
Western Coast lowland and montane Tsuga forests Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Geomyidae: Pocket gophers
Plains Pocket Gopher

Geomys bursarius
(Gaufre brun)

Geomys bursarius
(Shaw, 1800)
Fields and banks Southern Manitoba
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Not at risk[5]
Northern Pocket Gopher

Thomomys talpoides
(Gaufre gris)

Thomomys talpoides
(Richardson, 1828)
Open areas Southern Prairie Provinces and British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • ssp. douglasii
    Vulnerable
  • ssp. segregatus
    Near Threatened
  • BC: Secure
  • ssp. segregatus
    Red list
Family Heteromyidae: Heteromyids
Ord's Kangaroo Rat


(Rat-kangourou d'Ord)

Dipodomys ordii
(Woodhouse, 1853)
Semi-deserctic areas Great Sand Hills area
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
    • AB: Endangered
Olive-backed Pocket Mouse


(Souris à abajoues des plaines)

Perognathus fasciatus
(Wied-Neuwied, 1839)
Dry plains Southern prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Sensitive
Great Basin Pocket Mouse


(Souris à abajoues des pinèdes)

Perognathus parvus
(Peale, 1848)
Dry plains Great Basin
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Sensitive
    • BC: Red list
Family Dipodidae: Jerboas
Woodland jumping mouse

Napaeozapus insignis
(Souris sauteuse des bois)

Napaeozapus insignis
(Miller, 1891)
Forest streams Eastern Canada
  • I: LC Least Concern
Meadow jumping mouse

Zapus hudsonius
(Souris sauteuse des champs)

Zapus hudsonius
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Wet fields Eastern Canada (except Anticosti island and Newfoundland) to Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
    ssp. alascensis
    • BC: Blue list
Western Jumping Mouse


(Souris sauteuse de l'ouest)

Zapus princeps
(Allen, 1893)
Prairies Rockies and Prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
Pacific Jumping Mouse

Zapus trinotatus
(Souris sauteuse du Pacifique)

Zapus trinotatus
(Rhoads, 1893)
Montane prairies Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Cricetidae: Cricetids
Southern Red-backed Vole

Clethrionomys gapperi
(Campagnol à dos roux de Gapper)

Clethrionomys gapperi[6]
(Vigors, 1830)
Forests Most of the provinces, except Newfoundland and Vancouver Island
  • I: LC Least Concern
    ssp. galei
    • BC: Blue list
    ssp. occidentalis<
    • BC: Red list
Southern Red-backed Vole


(Campagnol à dos roux boréal)

Clethrionomys rutilus[6]
(Pallas, 1779)
Shrubby tundra Mainland Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northern Collared Lemming


(Lemming variable or lemming à collerette)[7]

Dicrostonyx groenlandicus[8]
(Traill, 1823)
Tundra Northern Arctic islands
  • I: LC Least Concern
Ungava Collared Lemming


(Lemming d'Ungava)

Dicrostonyx hudsonius
(Pallas, 1778)
Tundra Northern Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
Victoria Collared Lemming


(—)

Dicrostonyx kilangmiutak[8]
(Anderson & Rand, 1945)
Tundra Mainland Arctic, Banks, Victoria and King Williams Islands
  • I: LC Least Concern
Ogilvie Mountains Collared Lemming


(—)

Dicrostonyx nunatakensis[8]
(Youngman, 1967)
Montane tundra Ogilvie Mountains
Richardson's Collared Lemming


(—)

Dicrostonyx richardsoni
(Merriam, 1900)
Tundra Arctic, roughly south of the Thelon River Basin
  • I: LC Least Concern
Sagebrush Vole


(Campagnol des sauges)

Lemmiscus curtatus
(Cope, 1868)
Sagebrush steppes Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan
  • I: LC Least Concern
North American Brown Lemming

Lemmus trimucronatus
(Lemming brun)

Lemmus trimucronatus
(Richardson, 1825)
Tundra of Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Yukon, also west coast of BC almost South to Vancouver Island
  • I: LC Least Concern[9]
Rock Vole


(Campagnol des rochers)

Microtus chrotorrhinus
(Miller, 1894)
Rocky areas Boreal Ontario and Quebec; southernmost Labrador; Gaspesia and northern New brunswick
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
  • ssp. ravus
    Data Deficient
Long-tailed Vole


(Campagnol longicaude)

Microtus longicaudus
(Miller, 1894)
Varied Western Cordillera
  • I: LC Least Concern
Singing Vole

Microtus miurus
(Campagnol chanteur)

Microtus miurus
(Osgood, 1901)
Alpine tundra Yukon and neighbouring Northwest Territory.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Montane Vole


(Campagnol montagnard)

Microtus montanus
(Peale, 1848)
Shortgrass alpine prairies Central south British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Prairie Vole

Microtus ochrogaster
(Campagnol des prairies)

Microtus ochrogaster
(Wagner, 1842)
Prairies Prairie provinces
  • I: LC Least Concern
Tundra Vole

Microtus oeconomus
(Campagnol nordique)

Microtus oeconomus
(Pallas, 1776)
Wet tundra Western Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Creeping Vole


(Campagnol de l'oregon)

Microtus oregoni
(Bachman, 1839)
Humid coniferous forest Southern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Meadow Vole

Microtus pennsylvanicus
(Campagnol des champs)

Microtus pennsylvanicus
(Ord, 1815)
Wet fields All of Canada except Arctic and westernmost ranges
  • I: LC Least Concern
Woodland Vole

Microtus pinetorum
(Campagnol sylvestre)

Microtus pinetorum
(Le Conte, 1830)
Deciduous forests Southernmost Ontario and Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Water Vole


(Campagnol de Richardson)

Microtus richardsoni
(De Kay, 1842)
Alpine prairies and streams Cascades and southern Rockies
  • I: LC Least Concern
Townsend's Vole


