List of mammals of Korea

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Korean Peninsula and surrounding islands
Once common throughout Korea, the red fox is now extremely rare.

Approximately 100 species of mammal are known to inhabit, or recently to have inhabited, the Korean Peninsula and its surrounding waters. This includes a few species that were introduced in the 20th century; the coypu was introduced for farming in the 1990s, and the muskrat was introduced in the early 20th century into the Russian Far East and was subsequently first recorded in Korea in the Tumen River basin in 1965. The Siberian tiger and Japanese sea lion have probably been extirpated from Korea, but are still included in standard lists of Korean mammals.

Most Korean mammal species are found only in a small part of Korea. The large southeastern island of Jeju, and the rugged northeastern Paektu Mountain region, are particularly known for their distinctive mammal species. Several species, including the Dsinezumi shrew, are found only on Jeju, while many other species, such as the wild boar, are absent or extirpated from there. Some mammals, such as the Manchurian wapiti, are considered natural monuments of North Korea, while others, such as the spotted seal, are considered natural monuments of South Korea.

Order Artiodactyla: Even-toed Ungulates[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Bovidae: Bovids
Long-tailed goral

Naemorhedus caudatus
(산양)

Naemorhedus caudatus[2]
(Hamilton Smith, 1827)
High mountains




Northern Taebaek Mountains, including the Demilitarized Zone.[3]
Family Cervidae: Deer
Siberian roe deer

Paozikun530.jpg
(노루)

Capreolus pygargus
(Pallas, 1771)
Forest verges Throughout; not found on Ulleungdo
Manchurian wapiti

Cervus canadensis
(붉은사슴)

Cervus c. xanthopygus
(Erxleben, 1777)
Forest verges North Hamgyong and the Paektusan region
Manchurian sika deer

Cervus nippon
(대륙사슴)

Cervus n. mantchuricus
(Temminck, 1838)
Open forests and forest verges Throughout mainland[12]
Water deer

Hydropotes inermis
(고라니)

Hydropotes inermis
(Swinhoe, 1870)
Low mountains and riparian areas Throughout mainland
Family Suidae: Pigs
Wild boar

Sus scrofa
(멧돼지)

Sus s. ussuricus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Mountain forests Throughout mainland
Family Moschidae: Musk deer
Siberian musk deer

Moschus moschiferus
(사향노루)

Moschus moschiferus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Mountain forests North Korea; also found in Gangwon, South Korea

Order Carnivora: Carnivores[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Canidae: Canids
Eurasian wolf

Canis lupus
(늑대)

Canis lupus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Forests and open woods Paektusan area
Dhole

Cuon alpinus
(승냥이)

Cuon alpinus[23]
(Pallas, 1811)
Dense forests and high mountains Paektusan area
Raccoon dog

Nyctereutes procyonoides
(너구리)

Nyctereutes procyonoides
(Gray, 1834)
Wooded valleys Throughout mainland
Red fox

Vulpes vulpes
(여우)

Vulpes vulpes
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Brushy areas and forest verges Northern and northeastern Korea
Family Felidae: Felids
Leopard cat

Prionailurus bengalensis
()

Prionailurus bengalensis[29]
(Kerr, 1792)
Dense forests Central and northern Korea
Eurasian lynx

Lynx lynx
(스라소니)

Lynx lynx
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Montane forests North Hamgyong and Chagang, North Korea
Amur leopard

Panthera pardus orientalis
(표범)

Panthera pardus orientalis
(Schlegel, 1857)
High dense forests Northern Korea
Siberian tiger

Panthera tigris altaica
(호랑이)

Panthera tigris altaica
(Temminck, 1844)
Rocky forests Hamgyong provinces, northeastern North Korea
Family Mustelidae: Mustelids
European otter

Lutra lutra
(수달)

Lutra lutra
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Riparian areas Throughout mainland, scattered
Yellow-throated marten

Martes flavigula
(담비)

Martes flavigula
(Boddaert, 1785)
High forests Northern Korea
Japanese marten

Martes melampus
(산달)

Martes melampus
(Wagner, 1841)
High forests Central and northern Korea[31]
Sable

Martes zibellina
(검은담비)

