List of mammals of the United States

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This is a list of about 490 mammal species recorded in the United States. It is probably incomplete. Unincorporated territories like for example Puerto Rico, Guam or Northern Mariana Islands are not covered. Mammals introduced and extinct in the Holocene except Pleistocene/Holocene boundary are included.

According to the IUCN Red List 3 of these species are critically endangered, 20 endangered, 15 vulnerable, 20 near threatened and 4 extinct.[1]

Some species are identified as indicated below:

  • (A) - Accidental
  • (E) - Extinct
  • (Ex) - Extirpated (extinct in the USA, but exists elsewhere in the world)
  • (I) - Introduced

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinction No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically Endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near Threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorize it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least Concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data Deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

(v. 2013.2, the data are current as of March 5, 2014[1])

and the Endangered Species Act:

E Endangered
T Threatened
XN, XE eXperimental Nonessential or Essential population
E(S/A), T(S/A) Endangered or Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance

(the data are current as of March 28, 2014[2])

Subclass: Theria[edit]

Infraclass: Metatheria[edit]

Order: Didelphimorphia (common opossums)[edit]


Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene.They are small to medium-sized marsupials, about the size of a large house cat, with a long snout and prehensile tail.

Infraclass: Eutheria[edit]

Order: Cingulata (armadillos)[edit]


The armadillos are small mammals with a bony armored shell. They are native to the Americas. There are around 20 extant species. Only the Nine-banded armadillo one is found in the United States.

Order: Rodentia (rodents)[edit]


Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)[edit]


The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Order: Primates[edit]


Primates are five-fingered mammals with opposable thumbs. Humans first arrived in North America and subsequently the USA thousands of years ago from Eurasia.

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and soledons)[edit]


The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

Order: Chiroptera (bats)[edit]

The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)[edit]


There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]


The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Order: Proboscidea (elephants and allies)[edit]

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)[edit]


Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands.

Order: Cetacea (whales)[edit]