(Campagnol de Townsend)

Microtus townsendii
(Bachman, 1839)
Saline marshes and fields Vancouver Island, nearby islands and Fraser River delta
Taiga Vole


(Campagnol à joues jaunes)

Microtus xanthognathus
(Leach, 1815)
Forest streams From southwester Hudson Bay through northern Prairies and Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
Muskrat

Ondatra zibethicus
(Rat musqué)

Ondatra zibethicus
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Wetlands Most of Canada outside the Arctic and southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Western Heather Vole


(Campagnol des bruyères)

Phenacomys intermedius
(Merriam, 1889)
Varied British COlumbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • ssp. artemisiae
    Near Threatened
  • ssp. sphagnicola
    Near Threatened
Eastern Heather Vole


(Phénacomys d'Ungava)

Phenacomys ungava
(Merriam, 1889)
Varied Quebec, Ontario and Labrador to southern Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northern Bog Lemming


(Campagnol-lemming boréal)

Synaptomys borealis
(Richardson, 1828)
Peatlands Labrador to Alaska; Gaspesia and northern New Brunswick
  • I: LC Least Concern
Southern Bog Lemming


(Campagnol-lemming de Cooper)

Synaptomys cooperi
(Baird, 1857)
Peatlands Western Manitoba, central and southern Ontario and Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing candidate
Bushy-tailed Woodrat

Neotoma cinerea
(Rat à queue touffue)

Neotoma cinerea
(Ord, 1815)
Mountains Western Cordillera
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northwestern Deer Mouse


(Souris de keen)

Peromyscus keeni[10]
(Rhoades, 1894)
mild a rainy forests West of the Coastal Mountains
  • I: LC Least Concern
White-footed Mouse

Peromyscus leucopus
(Souris à pattes blanches)

Peromyscus leucopus
(Rafinesque, 1818)
Deciduous forests Southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Deer mouse

Peromyscus maniculatus
(Souris sylvestre)

Peromyscus maniculatus
(Wagner, 1845)
Anywhere except wetlands Much of Canada south of the tree line except Newfoundland
  • I: LC Least Concern
Western Harvest Mouse

Reithrodontomys megalotis
(Souris-moissonneuse occidentale)

Reithrodontomys megalotis
(Baird, 1858)
Prairies Okanagan Valley (ssp. dychei), south of Alberta and Saskatchewann (ssp. megalotis)
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern (dychei)
  • CA: Endangered (megalotis)
  • BC: Blue list
  • AB: Unknown
  • SA: Unknown
Northern Grasshopper Mouse


(Souris à sauterelles)

Onychomys leucogaster
(Wied-Neuwied, 1841)
Southern Prairies Prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern

Order Lagomorpha: Rabbits and pikas[edit]

The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). They can resemble rodents, but differ in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Common name

(French name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Ochotonidae: Pikas
Collared Pika

Ochotona collaris
(Pica à collier)

Ochotona collaris
(Nelson, 1893)
Mountains above the tree line Rockies of the Yukon
  • I: LC Least Concern
American Pika

Ochotona princeps
(Pica d'Amérique)

Ochotona princeps
(Richardson, 1828)
Mountains near the tree line Southern British Columbia and Alberta
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Leporidae: Rabbits and hares
Eastern Cottontail

Sylvilagus floridanus
(Lapin à queue blanche)

Sylvilagus floridanus
(J. A. Allen, 1890)
Open woodlands Southern Manitoba, Saskatchewan Ontario and Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
Mountain Cottontail


(Lapin de Nuttall)

Sylvilagus nuttallii
(J. A. Allen, 1890)
Dry plains Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Okanagan and Similkameen valleys.
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue List
    ssp. nuttallii
    CA: Special Concern
Snowshoe Hare

Lepus americanus
(Lièvre d'Amérique)

Lepus americanus
(Erxleben, 1777)
Forests Much of mainland Canada except southernmost Ontario
  • I: LC Least Concern
    ssp. washingtonii
    • BC: Red list
Arctic Hare

Lepus arcticus
(Lièvre arctique)

Lepus arcticus
(Ross, 1819)
Tundra Canadian Arctic (including Arctic Archipelago), Labrador, Newfoundland
  • I: LC Least Concern
White-tailed Jackrabbit

Lepus townsendii
(Lièvre de Townsend)

Lepus townsendii
(Bachman, 1839)
Fields Southern prairies, Okanagan Valley
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Red list

Order Primate: Primates[edit]

The only primates that live in Canada are human beings. They are only distantly related to the New World monkeys of Central and South America, and the species originated in east Africa. Humans first arrived in large numbers to Canada around 15,000 years ago from North Asia, and surged in migration starting 400 years ago from around the world, especially from Europe.

Common name
(French name)
Species
(Authority)
Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family
Human being


(Homme moderne)

Homo sapiens sapiens
(Linnaeus, 1758)
urban areas or agricultural areas, but also found in other settings everywhere, more common in the south
  • I: LC (H. sapiens) Least Concern

Superorder: Laurasiatheria[edit]

Order Soricomorpha: Shrews and moles[edit]

Soricomorphs are insectivorous mammals. Shrews closely resemble mice while moles are stout-bodied burrowers.