Martes zibellina
(Linnaeus, 1758)
High, dense boreal forests North Hamgyong, northeastern North Korea
Asian badger

Meles leucurus
(오소리)

Meles leucurus
(Hodgson, 1847)
Forests and mountain valleys. Fossorial. Throughout mainland
Least weasel

Mustela nivalis
(무산쇠족제비)

Mustela nivalis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subalpine areas Far northeastern and northwestern North Korea[40]
Siberian weasel

Mustela sibirica
(족제비)

Mustela sibirica[41]
(Pallas, 1773)
Forests and riparian areas Throughout, including Jeju[40]
Family Ursidae: Bears
Asian black bear

Selenarctos thibetanus
(반달가슴곰)

Ursus thibetanus[42]
(G. Cuvier, 1823)
Thick forests Jirisan and Seoraksan in South Korea; Kumgangsan and Paektusan in North Korea
Brown bear

Ursus arctos
(불곰)

Ursus arctos
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Thick forests Central and northern Korea
Superfamily Pinnipedia: Pinnipeds
Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1][48]
Family Otariidae: Eared Seals
Northern fur seal

Callorhinus ursinus
(바다말|물개|바다말)

Callorhinus ursinus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Coasts and seas Most common in the Sea of Japan
Steller sea lion

Eumetopias jubatus
(큰바다사자)

Eumetopias jubatus
(Schreber, 1776)
Coasts and seas Northern Yellow Sea and Sea of Japan
Japanese sea lion

Zalophus japonicas
(일본강치)

Zalophus japonicus
(Peters, 1866)
Coasts and seas East China Sea, Korea Strait, Sea of Japan
  • I: Extinct in 1970s (IUCN 3.1)
California sea lion

Zalophus japonicus
(바다사자)

Zalophus japonicus[51]
(Peters, 1866)
Rocky coasts Last seen on Liancourt Rocks in 1951
Family Phocidae: Earless Seals
Harbor seal

Phoca vitulina
(잔점박이물범)

Phoca vitulina
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Coasts and seas Northern Sea of Japan
Spotted seal

Phoca largha
(점박이물범)

Phoca largha
(Pallas, 1811)
Coasts and seas Throughout Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, and Korea Strait; large colony on Baengnyeongdo

Order Cetacea: Whales[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Suborder Mysticeti: Baleen whales
Family Balaenidae: Right Whales
North Pacific right whale

Eubalaena japonica
(북태평양참고래|북태평양참고래)

Eubalaena japonica
(Lacépède, 1818)
Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, East China Sea (wiped out by Japanese, Russian, and American whalers)
  • I: EN Endangered
  • CA: Endangered
Northeast Pacific subpopulation
  • I: CR Critically Endangered
Family Eschrichtiidae: Gray Whales
Gray whale

Eschrichtius robustus
(귀신고래)

Eschrichtius robustus
(Lilljeborg, 1861)
Migratory through coastal waters Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, East China Sea (wiped out by Japanese whalers)
  • I: LC Endangered
  • CA: Threatened/Special Concern[53]
    • BC: Blue List
    • QC: Listing Candidate
Humpback whale

Megaptera novaeangliae
(흑고래)

Megaptera novaeangliae
(Borowski, 1781)
Coastal waters, often penetrates estuaries Very small numbers in Sea of Japan and Korea Strait and Yellow Sea, seasonally residents in East China Sea (wiped out by Japanese whalers)
  • I: LC Least Concern
  • CA: Threatened/Not at Risk[54]
    • BC: Blue List
Minke whale

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
(밍크고래)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata
(Lacépède, 1804)
Widespread Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Sea of Japan
Blue whale

Balaenoptera musculus
(대왕고래)

Balaenoptera musculus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Deep ocean waters thought to be almost/already extinct in east Asian water (wiped out by Japanese whalers)
Fin whale

Balaenoptera physalus
(긴수염고래)

Balaenoptera physalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Coastal waters Very small residents in Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, almost extinct in Yellow Sea and East China Sea (reduced by Japanese whalers)
Bryde's whale