The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Introduced Animals[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries, § 17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife.". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Kays, Roland W.; Wilson, Don E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, Ron Klingner, Elizabeth McClelland, Consie Powell, Wendy Smith, Todd Zalewski, Diane Gibbons, Susan C. Morse, Jesse Guertin. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07012-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "North American Mammals". Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 1 April 2014. "This site is based on The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, by Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999) and Mammals of North America, by Roland W. Kays and Don E. Wilson (Princeton University Press, 2002)."  Downloaded on 25 March 2014
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah * Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "Search Results: Mammalia USA 2014-03-29". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>. IUCN. 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014. "Search terms Search by taxonomy: MAMMALIA, Search by location: United States, (Native, Introduced, Vagrant, Uncertain), Refinements : [X] Show regional assessments:, Taxa to show: Species, Subspecies and varieties, Stocks and subpopulation). Downloaded on 29 March 2014" 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Burt, William Henry (Text and Maps); Grossenheider, Richard Philip (Illustrations) (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals. North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides (Third ed.). Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-91098-6. 
  8. ^ Álvarez-Casta?eda, S.T. & Reid, F. (2008). "Microtus mexicanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Musser, G. G.; Carleton, M. D. (2005). "Microtus (See comments.) mexicanus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 894–1531. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  10. ^ a b U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1991). Hualpai Mexican Vole Recovery Plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico. pp. 28 pp. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  11. ^ Whitaker, John O.; Hamilton, William John (1998-06-28). Mammals of the Eastern United States (3 ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801434754. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Hutterer, R. (2005). "Sorex (Otisorex) cinereus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 220–311. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  13. ^ Simmons, N. B. (2005). "Leptonycteris yerbabuenae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 312–529. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  14. ^ "WolfQuest. Eastern Timber Wolf (Canis lups lycaon)". Minnesota Zoo & Eduweb. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  15. ^ L.D. (2010). "What is the taxonomic identity of Minnesota wolves?". Can. J. Zool. (NRC Research Press) (88): 129–138. doi:10.1139/Z09-129. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Hall, Stephen Austin (Aug 1972). "Holocene Bison occidentalis from Iowa". Journal of Mammalogy 53 (3): 604–606. JSTOR 1379052. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Crossen, K. S. (2005). "5,700-Year-Old Mammoth Remains from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Last Outpost of North America Megafauna". Geological Society of America 37: 463. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "Search the Division of Mammals Collections". "Keywords: Mesoplodon peruvianus: STR 13453 Stranding, Skull, Salinas State Beach, Monterey Bay, California, 2001, STR 18334: Stranding, Photograph, Arcata, Humboldt County, California, 2012" 
  19. ^ Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L. (2008). "Indopacetus pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Ruedas, L., Heaney, L. & Molur, S. (2008). "Rattus exulans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  21. ^ Williams, J. Morgan (1973). "The Ecology of Rattus exulans (Peale) Reviewed" (PDF). Pacific Science (University of Hawaii Press) 27 (2): 120–127. ISSN 0030-8870. 
  22. ^ Bloggs, Fred (2011). "The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific". In Veitch, C. R; Clout, M. N; Towns, D. R. Island invasives: eradication and management. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 67–73. 
  23. ^ a b The Illustrated Encyclopedia Of North American Mammals: A Comprehensive Guide To Mammals Of North America. Mobi Reference. MobileReference. 7/1/2010. ISBN 9781605012797. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Robert J. Baker, Lisa C. Bradley, Robert D. Bradley, Jerry W. Dragoo, Mark D. Engstrom, Robert S. Hoffmann, Cheri A. Jones, Fiona Reid, Dale W. Rice, and Clyde Jones (1 December 2003). "Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003". Occasional Papers (Museum of Texas Tech University) (229). ISSN 0149-175X. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Bowers, Nora; Bowers, Rick; Kaufmann, Kenn (2004). Mammals of North America. Kaufman focus guides. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-15313-6. Retrieved 2014-04-04. 
  26. ^ a b c d EXOTICS IN TEXAS by: Max Traweek and Roy Welch. April 1992. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Reproduced From PWD-BK-W7000-206 5/92
