List of man-made objects on the Moon

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List of man-made objects on the Moon is a partial listing of artificial materials on the Lunar surface. The table below does not separately list small items such as retroreflectors, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages, or the commemorative and personal objects left there by Apollo astronauts, such as the golf balls from Alan Shepard's lunar driving practice during Apollo 14, flags, Alan Bean's silver astronaut pin, or the Fallen Astronaut statuette left by the crew of Apollo 15.

The remains of five S-IVB third stages of Saturn V rockets from the Apollo program are the heaviest single pieces sent to the Lunar surface. Humans have left over 170,000 kg (187.4 tons) of material on the Moon, and 382 kg of the Moon (842 pounds) was taken back to Earth by Apollo and Luna missions. The only artificial objects on the Moon that are still in use are the retroreflectors for the lunar laser ranging experiments left there by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 astronauts and by the Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 missions.[1]

Objects at greater than 90 degrees east or west are on the far side of the Moon, including Ranger 4, Lunar Orbiter 1, Lunar Orbiter 2, and Lunar Orbiter 3.

Table of objects[edit]

Artificial object Image Nationality Year Mass (kg) Status Location Picture from orbit
Luna 2
Luna 2 Soviet moon probe.jpg
 USSR 1959 390.2 Intentionally crashed 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N -0°E / 29.1; -0 [2]
Ranger 4
1964 71394L.jpg
 USA 1962 331 Intentionally crashed 15°30′S 130°42′W / 15.5°S 130.7°W / -15.5; -130.7 [3]
Ranger 6
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1964 381 Intentionally crashed 9°21′29″N 21°28′48″E / 9.358°N 21.480°E / 9.358; 21.480 [4]
Ranger 7
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1964 365.7 Intentionally crashed 10°38′S 20°36′W / 10.63°S 20.60°W / -10.63; -20.60 [5]
Luna 5  USSR 1965 1474 Crashed 8°N 23°W / 8°N 23°W / 8; -23 [6]
Luna 7  USSR 1965 1504 Crashed 9°48′N 47°48′W / 9.8°N 47.8°W / 9.8; -47.8 [7]
Luna 8  USSR 1965 1550 Crashed 9°06′N 63°18′W / 9.1°N 63.3°W / 9.1; -63.3 [8]
Ranger 8
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1965 367 Intentionally crashed 2°38′17″N 24°47′13″E / 2.638°N 24.787°E / 2.638; 24.787 [9]
Ranger 9
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1965 367 Intentionally crashed 12°49′41″S 2°23′13″W / 12.828°S 2.387°W / -12.828; -2.387 [10]
Luna 9  USSR 1966 1580 Landed 7°05′N 64°22′W / 7.08°N 64.37°W / 7.08; -64.37 [11]
Luna 10
Luna orbiter bus.jpg
 USSR 1966 1600 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ? [12][13]
Luna 11
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1966 1640 Crashed  ? [12][14]
Luna 12
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1966 1670 Crashed  ? [12][15]
Luna 13  USSR 1966 1700 Landed 18°52′N 62°03′W / 18.87°N 62.05°W / 18.87; -62.05 [16]
Surveyor 1
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1966 270 Landed 2°28′26″S 43°20′20″W / 2.474°S 43.339°W / -2.474; -43.339 [17] LROC page
Lunar Orbiter 1
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
6°42′N 162°00′E / 6.70°N 162°E / 6.70; 162 [18]
Surveyor 2
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1966 292 Crashed 5°30′S 12°00′W / 5.5°S 12°W / -5.5; -12 [19]
Lunar Orbiter 2
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 385 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°00′N 119°00′E / 3.0°N 119°E / 3.0; 119 [20]
Lunar Orbiter 3
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
14°18′N 97°42′W / 14.3°N 97.7°W / 14.3; -97.7 [21]
Surveyor 3
Surveyor 3 on the Moon.jpg
 USA 1967 281[22] Landed 3°00′54″S 23°25′05″W / 3.015°S 23.418°W / -3.015; -23.418 [23] LROC page
Lunar Orbiter 4
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1967 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ? [12][24]
Surveyor 4
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 283 Crashed 0°24′N 1°20′W / 0.4°N 1.33°W / 0.4; -1.33 [25]
Explorer 35 (IMP-E)
IMP-E.jpg
 USA 1967 104.3 Crashed  ? [12][26]
Lunar Orbiter 5
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1967 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°S 83°W / 3°S 83°W / -3; -83 [27]
Surveyor 5
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 281 Landed 1°27′40″N 23°11′42″E / 1.461°N 23.195°E / 1.461; 23.195 [28] LROC page
Surveyor 6
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 282 Landed 0°29′N 1°24′W / 0.49°N 1.40°W / 0.49; -1.40 [29] LROC page
Surveyor 7
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 290 Landed 40°52′S 11°28′W / 40.86°S 11.47°W / -40.86; -11.47 [30]
Luna 14
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1968 1670 Crashed  ? [12][31]
Apollo 10 LM-4 Snoopy descent stage
LEM-linedrawing.png
 USA 1969 2211 Crashed  ? [12]
(post-mission) [32]
Luna 15
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1969 2718 Crashed  ? [33]
Apollo 11 LM-5 Eagle descent stage
5927 NASA.jpg
 USA 1969 2034 Landed 0°40′27″N 23°28′23″E / 0.6741°N 23.4730°E / 0.6741; 23.4730 [34] LROC page