Balaenoptera brydei
(밍크고래)

Balaenoptera borealis
Widespread Yellow Sea(possibly), East China Sea, Sea of Japan
Sei whale

Balaenoptera borealis
(밍크고래)

Balaenoptera borealis
Widespread Yellow Sea,[60] East China Sea, Sea of Japan
Suborder Odontoceti: Toothed Whales
Family Delphinidae: Oceanic dolphins
Short-beaked common dolphin

Delphinus delphis
(짧은부리참돌고래)

Delphinus delphis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Warmer coastal waters Throughout
Common bottlenose dolphin

Tursiops truncatus
(큰돌고래)

Tursiops truncatus
Warmer coastal and Open waters Throughout
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin

Tursiops aduncus
(남방큰돌고래)

Tursiops aduncus
Warmer coastal waters Endangered, resident at Jeju Island
Striped dolphin

Stenella coeruleoalba
(줄무늬돌고래)

Stenella coeruleoalba
Warmer coastal and Open waters
  • I: LR/cd.
Fraser's dolphin

Lagenodelphis hosei
(사라와크돌고래)

Lagenodelphis hosei
Warmer coastal waters Vagrant
Pacific white-sided dolphin

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
(낫돌고래)

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
(Gill, 1865)
Warmer coastal waters Sea of Japan[62]
Risso's dolphin

Grampus griseus
(큰코돌고래)

Grampus griseus
Coastal and Open seas Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, East China Sea
  • I:DD
Family Globicephala: Pilot whales
Short-finned pilot whale

Globicephala macrorhynchus
(들쇠고래)

Globicephala macrorhynchus
Open seas Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, East China Sea
  • I:LR/cd
False killer whale

Pseudorca crassidens
(흑범고래)

Pseudorca crassidens
Coastal and Open seas Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, East China Sea
  • I:LR/lc
Pygmy killer whale

Feresa attenuata
(들고양이고래)

Feresa attenuata
Coastal and Open seas Korea Strait, East China Sea
  • I:DD
Killer whale

Orcinus orca
(범고래)

Orcinus orca
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Coastal waters Throughout (reduced by Japanese whalers)
Family Phocoenidae: Porpoises
Dall's porpoise

Phocoenoides dalli
(까치돌고래)

Phocoenoides dalli


(True, 1885)

Colder ocean waters North of the 35th parallel in the Sea of Japan
Harbour porpoise

Phocoena phocoena
(쇠돌고래)

Phocoena phocoena
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Colder ocean waters Sea of Japan
Finless porpoise

Neophocaena phocaenoides
(상괭이)

Neophocaena phocaenoides
(Cuvier, 1829)
Coastal waters Yellow Sea, Korea Strait, southern Sea of Japan
Family Physeteridae: Sperm whales
Sperm whale

Physeter macrocephalus
(향고래)

Physeter macrocephalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Deep oceans Korea Strait, East China Sea, Sea of Japan (in small numbers)
Family Ziphiidae: Beaked whales
Giant beaked whale

Berardius bairdii
(큰부리고래)

Berardius bairdii
(Stejneger, 1883)
Open seas Sea of Japan (reduced by Japanese whalers)
Cuvier's beaked whale

Ziphius cavirostris
(민부리고래)

Ziphius cavirostris
Open seas Sea of Japan, East China Sea
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale

Mesoplodon ginkgodens
(은행이빨부리고래)

Mesoplodon ginkgodens
Open seas Sea of Japan, East China Sea, Yellow Sea[72]
  • I:DD

Order Erinaceomorpha: Hedgehogs[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Erinaceidae: Hedgehogs
Amur hedgehog

Erinaceus amurensis
(고슴도치)

Erinaceus amurensis
(Schrenk, 1859)
Deciduous and mixed forests[73] Throughout mainland

Order Soricomorpha: Shrews and moles[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Talpidae: Moles
Japanese mole

Mogera wogura
(두더지)

Mogera wogura[74]
(Temminck, 1833)
High moist forest Throughout mainland; not found on Jeju or Ulleungdo
Family Soricidae: Shrews
Dsinezumi shrew


(제주땃쥐)