  27. ^ Timmins, R., Duckworth , J.W., Samba Kumar, N., Anwarul Islam, M., Sagar Baral, H., Long, B. & Maxwell, A. (2012). "Axis porcinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "Domestic Cow - Mauna Kea Visitor Information Station". Mauna Kea Support Services / Mauna Kea Visitor Information Station. 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "Introduction of Cattle - Hawaii History - The Paniolo". HawaiiHistory.org. 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  30. ^ Whitford, Walter G. (April 2002). Ecology of Desert Systems (1 ed.). Elsevier Science. ISBN 9780127472614. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  31. ^ a b c Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D. (2010). Wildlife and Natural Resource Management (3 ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 1-4354-5401-4. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  32. ^ "Big Game Hunting Records - Safari Club International Online Record Book". Safari Club International. 2007–2014. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  33. ^ a b Cox, George W. (1999). Alien Species in North America and Hawaii. Washington DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-679-3. Retrieved 2014-04-04. 
  34. ^ "Big Game Hunting Records - Safari Club International Online Record Book". Safari Club International. 2007–2014. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba
    Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  2. ^ Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as Opossum D. marsupialis (merged Mexican D. marsupialis and D. virginiana).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  4. ^ Mexican Fox Squirrel Sciurus nayaritensis: Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - only as Apache Fox Squirrel S. apache.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - mentioned only in the description of an another species as possible split.
  6. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - range not clear because described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with another species.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - described as the nominative species and 1 or 2 additional distinct species.
  9. ^ a b Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] and IUCN Red List,[6] also probably North American Mammals NMNH SI[4] - Dipodomys elephantinus merged with D. venustus as D. venustus elephantinus.
  10. ^ a b c Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002.[3]
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  12. ^ Northern Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus: Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] - described separately as the nominative species but merged with D. exsul.
  13. ^ Nelson's Collred Lemming Dicrostonyx nelsoni: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] - mentioned only in the description of D. groenlandicus as possible split (D. exsul).
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] IUCN Red List.[6]
  16. ^ a b Mexican Vole Microtus mexicanus:
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List[6] - M. mexicanus.
    Kays & Wilson 2002[3] - only M. mogollonensis.
    North American Mammals NMNH SI[4] - M. mexicanus listed, but only M. mexicanus mogollensis (Arizona and New Mexico) described in "Mexican Vole (Microtus mexicanus)" chapter.
    IUCN Red List[6] - M. mexicanus sometimes split in two species: M. mexicanus and M. mogollonensis.[8][9]
    12 subspecies are recognized, 4 occur in the USA (1991[10]), Hualapai Mexican vole M. m. hualpaiensis is listed as endangered (E) under the Endangered Species Act.[2][10]
  17. ^ a b c d e North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] IUCN Red List.[6]
  18. ^ Northern Rock Mouse Peromyscus nasutus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - mentioned only in the description of Rock Mouse Peromyscus difficilis that P. difficilis was formerly known as P. nasuts, so range is not clear because these species are merged here.
  19. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - described separately as the nominative species but probably merged with another species.
  20. ^ Long-tailed Shrew Sorex dispar: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI[4] - as 2 distinct species: Longtail/Long-tailed Shrew S. dispar and Gaspé Shrew S. gaspensis.
  21. ^ Southwestern Myotis Myotis auriculus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - mentioned only in the description of Long-eared Myotis M. evotis as possible split, occuring in southern N. Mexico.
  22. ^ a b c Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] IUCN Red List.[6]
  24. ^ Velvety Free-tailed Bat: North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[3] - it is believed that colonies found in buildings in the Florida Keys were members of Molossidae.
  25. ^ Lesser Long-nosed Bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae: Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - mentioned only in the description of L. nivalis under the junior synonym[13] L. sanborni as possible split, so range is not clear here.
  26. ^ Margay: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3).[5]
    Kays & Wilson 2002:[3] last record in Texas from 1852.[3]
  27. ^ Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3).[5]
  28. ^ Red Fox Vulpes vulpes: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as North American V. fulva distinct from the Old World species V. vulpes.
  29. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] IUCN Red List.[6]
  30. ^ Brown Bear Ursus arctos: Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as 2 distinct species: Grizzly Bear U. horribilis and Kodiak Bear U. middendorffi, also distinct from the "worldwide" species U. arctos.
  31. ^ Least Weasel Mustela nivalis: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as North American M. rixosa distinct from the Old World species M. nivalis.
  32. ^ Wolverine Gulo gulo: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as North American G. luscus distinct from the Old World species G. gulo.