Common name

(French name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Soricidae: Shrews
Northern Short-tailed Shrew

Blarina brevicauda
(Grande musaraigne)

Blarina brevicauda
(Say, 1823)
Deciduous forests Eastern Saskatchewan to Maritime provinces
  • I: LC Least Concern
North American Least Shrew


(Petite musaraigne)

Cryptotis parva
(Say, 1823)
Fields, clearings and salt marshes Long point, Ontario
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Possibly extirpated
Arctic Shrew


(Musaraigne arctique)

Sorex arcticus
(Kerr, 1792)
Peatlands and marshes From the Northwest Territory to central Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
Maritime Shrew


(Musaraigne des Maritimes)

Sorex maritimensis
(Smith, 1939)
Peatlands and marshes New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
Marsh Shrew

Sorex bendirii
(Musaraigne de Bendire)

Sorex bendirii
(Smith, 1939)
Coniferous forests Fraser Valley
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Threatened
    • BC: Red List
Masked Shrew

Sorex cinereus
(Musaraigne cendrée)

Sorex cinereus
(Smith, 1939)
Varied Most of Mainland Canada except northernmost Quebec; Prince Edward and Cape Breton islands
  • I: LC Least Concern
Long-tailed Shrew


(Musaraigne longicaude)

Sorex dispar[12]
(Batchelder, 1911)
Wet banks Appalachians, Pennsylvania to New Brunswick
  • I: LC Least Concern
Smoky Shrew

Sorex fumeus
(Musaraigne fuligineuse)

Sorex fumeus
(Miller, 1895)
Deciduous forests Great lakes to Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
Gaspé Shrew


(Musaraigne de Gaspé)

Sorex gaspensis[12]
(Anthony & Goodwin, 1924)
Near forest streams Gaspesia and northern New Brunswick; Cape Breton Island
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Not at Risk[13]
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Prairie Shrew


(Musaraigne des steppes)

Sorex haydeni
(Baird, 1857)
Grassland Southern Prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
American Pygmy Shrew


(Musaraigne pygmée)

Sorex hoyi
(Baird, 1857)
Forest clearings Yukon and eastern Cordillera to Labrador and Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
Merriam's Shrew


(Musaraigne de Merriam)

Sorex merriami
(Dobson, 1890)
Grasslands Extreme southern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Red List
Montane Shrew


(Musaraigne sombre)

Sorex monticolus[14]
(Merriam, 1890)
Montane streams and marshes Western Cordillera
  • I: LC Least Concern
American Water Shrew

Sorex palustris
(Musaraigne palustre)

Sorex palustris
(Richardson, 1828)
Lakes and marshes Western Cordillera to Labrador and Maritimes except southern Prairies and southernmost Ontario
  • I: LC Least Concern
    ssp. brooksi
    • BC: Red List
Preble's Shrew


(Musaraigne de Preble)

Sorex preblei
(Jackson,1922)
Montane streams and marshes Southcentral British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Red list
Trowbridge's Shrew


(Musaraigne de Trowbridge)

Sorex trowbridgii
(Baird, 1857)
Coniferous forests Lower Fraser Valley
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue list
Tundra Shrew


(—)

Sorex tundrensis
(Merriam, 1900)
Tundra Yukon and Northwest territory
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Red list
Barren Ground Shrew


(—)

Sorex ugyunak
(Anderson & Rand, 1945)
Tundra Mainland Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Vagrant Shrew


(Musaraigne errante)

Sorex vagrans
(Baird, 1857)
Montane streams Southern Cordillera
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Talpidae: Moles
Star-nosed Mole

Condylura cristata
(Condylure étoilé)

Condylura cristata
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Wet forests Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Coast Mole


(Taupe du Pacifique)

Scapanus orarius
(True, 1896)
Alpine coniferous forest Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Townsend's Mole


(Taupe de Townsend)

Scapanus townsendii
(Bachman, 1839)
Fields Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Endangered
    • BC: Red List
Shrew-mole

Neurotrichus gibbsii
(Taupe de Townsend)

Neurotrichus gibbsii
(Baird, 1858)
Banks Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Eastern Mole


(Taupe à queue glabre)

Scalopus aquaticus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Open woodlands Point Pelee area
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
Hairy-tailed Mole
(Taupe à queue velue)
Parascalops breweri
(Bachman, 1842)
Dry loose soils Southern Quebec and Ontario
  • I: LC Least Concern

Order Chiroptera: Bats[edit]

Chiropteras' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Common name

(French name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Vespertilionidae: Vesper bats
Silver-haired bat

Lasionycteris noctivagans
(Chauve-souris argentée)

Lasionycteris noctivagans
(La Conte, 1831)
Deciduous forest lakes All of southern Canada except Gaspesia and northern Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
California Myotis

Myotis californicus
(Chauve-souris de Californie)

Myotis californicus
(Audubon & Bachman, 1842)
West Coast forests West Coast and Okanagan Valley
  • I: LC Least Concern
Western Small-footed Myotis


(Chauve-souris pygmée de l'Ouest)

Myotis ciliolabrum
(Merriam, 1886)
Dry areas Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC:Blue List
Long-eared Myotis


(Chauve-souris à longues oreilles)

Myotis evotis[15]
(H. Allen, 1864)
Varied Southern British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Keen's Myotis


(Chauve-souris de Keen)

Myotis keenii
(Merriam, 1895)
Forests West Coast
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Data Deficient
  • BC: Unknown
Eastern small-footed myotis


(Chauve-souris pygmée de l'Est)

Myotis leibii
(Audubon & Bachman, 1842)
Montane forests Southern and south-central Ontario, southwestern Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • QC: Listing Candidate
Little brown bat

Myotis lucifugus
(Petite chauve-souris brune)

Myotis lucifugus
(La Conte, 1831)
Varied, including cities Yukon to Atlantic Canada
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northern long-eared myotis

Myotis septentrionalis
(Vespertilion nordique or Chauve-souris nordique)

Myotis septentrionalis[16]
(Trouessart, 1897)
Forests Central to Eastern Canada
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue List
Fringed Myotis


(Chauve-souris à queue frangée)

Myotis thysanodes[16]
(Miller, 1897)
White pines forest Southcentral British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Data Deficient
    • BC: Blue List
Long-legged Myotis

Myotis volans
(Chauve-souris à longues pattes)