Crocidura dsinezumi
(Temminck, 1842)
Damp forests and grasslands Found only on Jeju[75]
Ussuri white-toothed shrew


(땃쥐)

Crocidura lasiura
(Dobson, 1890)
Widespread Throughout mainland
Lesser white-toothed shrew

Crocidura suaveolens
(작은땃쥐)

Crocidura suaveolens
(Pallas, 1811)
Moist deciduous forests Throughout, including Ulleungdo[76]
Eurasian water shrew

Neomys fodiens
(갯첨서)

Neomys fodiens
(Pennant, 1771)
Riparian areas and mountain lakes[76] Northern North Korea.[77]
Laxmann's shrew


(뒤쥐)

Sorex caecutiens
(Laxmann, 1788)
Rugged mountains Northern and northeastern North Korea.[78]
Siberian large-toothed shrew


(백두산뒤쥐)

Sorex daphaenodon
(Thomas, 1907)
Boreal forests and alpine meadows Paektusan region.[79]
Slender shrew


(쇠뒤쥐)

Sorex gracillimus
(Thomas, 1907)
Coniferous forests and alpine regions Northeastern North Korea.[80]
Taiga shrew


(큰발뒤쥐)

Sorex isodon
(Turov, 1924)
Mountain forests Baekdudaegan mountains.[82]
Eurasian least shrew

Sorex minutissimus
(꼬마뒤쥐)

Sorex minutissimus
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Rugged mountains bove 1500 meters[83] Central and northern Korea.[84]
Ussuri shrew


(큰첨서)

Sorex mirabilis
(Ognev, 1937)
Moist ground above 1500 meters[83] Central and northern Korea
Long-clawed shrew

Sorex unguiculatus
(긴발톱첨서)

Sorex unguiculatus
(Dobson, 1890)
High moist areas Northeastern North Korea.[85]

Order Chiroptera: Bats[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Rhinolophidae: Horseshoe bats
Greater horseshoe bat

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
(관박쥐)

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
(Schreber, 1774)
Roosts in caves and abandoned mines Scattered throughout, including Jeju
Family Vespertilionidae: Vesper bats
Kobayashi's bat


(고바야시박쥐)

Eptesicus koyabashii
(Mori, 1928)
West central Korea.[88]
Northern bat

Eptesicus nilssonii
(생박쥐)

Eptesicus nilssonii
(Keyserling et Blasius, 1839)
Found in Gyeonggi, northwestern South Korea, and North Hamgyong, northeastern North Korea
Serotine bat

Eptesicus serotinus
(문둥이박쥐)

Eptesicus serotinus
(Schreber, 1774)
Roosts in roofs and walls Most common in northwestern Korea
Savi's pipistrelle

Hypsugo savii
(큰집박쥐)

Hypsugo savii[91]
(Bonaparte, 1837)
Roosts in caves[92] Throughout
Common bent-wing bat

Miniopterus schreibersi
(긴날개박쥐)

Miniopterus schreibersi
(Kuhl, 1817)
Grasslands and forests in summer; caves in winter Scattered throughout
Little tube-nosed bat


(작은관코박쥐)

Murina aurata
(Milne-Edwards, 1872)
Unknown
Greater tube-nosed bat

Murina leucogaster
(관코박쥐)

Murina leucogaster
(Milne-Edwards, 1872)
Unknown.[95]
Far Eastern myotis


(흰배윗수염박쥐)

Myotis bombinus[96]
(Thomas, 1906)
Hibernates in caves Throughout, including Jeju
Daubenton's bat

Myotis daubentoni
(물윗수염박쥐)

Myotis daubentonii
(Kuhl, 1817)
Near water Throughout, including Jeju
Hodgson's bat

Myotis formosus
(오렌지윗수염박쥐)

Myotis formosus
(Hodgson, 1835)
Scattered throughout; not found on Jeju[98]
Fraternal myotis


(긴꼬리윗수염박쥐)

Myotis frater
(G.M. Allen, 1923)
Forests Northern Korea.[99]
Ikonnikov's bat


(작은윗수염박쥐)