Image

Apollo 11 LM-5 Eagle ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1969 2184 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ? [36]
Apollo 12 LM-6 Intrepid descent stage
Bean Descends Intrepid - GPN-2000-001317.jpg
 USA 1969 2211 Landed 3°00′45″S 23°25′18″W / 3.0124°S 23.4216°W / -3.0124; -23.4216 [37] LROC page

Image

Apollo 12 LM-6 Intrepid ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1969 2164 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°56′S 21°12′W / 3.94°S 21.20°W / -3.94; -21.20 [38]
Luna 16 descent stage[39]
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1970 < 5727 Landed 0°41′S 56°18′E / 0.68°S 56.3°E / -0.68; 56.3 [40]
Luna 17 & Lunokhod 1  USSR 1970 5600 Landed 38°17′N 35°00′W / 38.28°N 35.0°W / 38.28; -35.0 [41]
Apollo 13 S-IVB (S-IVB-508)[42]
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 USA 1970 13454 Intentionally crashed 2°45′S 27°52′W / 2.75°S 27.86°W / -2.75; -27.86 [43] LROC page
Luna 18
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1971 5600 Crashed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5 [44]
Luna 19
Luna-22.jpg
 USSR 1971 5600 Crashed  ? [12][45]
Apollo 14 S-IVB (S-IVB-509)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 USA 1971 14016 Intentionally crashed 8°05′S 26°01′W / 8.09°S 26.02°W / -8.09; -26.02[46] LROC page

Full image

Apollo 14 LM-8 Antares descent stage
LRO Apollo14 landing site 369228main ap14labeled 540.jpg
 USA 1971 2144 Landed 3°38′43″S 17°28′17″W / 3.6453°S 17.4714°W / -3.6453; -17.4714[47]
Apollo 14 LM-8 Antares ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1971 2132 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°25′S 19°40′W / 3.42°S 19.67°W / -3.42; -19.67[48]
Apollo 15 S-IVB (S-IVB-510)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 USA 1971 14036 Intentionally crashed 1°31′S 11°49′W / 1.51°S 11.81°W / -1.51; -11.81[49]
Apollo 15 LM-10 Falcon descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1971 2809 Landed 26°07′56″N 3°38′02″E / 26.1322°N 3.6339°E / 26.1322; 3.6339[50] LROC page

Image

Apollo 15 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1971 462 Landed 26°05′N 3°40′E / 26.08°N 3.66°E / 26.08; 3.66
Apollo 15 LM-10 Falcon ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1971 2132 Crashed
(post-mission)
26°22′N 0°15′E / 26.36°N 0.25°E / 26.36; 0.25[51]
Apollo 15 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 USA 1971 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ?[12][52]
Luna 20 descent stage[39]
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1972 < 5727 Landed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5[53] LROC page