Myotis volans
(H. Allen, 1866)
Varied British Columbia and Alberta
  • I: LC Least Concern
Yuma Myotis


(Chauve-souris de Yuma)

Myotis yumanensis
(H. Allen, 1864)
Open areas West Coast and Okanagan Valley
  • I: LC Least Concern
Pallid bat

Antrozous pallidus
(Chauve-souris blonde)

Antrozous pallidus
(LeConte, 1856)
Dry plains British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Threatened
    • BC: Red List
Big brown bat


(Grande chauve-souris brune)

Eptesicus fuscus
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1796)
Varied, including cities British Columbia to southern Quebec and New Brunswick
  • I: LC Least Concern
Spotted bat


(Oreillard maculé)

Euderma maculatum
(J. A. Allen, 1891)
Near waterways Inner British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
    • BC: Blue List
Western Red Bat

Lasiurus blossevillii
(Chauve-souris rousse de l'Ouest)

Lasiurus blossevillii[17]
(Lesson and Garnot, 1826)
Open spaces and cities Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Eastern Red Bat

Lasiurus borealis
(Chauve-souris rousse de l'Est)

Lasiurus borealis
(Müller, 1776)
Open spaces and cities Alberta to southern Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Hoary Bat

Lasiurus cinereus
(Chauve-souris cendré)

Lasiurus cinereus
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1796)
Forests British Columbia to northern Hudson Bay and Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Eastern Pipistrelle

Pipistrellus subflavus
(Pipistrelle de l'Est)

Pipistrellus subflavus
(F. Cuvier, 1832)
Forest, fields and waterways Southern Ontario, Quebec and Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Townsend's Big-eared Bat

Corynorhinus townsendii
(Oreillard de Townsend)

Corynorhinus townsendii
(Cooper, 1837)
Open woodlands Southern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue List

Order Cetacea: Cetaceans[edit]

Cetaceas includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Common name

(French name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Balaenidae: Right Whales
Bowhead whale

Balaena mysticetus
(Baleine boréale)[18]

Balaena mysticetus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Polar ice shelf in winter, coastal waters in the summer. Arctic Ocean
  • I: LC Least Concern[19]
  • CA: At Risk[20]
North Atlantic Right Whale

Eubalaena glacialis
(Baleine franche)[21]

Eubalaena glacialis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Temperate coast waters North Atlantic
  • I: EN Endangered
  • CA: Endangered
    • QC: Listing Candidate
North Pacific Right Whale

Eubalaena japonica
(Baleine franche)[21]

Eubalaena japonica
(Lacépède, 1818)
North Pacific
  • I: EN Endangered
  • CA: Endangered
Northeast Pacific subpopulation
  • I: CR Critically Endangered
Family Balaenopteridae: Rorquals
Northern Minke Whale

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
(Petit rorqual)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
(Lacépède, 1804)
Temperate or polar seas. Northern Atlantic and Pacific
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Not at Risk
Sei Whale

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
(Rorqual boréal)

Balaenoptera borealis
(Lesson, 1828)
Temperate seas. Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  • I: EN Endangered
Pacific
  • CA:
    • BC: Blue List
Atlantic
  • CA: Data Deficient
Blue Whale

Balaenoptera musculus
(Rorqual bleu)

Balaenoptera musculus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Temperate and polar waters. Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  • I: EN Endangered
ssp. musculus (North Pacific stock)
  • I: LR/cd Lower Risk/conservation dependent
  • CA: Endangered
    • BC: Blue List
ssp. musculus (North Atlantic stock)
  • I: VU Vulnerable
  • CA: Endangered
    • QC: Listing Candidate
ssp. brevicauda
  • I: DD Data Deficient
Fin Whale

Balaenoptera physalus
(Rorqual commun)

Balaenoptera physalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Pelagic, coastal Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  • I: EN Endangered
  • CA: Threatened/Special Concern[22]
    • BC: Blue List
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Humpback Whale

Megaptera novaeangliae
(Baleine à bosse)

Megaptera novaeangliae
(Borowski, 1781)
Coastal waters, often penetrates estuaries. Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Threatened/Not at Risk[23]
    • BC: Blue List
Family Eschrichtiidae: Grey Whale
Gray Whale

Eschrichtius robustus
(Baleine grise)

Eschrichtius robustus
(Lilljebor, 1861)
Temperate continental shelf waters. Pacific Coast
  • I: LC Least Concern
Western subpopulation
  • I: CR Critically Endangered, but Canada is not in the range description
  • CA: Special Concern
    • BC: Blue List
Family Monodontidae: Narwhal and Beluga
Narwhal

Monodon monoceros
(Narval)

Monodon monoceros
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Edge of Arctic ice sheet. Eastern Arctic Ocean
  • I: NT Near Threatened/Apparently Secure[24]
  • CA: Special Concern
Beluga

Delphinapterus leucas
(Bélouga)

Delphinapterus leucas
(Pallas, 1776)
Arctic coast waters. Often swim deep up rivers. Eastern and Western Arctic Ocean
  • I: NT Near Threatened
  • CA: Varied[25]
    • QC: Threatened/Listing Candidate[26]
    • ON: Not at Risk
Family Phocoenidae: Porpoises
Harbour Porpoise

Phocoena phocoena
(Marsouin commun)[27]

Phocoena phocoena
(Linnaeus, 1758)
East and West Coast
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
    • BC: Blue List
Dall's Porpoise

Phocoenoides dalli
(Marsouin de Dall)

Phocoenoides dalli
(True, 1885)
Continental shelf. North Pacific
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Physeteridae: Sperm Whale
Sperm Whale


(Cachalot)

Physeter macrocephalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Very deep waters. Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Only migrating males are found in Canadian waters.
  • I: VU Vulnerable
  • CA: Not at Risk
    • BC: Blue List
Family Ziphidae: Beaked Whales
Cuvier's Beaked Whale