Myotis ikonnikovi
(Ognev, 1912)
Scattered throughout, including Jeju
Eastern long-fingered bat


(큰발윗수염박쥐)

Myotis macrodactylus
(Temminck, 1840)
Local throughout, including Jeju
Whiskered bat

Myotis mystacinus
(윗수염박쥐)

Myotis mystacinus
(Kuhl, 1817)
Forests Scattered throughout, including Jeju and Ulleungdo[102]
Birdlike noctule


(멧박쥐)

Nyctalus aviator
(Thomas, 1911)
Scattered throughout
Java pipistrelle


(큰집박쥐)

Pipistrellus javanicus[104]


(Gray, 1838)

Scattered throughout
Brown long-eared bat

Plecotus auritus
(토끼박쥐)

Plecotus auritus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
High mountains The Taebaek Mountains and the Paektusan area in northern North Korea
Particoloured bat

Vespertilio murinus
(북방애기박쥐)

Vespertilio murinus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
High forests and grasslands in the summer North Hamgyong, North Korea
Asian particolored bat


(안주애기박쥐)

Vespertilio superans
(Thomas, 1899)
West central Korea.[105]

Order Lagomorpha: Lagomorphs[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Leporidae: Leporids
Korean hare


(멧토끼)

Lepus coreanus
(Thomas, 1892)
Widespread at low altitudes.[106] Throughout mainland.[107]
Manchurian hare


(북방토끼)

Lepus mandschuricus
(Radde, 1861)
High rocky forests Northern Korea
Family Ochotonidae: Pikas
Northern pika

Ochotona hyperborea
(우는토끼)

Ochotona hyperborea
(Pallas, 1811)
Alpine meadows, 1000–2500 m. Northern Korea

Order Primates: Prosimians and simians[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Hominidae: Great apes
Human

Homo sapiens
(사람)

Homo sapiens
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Widespread Throughout

Order Rodentia: Rodents[edit]

Common name

(Korean name)

Species

(Authority)

Preferred habitat Range Status[1]
Family Muridae: Murids
Striped field mouse

Apodemus agrarius
(등줄쥐)

Apodemus agrarius
(Pallas, 1771)
Widespread Throughout, including Jeju[109]
Jeju striped field mouse


(제주등줄쥐)

Apodemus chejuensis[111]
(Jones et Johnson, 1965)
Widespread Found only on Jeju
Korean field mouse


(흰넓적다리붉은쥐)

Apodemus peninsulae
(Thomas, 1907)
Forest verges and brushland Throughout mainland
Eurasian harvest mouse

Micromys minutus
(멧밭쥐)

Micromys minutus
(Pallas, 1771)
Low grasslands and fields Throughout; not found on Ulleungdo
House mouse

Mus musculus
(생쥐)

Mus musculus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Human dwellings Throughout
Brown rat

Rattus norvegicus
(집쥐)

Rattus norvegicus
(Berkenhout, 1769)
Urban and cultivated areas Throughout
Black rat

Rattus rattus
(애급쥐)

Rattus rattus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Urban areas Central and southern Korea
Family Cricetidae: Cricetids
Northern red-backed vole

Myodes rutilus
(숲들쥐)

Myodes rutilus
(Pallas, 1779)
High, dense mixed forest Far northeastern Korea
Grey red-backed vole

Myodes rufocanus
(대륙밭쥐)

Myodes rufocanus[117]
(Sundevall, 1846)
Boreal forest Northern Korea
Chinese striped hamster

Cricetulus barbarensis
(비단털등줄쥐)

Cricetulus barabensis
(Pallas, 1773)
Fields Sinuiju and Cholsan, North Korea
Royal vole


(비단털들쥐)

Eothenomys regulus
(Thomas, 1907)
Widespread; avoids deep forests Southern, central and northwestern Korea
Mandarin vole


(쇠갈밭쥐)

Lasiopodomys mandarinus[122]
(Milne-Edwards, 1871)
Grassy wetlands Southwestern Korea
Reed vole


(갈밭쥐)

Microtus fortis
(Buchner, 1889)
High fields and forest verges Western and northern Korea
Muskrat