  33. ^ Guadalupe Fur Seal Arctocephalus townsendi: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as Guadalupe Fur Seal A. philippi, formerly A. townsendi.
  34. ^ Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  35. ^ a b Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  36. ^ American Hog-nosed Skunk Conepatus leuconotus: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Kays & Wilson 2002[3] - as 2 distinct species: Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk C. leuconotus and Western Hog-nosed Skunk C. mesoleucus.
  37. ^ Elk Cervus canadensis: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] North American Mammals NMNH SI[4] (species list from the database).
    Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI[4] (Field Guide), Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List[6] - as "worldwide" C. elaphus (not North American C. canadensis).
  38. ^ Moose Alces alces: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002.[3]
    North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List[6] - as North American A. americanus (distinct from Eurasian Elk A. alces).
  39. ^ Caribou Rangifer tarandus: Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] North American Mammals NMNH SI,[4] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - as 3 distinct species: Woodland Caribou R. caribou, Barren-ground Caribou R. arcticus and Greenland Caribou R. tarandus.
  40. ^ a b c Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - only general range description.
  41. ^ a b c d Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] IUCN Red List.[6]
  42. ^ Pygmy Beaked Whale: Kays & Wilson 2002:[3] one record in North America, Division of Mammals Collections NMNH SI:[18] two strandings in California (2001 and 2012).
  43. ^ Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] IUCN Red List.[6]
  44. ^ House Mouse: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide),[7] Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] IUCN Red List.[6]
    Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - only general range description.
  45. ^ Polynesian Rat[20][21]
  46. ^ European Rabbit: & Wilson 2002[3] - range not clear (islands on Pacific Coast).
    Introduced to Hawaii.[22]
  47. ^ Feral Cat: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Wildcat Felis silvestris (USA), Baker et al 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - Feral Cat F. catus.
  48. ^ Kays & Wilson 2002[3] - packs of feral Domestic Dogs Canis familiaris (USA), Baker et al 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - Feral Dog C. familiaris.
  49. ^ Sus scrofa: Burt & Grossenheider 1976 (Peterson Field Guide)[7] - Wild Boar (Swine), Kays & Wilson 2002[3] - Wild Boar, Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Wild Boar - feral populations, IUCN Red List[6] - Wild Boar - introduced (USA), Baker et al. 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - Feral Pig or Wild Boar.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Kays & Wilson 2002,[3] Mammal Species of the World (MSW3),[5] IUCN Red List.[6]
  51. ^ Chital - free-ranging.[26]
  52. ^ Sambar - free ranging.[25]
  53. ^ Red Deer elaphus division (not canadensis division) - introduced i.e. to USA.[5]
  54. ^ Nilgai - semi-free-ranging[26]/free-ranging.[25]
  55. ^ Feral Cattle: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Aurochs Bos taurus - feral populations (USA), Baker et al. 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - Domestic Cattle Bos taurus.
    For example Feral Cattle in Hawaii.[28][29]
  56. ^ Gemsbok - free ranging.[30][31]
  57. ^ Blackbuck - free ranging.[25][26][31][32]
  58. ^ Bezoar ibex - free-ranging: Florida Mountains near Deming New Mexico.[31]
  59. ^ Mouflon: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Red Sheep Ovis aries - Mouflon introduced, improved domestic stock feral (USA), Baker et al. 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - European Mouflon Sheep Ovis aries.
    Feral Sheep - free-ranging - Hawaii[33] and Texas.[34]
  60. ^ Barbary Sheep - free ranging.[25][26]
  61. ^ Feral Goat: Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Goat C. hircus - feral populations (USA), Baker et al. 2003[24](North America north of Mexico) - Goat Capra hircus.
    Goat - free-ranging, Hawaii.[33]
  62. ^ Mammal Species of the World (MSW3)[5] - Horse Equus ferus - feral in USA (incl. Hawaiian Isls), Baker et al. 2003[24] (North America north of Mexico) - Feral Horse Equus caballus.
  • Species listed in Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition (MSW3) as occuring in the USA, but omitted in this article: Pteronotus pristinus - possibly Florida.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kays, Roland W.; Wilson, Don E. (2002). Mammals of North America. Illustrated by Sandra Doyle, Nancy Halliday, Ron Klingner, Elizabeth McClelland, Consie Powell, Wendy Smith, Todd Zalewski, Diane Gibbons, Susan C. Morse, Jesse Guertin. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07012-1. 
  • Burt, William Henry (Text and Maps); Grossenheider, Richard Philip (Illustrations) (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals. North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides (Third ed.). Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-91098-6. 
  • Robert J. Baker, Lisa C. Bradley, Robert D. Bradley, Jerry W. Dragoo, Mark D. Engstrom, Robert S. Hoffmann, Cheri A. Jones, Fiona Reid, Dale W. Rice, and Clyde Jones (1 December 2003). "Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003". Occasional Papers (Museum of Texas Tech University) (229). ISSN 0149-175X. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 

External links[edit]