Ziphius cavirostris
(Baleine à bec de Cuvier)

Ziphius cavirostris
(G. Cuvier, 1823)
Uncertain North Pacific and Atlantic
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Not at Rist
Baird's Beaked Whale


(Grande baleine à bec)

Berardius bairdii
(Stejneger, 1883)
Near continental shelf cliffs North Pacific
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Not at Rist
Bottlenose whale


(Baleine à bec commune)

Hyperoodon ampullatus
(Forster, 1770)
Subarctic waters North Atlantic and part of Arctic
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Endangered[28]
Sowerby's Beaked Whale

Mesoplodon bidens
(Baleine à bec de Sowerby)

Mesoplodon bidens
(Sowerby, 1804)
Deep ocean. Temperate North Atlantic
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Special Concern
Hubbs' Beaked Whale


(Baleine à bec de Moore)

Mesoplodon carlhubbsi[29]
(Moore, 1963)
Temperate waters North Pacific
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Not at Risk
Stejneger's Beaked Whale


(Baleine à bec de Stejneger)

Mesoplodon stejnegeri
(True, 1885 )
Cold, high sea. North Pacific
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Not at Risk
Family Delphinidae: Oceanic Dolphins
Bottlenose Dolphin

Tursiops truncatus
(Grand dauphin)

Tursiops truncatus
(Montagu, 1821)
Coastal waters. Occasional in the Maritimes
  • I: LC Least Concern
Short-beaked common dolphin

Delphinus delphis
(Dauphin commun à bec court)

Delphinus delphis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Temperate high sea Atlantic and Pacific Continental shelves
  • I: LC Least Concern
Atlantic White-sided Dolphin


(Dauphin à flancs blancs)

Lagenorhynchus acutus
(Gray, 1828)
Temperate high sea. North Atlantic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Pacific White-sided Dolphin

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
(Dauphin à flancs blancs du pacifique)

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
(Gill, 1865)
Temperate and subarctic seas. North Pacific
  • I: LC Least Concern
White-beaked Dolphin

Lagenorhynchus albirostris
(Dauphin à bec blanc)

Lagenorhynchus albirostris
(Gray, 1846)
High, cold sea. North Atlantic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Orca

Orcinus orca
(Épaulard or Orque)

Orcinus orca
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Prefers coastal waters. Atlantic, Pacific and parts of the Arctic
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Varies[30]
Short-finned Pilot Whale

Globicephala macrorhynchus
(Globicéphale du Pacifique)

Globicephala macrorhynchus
(Gray, 1846)
Varied. Pacific Ocean
  • I: DD Data Deficient
  • CA: Not at Risk
Long-finned Pilot Whale


(Globicéphale de l'Atlantique)

Globicephala melas
(Traill, 1809)
Varied. North Atlantic
  • I: DD Data Deficient

Order Carnivora: Carnivores[edit]

The Carnivoras include over 260 species, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. Carnivores have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Common name
(French name)
Species
(Authority)
Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Felidae: Felines
Canadian Lynx

Lynx canadensis
(Lynx du Canada)[32]

Lynx canadensis
(Kerr, 1792)
Forests Most of Canada
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • NB: Regionally endangered
    • NS: Endangered
Bobcat

Lynx rufus
(Lynx roux)

Lynx rufus
(Schreber, 1777)
Varied Southern Canada
  • I: LC Least Concern
Cougar

Lynx rufus
(Puma)

Puma concolor
(Linnaeus, 1771)
Mountain, marshes, dense forests Mountainous regions of Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Eastern Population
  • CA: Data Deficient[33]
    • ON: Endangered
    • QC: Listing Candidate
    • NB: Endangered
Feral Cat

Felis catus
(Chat Sauvage)

Felis Catus
Varied Varied
Family Canidae: Canines
Arctic fox

Alopex lagopus
(Renard arctique or polaire)[34]

Alopex lagopus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Tundra Northern Canada[35]
  • I: LC Least Concern
Swift Fox

Vulpes velox
(Renard véloce)

Vulpes velox
(Say, 1823)
Desert and dry prairie Southern Prairie Provinces
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Endangered
  • AB: Endangered
Red Fox

Vulpes vulpes fulvus
(Renard roux)

Vulpes vulpes
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Varied All of Canada except part of the Arctic Islands and West Coast
  • I: LC Least Concern
Gray Fox

Urocyon cinereoargenteus
(Renard gris)

Urocyon cinereoargenteus
(Schreber, 1775)
Varied Southern Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA; Threatened[36]
Coyote

Canis latrans incolatus
(Coyote)

Canis latrans
(Say, 1823)
Varied Rockies through southern prairies to southwestern Quebec
  • I: LC Least Concern
Gray Wolf

Canis lupus lycaon
(Loup)[37]

Canis lupus
(Say, 1823)
Varied All of Canada except Anticosti and Prince Edward Islands. Going extinct in several areas.
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: C. l. lycaon subspecies designated Special Concern.
Canadian Eskimo Dog

Canis lupus familiaris
(Chien esquimau canadien)

Canis familiaris borealis
(Thule people, 1887)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Labrador Husky

Canis lupus familiaris
(Labrador Husky)

Canis lupus familiaris
(Inuit people, 1300 AD)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Labrador Retriever

Canis lupus familiaris
(Labrador Retriever)

Canis lupus familiaris
( Earls of Malmesbury and Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott, 16th century)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Newfoundland

Canis lupus familiaris
(Chien de Terre-Neuve)

Canis lupus familiaris
(Earls of Malmesbury and Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott, 16th century)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Landseer

Canis lupus familiaris
(Landseer)

Canis lupus familiaris
(Sir Edwin Landseer, 18th century)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever

Canis lupus familiaris
(Nouvelle-Écosse bichon frisé)