Ondatra zibethicus
(사향쥐)

Ondatra zibethicus
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Marshes and lakes Tumen River basin, North Korea.[123]
Greater long-tailed hamster


(비단털쥐)

Tscherskia triton
(de Winton, 1899)
Widespread Throughout, including Jeju[120]
Family Myocastoridae: the Coypu
Coypu

Myocastor coypus
(뉴트리아)

Myocastor coypus


(Molina, 1782)

Wetlands South Korea's Yeongnam region (Introduced for farming in the 1990s)
Family Sciuridae: Squirrels
Siberian flying squirrel

Pteromys volans
(하늘다람쥐)

Pteromys volans
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Boreal forest Far northeast and Taebaek Mountains
Red squirrel

Sciurus vulgaris
(청설모)

Sciurus vulgaris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Forests Throughout mainland[127]
Siberian chipmunk

Tamias sibiricus
(다람쥐)

Tamias sibiricus
(Laxmann, 1769)
Forests Inland throughout
Family Dipodidae: Jumping mice
Long-tailed birch mouse


(긴꼬리꼬마쥐)

Sicista caudata
(Thomas, 1907)
Riparian zones and wetlands Northeastern Korea[128]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The following abbreviations are used:
  2. ^ Given as Nemorhaedus goral in Won (2004). The Korean population is generally referred to N. c. raddeanus Heude.
  3. ^ Won (2004), p. 273; Won & Smith (1999), p. 21. It was once widespread across the Taebaek and Rangrim ranges, but the population had fallen to around 40 by 1990.
  4. ^ Caprinae Specialist Group (1996). Naemorhedus caudatus ssp. raddeanus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 5 October 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Won & Smith (1999), p. 7.
  6. ^ The goral of Tanchon is designated North Korean natural monument 293. [1]
  7. ^ Designated South Korean natural monument #217 on November 20, 1968. "산양". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  8. ^ Deer Specialist Group (1996). Capreolus pygargus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 5 October 2006.
  9. ^ Won & Smith (1999), p. 21.
  10. ^ Deer Specialist Group (1996). Cervus elaphus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 1 December 2006.
  11. ^ The Samjiyon population is designated as natural monument #354."삼지연큰사슴". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  12. ^ Won (2004), p. 264
  13. ^ Deer Specialist Group (1996). Cervus nippon. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 1 December 2006.
  14. ^ The Samjiyon population has been designated Natural Monument 349, and the Paegam population Natural Monument 362. "삼지연사슴". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  15. ^ Deer Specialist Group (1996). Hydropotes inermis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 5 October 2006.
  16. ^ a b c Won & Smith (1999), p. 7. One of only 3 mammal species legally hunted in South Korea.
  17. ^ Pigs & Peccaries Specialist Group (1996). Sus scrofa. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 1 December 2006.
  18. ^ Deer Specialist Group (1996). Moschus moschiferus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 5 October 2006.
  19. ^ The musk deer of Rogya ri, in Undok, North Hamgyong, has been designated natural monument #331."록야리 사향노루". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-12-01.  The population in the Mayafgdfgsertewrtwrtwertwertwerng workers' district of Musan is designated #380, while the population in Taehung county is designated #401. [2]
  20. ^ Designated natural monument #216 on October 20, 1968. "사향노루". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  21. ^ Wolf Working Group (2004). Canis lupus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  22. ^ Won (2004), p. 147.
  23. ^ Commonly referred to C. a. alpinus. Won & Smith (1999), p. 16.
  24. ^ Dhole Working Group (2004). Cuon alpinus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  25. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Hoffmann, M. (2004). Nyctereutes procyonoides. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  26. ^ a b c d e Won & Smith (1999), p. 14.
  27. ^ Macdonald, D.W. & Reynolds, J.C. (2004). Vulpes vulpes. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  28. ^ Won (2004, p. 151); Won & Smith (1999), p. 7.
  29. ^ Given as Felis bengalensis in older sources and in Won (2004).
  30. ^ Cat Specialist Group (2002). Prionailurus bengalensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  31. ^ a b Won & Smith (1999), p. 18.
  32. ^ Cat Specialist Group (2002). Lynx lynx. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  33. ^ Cat Specialist Group (1996). Panthera pardus ssp. orientalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  34. ^ Cat Specialist Group (1996). Panthera tigris ssp. altaica. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  35. ^ Designated as such in 1982. Won & Smith 1999, pp. 7, 18.