Image

Apollo 16 S-IVB (S-IVB-511)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 USA 1972 14002 Intentionally crashed 1°18′N 23°48′W / 1.3°N 23.8°W / 1.3; -23.8[54]
Apollo 16 LM-11 Orion descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1972 2765 Landed 8°58′23″S 15°30′01″E / 8.9730°S 15.5002°E / -8.9730; 15.5002[55] LROC page

Image

Apollo 16 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1972 462 Landed 8°58′S 15°31′E / 8.97°S 15.51°E / -8.97; 15.51
Apollo 16 LM-11 Orion ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1972 2138 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ?[56]
Apollo 16 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 USA 1972 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
 ?[12][57]
Apollo 17 S-IVB (S-IVB-512)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 USA 1972 13960 Intentionally crashed 4°13′S 12°19′W / 4.21°S 12.31°W / -4.21; -12.31[58]
Apollo 17 LM-12 Challenger descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1972 2798 Landed 20°11′27″N 30°46′18″E / 20.1908°N 30.7717°E / 20.1908; 30.7717[59] LROC page

Image

Apollo 17 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1972 462 Landed 20°10′N 30°46′E / 20.17°N 30.77°E / 20.17; 30.77
Apollo 17 LM-12 Challenger ascent stage[35]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1972 2150 Crashed
(post-mission)
19°58′N 30°30′E / 19.96°N 30.50°E / 19.96; 30.50[60]
Luna 21 & Lunokhod 2[61]  USSR 1973 4850 Landed 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.85°N 30.45°E / 25.85; 30.45[62]
Explorer 49 (RAE-B)
RAE B.jpg
 USA 1973 328 Crashed  ?[12][63]
Luna 22
Luna-22.jpg
 USSR 1974 4000 Crashed  ?[12][64]
Luna 23  USSR 1974 5600 Landed ~12.75ºN, ~62.2ºE[65] LROC page

Image

Luna 24 descent stage[39]  USSR 1976 < 5800 Landed 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.75°N 62.2°E / 12.75; 62.2[66] LROC page

Image

Hagoromo / Hiten [67]
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1990 12 Crashed
(orbit / crash
not confirmed)
 ?[68]
Hiten
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1993 143 Intentionally crashed 34°18′S 55°36′E / 34.3°S 55.6°E / -34.3; 55.6[69]
Lunar Prospector
Lunar Prospector orbiter.jpg
 USA 1998 126 Intentionally crashed 87°42′S 42°21′E / 87.7°S 42.35°E / -87.7; 42.35[70][71]
SMART-1
SMART-1 Impact flash.jpg
European Union ESA 2006 307 Intentionally crashed 34°14′S 46°12′W / 34.24°S 46.2°W / -34.24; -46.2[72]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP) / Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1.jpg
 India 2008 35 Intentionally crashed 89°S 30°W / 89°S 30°W / -89; -30[73][74][75]
SELENE Rstar (Okina)  Japan 2009 53 Crashed 28°12′47″N 159°01′59″W / 28.213°N 159.033°W / 28.213; -159.033[76][77][78]
Chang'e 1
Chang e 1.jpg
 China 2009 2000[79] Intentionally crashed 1°30′S 52°22′E / 1.50°S 52.36°E / -1.50; 52.36[80][81]
Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1.jpg
 India 2009 1,380 Crashed
during mission
 ?[82]
SELENE (Kaguya) main orbiter
Kaguya mark.jpg
 Japan 2009 1984[79] Intentionally crashed 65°30′S 80°30′E / 65.5°S 80.5°E / -65.5; 80.5[83][84][85]
LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft
LCROSS Centaur.jpg
 USA 2009 700 Intentionally crashed 84°43′44″S 49°21′36″W / 84.729°S 49.36°W / -84.729; -49.36,
-3.80909 km elevation
(Cabeus crater) [86][87]
LCROSS Centaur
LCROSS Centaur 1.jpg
 USA 2009 2270 Intentionally crashed 84°40′30″S 48°43′30″W / 84.675°S 48.725°W / -84.675; -48.725,
-3.82693 km elevation
(Cabeus crater) [88][89]
GRAIL
GRAIL.jpg
 USA 2012 132.6 Crashed
(post-mission)
75°37′N 26°38′W / 75.62°N 26.63°W / 75.62; -26.63[90]
Chang'e 3 & Yutu  China 2013 1200 Landed 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51
LADEE
LADEE fires small engines.jpg
 USA 2014 248.2 Impact
Total estimated dry mass (kg) 180,244