Canis lupus familiaris
( Little River Harbour, 19th century)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Seppala Siberian Sleddog

Canis lupus familiaris
(Sleddog sibérien Seppala)

Canis lupus familiaris
( Leonhard Seppala, 1914-1917)
Varied Varied
  • I: LC Least Concern (C. lupus)
Family Ursidae: Bears
American black bear

Ursus americanus
(Ours noir)

Ursus americanus
(Pallas, 1780)
Varied Most of Canada except Arctic and Prince Edward Island.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Brown Bear

Ursus arctos horribilis
(Ours brun)

Ursus arctos
(Linnaeus, 1758 )
Open spaces, mostly alpine and Arctic tundra Rockies, mainland Northwest Territory and Nunavut.[38]
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Special Concern
    • AB: Recommended for Threatened
    • NWT: Sensitive
    • BC: Blue list
Polar Bear

Ursus maritimus
(Ours blanc or polaire)

Ursus maritimus
(Phipps, 1774)
Edge of ice fields Arctic Sea and coasts
  • I: VU Vulnerable
  • CA: Special Concern
    • BC: Yellow list
    • NWT: Sensitive
    • QC: Listing Candidate
    • NF: Vulnerable
Family Procyonidae: Raccoons and allies
Raccoon

Procyon lotor
(Raton laveur)[39]

Procyon lotor
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Riparian forests Southern Canada except Rockies and Cape Breton Island
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Mustelidae: Mustelids
Stoat

Mustela erminea
(Hermine)

Mustela erminea
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Varied All of Canada except part of southern prairies and Anticosti Island
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • ssp. haidarum
    • CA: Threatened
    • BC: Red list
  • ssp. anguinea
    • BC: Blue list
Long-tailed Weasel

Mustela frenata
(Belette à longue queue)

Mustela frenata
(Lichtenstein, 1831)
Open areas Southern Rockies to western Ontario, southern Ontario to western Nova Scotia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Least Weasel

Mustela nivalis
(Belette pygmée)[40]

Mustela nivalis
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Varied Yukon to Labrador, except southern Quebec and Ontario.
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: Listing Candidate
American Mink

Mustela vison
(Vison d'Amérique)

Mustela vison
(Schreber, 177)
Wetlands and rivers Most of Canada, except the Arctic, part of the prairies and Anticosti Island. Introduced to Newfoundland
  • I: LC Least Concern
American Marten

Martes americana
(Martre d'Amérique)

Martes americana
(Turton, 1806)
Coniferous and mixed forests Rockies to Labrador and Newfoundland, except Prairies. Extinct in several parts of Eastern Canada.
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • NS: Endangered[41]
    • NF: Endangered
Fisher

Martes pennanti
(Pékan)

Martes pennanti
(Erxleben, 1777)
Coniferous and mixed forests near rivers British Columbia to central Quebec, reintroduced in parts of the Maritimes.
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue list
Wolverine

Gulo gulo luscus
(Carcajou)

Gulo gulo
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Boreal forest, Arctic tundra Largely extinct in southern Canada West of the Rockies. Found in much of continental Canada and the Arctic Islands
  • I: LC Least Concern
Eastern Population
  • CA: Endangered
    • ON: Threatened
    • QC: Endangered
    • NF: Endangered
Western Population
  • CA: Special Concern
American Badger

Taxidea taxus
(Blaireau d'Amérique)

Taxidea taxus
(Schreber, 1777)
Fields Southern Prairies, south-central British Columbia and southernmost Ontario
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Endangered (jeffersoni and jacksoni)
    • BC: Red list
Northern River Otter

Lontra canadensis
(Loutre de rivière)

Lontra canadensis
(Schreber, 1777)
Rivers, lakes and swamps Most of Canada except part of the Arctic and southern prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
Sea Otter

Enhydra lutris
(Loutre de mer)

Enhydra lutris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Sea and coast Vancouver and Goose Island coast
  • I: EN Endangered
  • CA: Threatened[43]
    • BC: Red list
Family Mephitidae: Skunks
Western Spotted Skunk


(Moufette tachetée occidentale)

Spilogale gracilis
(Merriam, 1890)[44]
Thickets and bushes Southwestern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern (IUCN)
  • I: Secure (TNC)
Striped Skunk

Mephitis mephitis
(Moufette rayée)

Mephitis mephitis
(Schreber, 1776)
Forests, cultivated areas, valleys Rockies to the Maritmes. Introduced in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia in the 19th century.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Superfamily Pinnipedia: Pinnipeds
Family Otariidae: Eared seals
Northern Fur Seal

Callorhinus ursinus
(Otarie à fourrure)[45]

Callorhinus ursinus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Sea Off the coast of British Columbia; appreciates rocky outcrops. Occasionally reported from the Arctic.
  • I: VU Vulnerable
    • BC: Red list
Steller Sea Lion

Eumetopias jubatus
(Otarie de Steller)[46]

Eumetopias jubatus
(Schreber, 1776)
Coast waters British Columbia; appreciates rocky outcrops.
  • I: NT Near Threatened
    • BC: Blue list
ssp. monteriensis
  • I: LC Least Concern
California Sea Lion

Zalophus californianus
(Otarie de Californie)

Zalophus californianus
((Lesson, 1828))
Coast waters Near Vancouver Island.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Walrus

Odobenus rosmarus
(Morse)

Odobenus rosmarus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Arctic shallows James Bay to Groenland. Extinct in Western Arctic and the Magdalen Islands.
  • I: DD Data Deficient
Family Phocidae: Earless seals
Hooded Seal

Cystophora cristata
(Phoque à capuchon)

Cystophora cristata
(Erxleben, 1777)
Sea Atlantic from Gulf of the Saint Lawrence to northern Baffin Island.
  • I: VU Vulnerable
Bearded Seal