  36. ^ The Poptong population is designated Natural Monument #249, and population in Yonsa's Sinyang workers' district is designated #331. "법동수달". 남북한의 천연기념물. Retrieved 2006-12-06.  [3]
  37. ^ Designated as Natural Monument #330."Natural Monuments No. 330". Cultural Heritage Administration website. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  38. ^ The Paegam population is designated Natural Monument #366. "백암누른돈". 남북한의 천연기념물. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  39. ^ The Paegam population is designated North Korean Natural Monument #331. "백암검은돈". 남북한의 천연기념물. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  40. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 19.
  41. ^ The variety of M. sibirica found on Jeju Island is sometimes regarded as a separate subspecies, the "Jeju Weasel" or Mustela sibirica quelpartis Thomas 1906.
  42. ^ Given in many sources as Selenarctos thibetanus
  43. ^ Bear Specialist Group (1996). Ursus thibetanus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  44. ^ Designated as South Korean natural monument 329 on November 4, 1982. Cultural Heritage Administration. "Natural Monuments 329". Exploring of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  45. ^ Bear Specialist Group (1996). Ursus arctos. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  46. ^ Due to heavy hunting Won & Smith (1999), p. 17.
  47. ^ The Ryongrim population was designated natural monument #124 on January 1, 1980. "룡림큰곰". 남북한희 천연기념물. Retrieved 2006-12-06.  The Yonsa population has been designated natural monument #330.[4]
  48. ^ According to Won (2004, p. 188ff), seals are protected from hunting under South Korean law.
  49. ^ Seal Specialist Group (1996). Callorhinus ursinus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  50. ^ Pop. estimated at 1.3 million in Won (2004), p. 191.
  51. ^ Sometimes treated as a subspecies of the California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus japonicus.
  52. ^ Designated Natural Monument #331 on November 4, 1982. Won (2004), p. 194.
  53. ^ COSEWIC ranks the Pacific population as Threatened and the Atlantic one as Special Concern.
  54. ^ COSEWIC ranks the Pacific population as Threatened and the Atlantic one as Not at Risk.
  55. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Balaenoptera acutorostrata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  56. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Balaenoptera musculus ssp. musculus (North Pacific stock). 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  57. ^ a b c Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Balaenoptera physalus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  58. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Eschrichtius robustus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  59. ^ Its feeding grounds have been designated South Korean natural monument 126.
  60. ^ http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/cetaceans/about/sei_whale/
  61. ^ Won (2004), p. 244.
  62. ^ The Sea of Japan population is estimated at 80,000-100,000. Won (2004), p. 245.
  63. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Orcinus orca. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  64. ^ Won (2004), p. 238.
  65. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Phocoenoides dalli. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  66. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Phocoena phocoena. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  67. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Neophocaena phocaenoides. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  68. ^ Nam (2004), p. 254.
  69. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Physeter macrocephalus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  70. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Berardius bairdii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  71. ^ Cetacean Specialist Group (1996). Ziphius cavirostris. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  72. ^ Shi YaXW (1984) On the ginkgo-toothed beaked whale found in the northern part of the Yellow Sea. Transactions of Liaoning Zoological Society 5: 111–116. retrieved on 09-05-2014
  73. ^ Won & Smith (1999), p. 6.
  74. ^ Sometimes considered two species, Mogera robusta and Mogera wogura
  75. ^ a b Formerly common on Jeju, but has not been reported there since the 1970s. Won & Smith (1999), p. 8.
  76. ^ a b c d e Won & Smith (1999), p. 9.
  77. ^ There are also unverified reports from Seoraksan in South Korea. Won (2004), p. 29.
  78. ^ Also reported from Mungyeong, South Korea.
  79. ^ The first specimen was found there in 2001. Won (2004), p. 31.