Erignathus barbatus
(Phoque barbu)

Erignathus barbatus
(Erxleben, 1777)
Sea Arctic Ocean
  • I: LC Least Concern
Grey Seal

Halichoerus grypus
(Phoque gris)

Halichoerus grypus
(Erxleben, 1777)
Sea rocks, and reefs East Coast
  • I: LC Least Concern
Northern Elephant Seal

Mirounga angustirostris
(Éléphant de mer du Nord)

Mirounga angustirostris
(Gill, 1866)
Tropical and temperate sea waters Occasional in British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern
Harp Seal

Phoca groenlandica
(Phoque du Groenland)

Phoca groenlandica
(Erxleben, 1777)[47]
Cold waters Gulf of Saint Lawrence to James Bay and Groenland.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Harbour Seal

Pusa hispida
(Phoque commun)

Phoca vitulina
Linnaeus, 1758
Coast waters and some interior lakes. Most Canadian coasts except the colder part of the Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • QC: ssp. mellonae Listing Candidate
Ringed Seal

Pusa hispida
(Phoque annelé)

Pusa hispida
(Schreber, 1775)
Arctic waters and ice-floes Arctic Ocean
  • I: LC Least Concern

Order Artiodactyla: Even-toed ungulates[edit]

The Even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species worldwide, including many that are of great economic importance.

Common name
(French name)
Species
(Authority)
Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Cervidae: Deers
Wapiti

Cervus canadensis
(Elk)

Cervus canadensis
(Linnaeus, 1758)[48]
Varied, prefers open areas. Southern Rockies and part of the prairies, reintroduced in several part of its former range.
  • I: LC Least Concern (Cervus elaphus)
  • ssp roosevelti
    • BC: Blue list
Moose

Alces alces
(Orignal)

Alces alces
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subarctic and open forests Yukon to New Brunswick. Introduced in Newfoundland, Cape Breton and Anticosti Islands.
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • NS: Endangered[49]
Mule deer

Odocoileus hemionus
(Cerf mulet)

Odocoileus hemionus
(Rafinesque, 1817)
Subarctic and open forests West Coast to Prairies
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • MB: Threatened
White-tailed deer

Odocoileus virginianus
(Cerf de Virginie)[50]

Odocoileus virginianus
(Zimmerman, 1780)
Glens, rivers, marshes, forest edges. Southern Rockies and Prairie Provinces to coast of Labrador and Maritimes. Introduced to the Anticosti Islands.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Caribou

Rangifer tarandus
(Caribou)

Rangifer tarandus
(Zimmerman, 1780)
Tundra, Taiga and boreal forest Boreal forests across Canada, art parts of the Arctic and Rockies
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • AB: caribou & groenlandicus threatened
    • MB: caribou threatened
    • QC: Threatened
    • NF: caribou threatened
    • BC: Varies[31]
Family Antilocapridae: The Pronghorn
Pronghorn

Antilocapra americana
(Antilope d'Amérique or Pronghorn)

Antilocapra americana
(Ord, 1815)
Prairies and plains Southern Saskatchewan and Alberta.
  • I: LC Least Concern
Family Bovidae: Bovids
Wood Bison

Bison bison athabascae
(Bison)[51]

Bison bison athabascae
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Varied South of the Great Slaves Lake. Small reintroduced population found in several parts of its former range.
  • I: NT Near Threatened (Bison bison)
    • AB: Endangered
    • BC: Red list
Mountain goat

Oreamnos americanus
(Chèvre de montagne)

Oreamnos americanus
(Blainville, 1816)
Mountains Various parts of the Western Cordillera
  • I: LC Least Concern
Muskox

Ovibos moschatus
(Boeuf musqué)

Ovibos moschatus
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Arctic tundra Canadian Arctic
  • I: LC Least Concern
Bighorn Sheep

Ovis canadensis
(Mouflon d'Amérique)

Ovis canadensis
(Shaw, 1804)
Alpine prairies South and southeastern Rockies
  • I: LC Least Concern
    • BC: Blue list
Dall Sheep

Ovis dalli
(Mouflon de Dall)

Ovis dalli
Nelson, 1884
Alpine tundra Yukon and northern British Columbia
  • I: LC Least Concern

ssp. dalli

  • BC: Blue list

Marsupials[edit]

Order Didelphimorphia: Opossums[edit]

Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene.They are small to medium-sized marsupials, about the size of a large house cat, with a long snout and prehensile tail.

Common name
(French name)
Species
(Authority)
Preferred habitat Native range Status[2]
Family Didelphidae: New World opossums
Virginia Opossum

Didelphis virginiana
(Opossum d'Amérique or de Virginie)

Didelphis virginiana
(Kerr, 1792)
Humid lowland forests. Southwestern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. Considered an exotic species by British Columbia.
  • I: LC Least Concern

Introduced or accidental species[edit]

A number of wild mammalians may be found in Canadian territory without being confirmed natives. Some were voluntarily or involuntarily introduced. These include the House Mouse (Mus musculus), and Norway and Black Rats (respectively Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus). Other include escaped animals; the Coypu (Myocastor coypus), European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Hares (Lepus europaeus),[52] as well as feral cats, dogs and horses fall into this category. Fallow Deers (Dama dama) and Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) were introduced for hunting.

Finally, other species are encountered only accidentally, or so rarely in Canadian territory that it is impossible to tell whether they are permanent resident. Most of these species are cetaceans, some generally poorly known: Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus), the Dwarf and Pygmy Sperm Whales (Kogia sima and K. breviceps), Blainville's and True's Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon densirostris and M. mirus), the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and the Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). The Big Free-tailed and Evening Bats (respectively Nyctinomops macrotis and Nycticeius humeralis), as well as the New England Cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) are found mostly in areas south of the U.S.-Canada frontier, and occasionally in Canada.