  80. ^ There is also an unconfirmed 1983 report from Jirisan in South Korea. Won (2004), p. 32.
  81. ^ Won & Smith (1999), p. 10.
  82. ^ The first specimen was taken on Odaesan in South Korea in 1999. Won (2004), p. 33; cites Han et al. (2000), "New records of two Sorex species (Soricidae) from South Korea", Mammal Study 25:2, 141-144.
  83. ^ a b Won (2004), p. 34.
  84. ^ Has been recorded only from Seoraksan and Odaesan. Won & Smith (1999), p. 10.
  85. ^ May also have been collected from Jirisan, but this has not been confirmed. Won (2004), p. 35.
  86. ^ Won & Smith (1999), p. 10-11.
  87. ^ a b c Won & Smith (1999), p. 11.
  88. ^ Kobayashi's Bat has been reported from Pyongyang, Kaesong, and Seoul, according to Won (2004), p. 85.
  89. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Eptesicus kobayashii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  90. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 12.
  91. ^ Often given as Pipistrellus savii, or considered to be a separate species Pipistrellus coreensis. Won (2004), p. 72; Won & Smith (1999), p. 14.
  92. ^ Won (2004), p. 72.
  93. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 15.
  94. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Murina aurata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  95. ^ Won & Smith (1999), p. 15. Won & Smith suggest that its range probably includes east-central and northeastern Korea.
  96. ^ Formerly considered a subspecies of Myotis nattereri. Won & Smith (1999), p. 12.
  97. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Myotis bombinus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  98. ^ Won (2004), p. 61.
  99. ^ Also reported from Masan, South Korea, according to Won (2004), p. 57.
  100. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Myotis frater. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  101. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 13.
  102. ^ Won (2004), p. 54.
  103. ^ Chiroptera Specialist Group (1996). Nyctalus aviator. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  104. ^ Sometimes considered to belong to Pipistrellus abramus
  105. ^ There are records from the provinces of Gyeonggi, South Korea, and South Pyongan, North Korea. However, the only recent record is from Anju in North Korea.
  106. ^ Seldom seen at elevations above 500 meters, according to Ministry of Environment (2005). "멧토끼" (PDF). 한국고유생물종도감 [Hanguk goyu saengmuljong dogam] [English title: Endemic species of Korea]. p. 6. 
  107. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 28.
  108. ^ Bergsten & Chʻoe (2003), p. vii.
  109. ^ a b c d e f Won & Smith (1999), p. 27.
  110. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Apodemus agrarius. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  111. ^ Formerly considered a subspecies of Apodemus agrarius, but shown to be a separate species by mitochondrial studies in the 1990s. Won & Smith (1999), p. 27.
  112. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Micromys minutus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  113. ^ Possibly the most abundant mammal on the Korean Peninsula, according to Won & Smith (1999), p. 28.
  114. ^ Introduced accidentally, according to Won & Smith (1999), p. 28.
  115. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Clethrionomys rutilus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  116. ^ a b c Won & Smith (1999), p. 25.
  117. ^ Sometimes given as Clethrionomys rufocanus
  118. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Clethrionomys rufocanus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  119. ^ Baillie, J. (1996). Clethrionomys rutilus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  120. ^ a b c d Won & Smith (1999), p. 26.
  121. ^ Baillie, J. (1996). Eothenomys regulus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  122. ^ Sometimes called Microtus mandarinus
  123. ^ a b The Muskrat was first recorded in the Tumen River basin in 1965; according to Won & Smith (1999), it had been introduced several decades earlier into the Russian Far East, and may have been present in Korea for some time before the first report.
  124. ^ Baillie, J. (1996). Tscherskia triton. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  125. ^ Won (2004), p. 141.
  126. ^ Amori, G. (1996). Pteromys volans. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  127. ^ Won (2004), p. 107.
  128. ^ Specimens have been collected from Pujŏn in South Hamgyong and Samjiyŏn in Ryanggang. Won (2004), p. 116. In addition, Smith & Won (1999) report it from Yanggang in Gangwon, South Korea.
  129. ^ Tchabovsky, A. (1996). Sicista caudata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.

References and further reading[edit]