The only Canadian, and also last known specimen of the Sea Mink (Mustela macrodon) was captured on Campobello Island, in Nova Scotia in 1894. It is unknown whether the species was ever native to the country, but an unidentified animal reported in 1785 suggest it might have been more common in the Maritimes.

Extinct, extirpated or reintroduced species[edit]

Out of three species that have gone extinct in Canada in written history, two have since been reintroduced. It is not clear whether a fourth species, the aforementioned Sea Mink, was ever a resident of Canada.

The Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) went extinct in Canada in 1937. Between the 1950s and 1981, it was suspected to be extinct until a wild population was discovered in 1981 in Wyoming. The Swift Fox and Sea Otter both went extinct in Canada in the 1930s, but were successfully reintroduced in the beginning of the 1970s.

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i
    • I: International. Uses IUCN where available
    • CA: Canadian status, if any
      • Provincial statuses, if any and different from federal status.
  3. ^ This species and the European Sciurus vulgaris both share the same French name.
  4. ^ COSEWIC originally designated this species as Special Concern in 1988. It has since been discovered that the range is much larger than previously thought, and the species was delisted in 2006.([1], [2])
  5. ^ Originally assessed as Special Concern, was reassessed in 1998
  6. ^ a b It is not clear which of Myodes or Clethrionomys is the proper genus name. This list uses Clethrionomys as it is currently the most widely used name.
  7. ^ The name was originally applied to D. torquatus, of which D. groenlandicus was originally considered to be a subspecies.
  8. ^ a b c Whether or not this species is a subspecies of D. groenlandicus is unclear.
  9. ^ The North American L. sibiricus are now recognized as a separate species. IUCN still treats both as L. sibiricus.
  10. ^ This species is now considered to include P. sitkensis and P. oreas, as well as several subspecies of P. maniculatus
  11. ^ Ranked as "Vulnerable" in both province by The Nature Conservancy
  12. ^ a b The available evidence indicates that S. gaspensis is a junior synonym for S. dispar but regulatory regimes have not yet fully incorporated that finding.
  13. ^ Formerly considered Special Concern
  14. ^ Also Sorex obscurus in older sources.
  15. ^ Sometimes considered a subspecies of M. leibii.
  16. ^ a b Sometimes considered a subspecies of M. keenii
  17. ^ This species is often treated as a subspecies of L. borealis
  18. ^ IUCN records this species as Baleine du Groenland.
  19. ^ The IUCN ranks the Okhotsk Sea subpopulation as Endangered EN and the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Sea population as Least Concern LC.
  20. ^ COSEWIC ranks the Davis Strait-Baffin and Bay-Foxe Basin populations as Threatened and the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Sea population as Special Concern.
  21. ^ a b Also Baleine noire. The recognition of Eubalaena japonica as a separate species has not yet effected common French names.
  22. ^ COSEWIC ranks the Pacific population as Threatened and the Atlantic one as Special Concern.
  23. ^ COSEWIC ranks the Pacific population as Threatened and the Atlantic one as Not at Risk.
  24. ^ IUCN lists the species as Near Threatened; TNC lists it as Apparently Secure.
  25. ^ The various populations have ranks varying between Special Concern and Endangered.
  26. ^ The St. Laurence Estuary population is designated Threatened, other populations are listing candidates.
  27. ^ Sometimes simply "Marsouin"
  28. ^ Population of the Scotian Shelf only.
  29. ^ Might be a subspecies of M. bowdoini.
  30. ^ Populations in the Pacific are ranked Threatened, Endangered or Special Concern. The Atlantic population is considered Data Deficient.
  31. ^ a b Populations are Blue- or Red-listed.
  32. ^ Formerly Lous-cervier.
  33. ^ It is not clear whether a sustainable population exists or not in Eastern Canada. The species was practically exterminated by the 1970s, but a large number of observations since and the capture of a specimen in 1992 have made the species' status in Eastern Canada a subject of controversy amongst biologists.
  34. ^ "Renard polaire" is preferred in Europe, while "renard arctique" is more common in Quebec.
  35. ^ The species is occasionally reported as far south as Central Ontario and Cape Breton Island, and is known to travel south on floes.
  36. ^ According to COSEWIC, the species "[m]et criterion for Endangered [...], but due to rescue effect was designated Threatened."
  37. ^ "Loup gris" is used when contrast with C. rufus ("Loup rouge") is needed.
  38. ^ The prairies population has been extirpated.
  39. ^ If distinction from other Procyon species is needed, "raton laveur commun" is used.
  40. ^ Frequently just "belette", or "belette d'Europe" if distinction from other Mustela species is needed.
  41. ^ Cape Breton Island only
  42. ^ Ssp. luscus is Blue-listed. Ssp. vancouverensis is Red-listed.
  43. ^ Reintroduced in the 1970s; the species had been extirpated in Canada around the start of the 20th century.
  44. ^ This species is often considered a subspecies of the Eastern Spotted Skunk, S. putorius, which is otherwise not found in Canada.
  45. ^ If distinction is needed with Arctocephalus fosteri, the Southern or New Zealand Fur Seal, "otarie à fourrure du Nord" is used.
  46. ^ Also "lion de mer de Steller".
  47. ^ Sources conflict as to whether classify this species with Phoca or Pagophilus.
  48. ^ Some debate remains as to whether consider this species the same or not as Red Deer, C. elaphus.
  49. ^ On mainland only.
  50. ^ The name "chevreuil" is frequent in Quebec, but considered improper, as it normally applies to the European Roe Deer, Capreolus capreolus.
  51. ^ If distinction is needed with B. bonasus, "bison d'Amérique" is used.
  52. ^ Some authorities consider L. europaeus and L. capensis (Cape Hare) to be the same species.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]