Gallery[edit]

Map of the Moon showing some landing sites. (Click to enlarge)
Surveyor 3 on the Moon, photographed by Alan Bean
Locations of large artificial objects on the Moon superimposed on data from the Clementine (spacecraft) mission in equirectangular projection.
Locations of retro reflector experiments
Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LRRR)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Slava G. Turyshev - From Quantum to Cosmos: Fundamental Physics Research in Space (2009) - Page 300
  2. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  3. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 4". Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  5. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 7". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  6. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 5". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 7". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 8". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  9. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 8". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  10. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 9". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  11. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 9". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Spacecraft was in lunar orbit but is assumed to have decayed from orbit and crashed into the moon, location unknown.
  13. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 10". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  14. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 11". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  15. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 12". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  16. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 13". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  17. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 1". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  18. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 1". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  19. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  20. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  21. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  22. ^ Apollo 12 returned about 10 kg of the Surveyor 3's original landing mass of 302 kg to Earth to study the effects of long term exposure.
  23. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  24. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 4". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  25. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 4". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  26. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Explorer 35 (IMP-E)". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  27. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 5". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  28. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 5". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  29. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  30. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 7". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  31. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 14". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  32. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 10 LM(Snoopy) descent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  33. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 15". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  34. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 11 LM descent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f The ascent stage of Apollo 10 was commanded to fire its engine, left lunar orbit and entered solar orbit. The ascent stage of Apollo 11 was left in orbit and thereafter its orbit decayed and it crashed onto the moon at an unknown location. The Apollo 16 ascent stage failed to crash onto moon when commanded and it decayed from orbit at a later date and also crashed at an unknown location. The ascent stages of the remaining successful missions (Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 17) were each deliberately crashed onto the moon. Apollo 13's complete Apollo Lunar Module re-entered Earth's atmosphere after having served as a lifeboat during the aborted mission.
  36. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 11 LM ascent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  37. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 12 LM descent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  38. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 12 LM ascent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  39. ^ a b c Luna program sample return mission; mass listed is for both ascent and descent stages, though only the descent stage was left on the moon.
  40. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 16 descent stage". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  41. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 17/Lunokhod 1". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  42. ^ Astronautix.com, Apollo 13: The S-IVB/IU impacted the lunar surface at 8:10 p.m. EST on April 14 at a speed of 259 meters per second (incorrect, should probably be 2590 meters/sec), […] 137.1 kilometers from the Apollo 12 seismometer.
  43. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 13 S-IVB". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  44. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 18". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  45. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 19". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  46. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 SIVB". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  47. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 LM descent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  48. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 LM ascent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  49. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 SIVB". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  50. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 LM descent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  51. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 LM ascent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  52. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 subsatellite". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  53. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 20". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  54. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 S-IVB". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  55. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 descent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  56. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 ascent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  57. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 Subsatellite". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  58. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 S-IVB". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  59. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 descent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  60. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 ascent stage". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  61. ^ Lander and rover weighed 1814 kg; the rest assumed to have decayed in orbit and impacted the moon.
  62. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 21/Lunokhod 2". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  63. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Explorer 49/RAE-B". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  64. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 22". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  65. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 23". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  66. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 24". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  67. ^ Was injected into lunar orbit in 1990, assumed to have decayed from orbit.
  68. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Hagoromo/Hiten Orbiter". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  69. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Hiten". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  70. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Prospector". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  71. ^ "University of Texas Engineering News - Lunar Prospector Impact Location Estimate". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  72. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - SMART 1". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  73. ^ MIP was crash-landed on the Shackleton crater
  74. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Moon Impact Probe / Chandrayaan 1". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  75. ^ "Frontline India's National Magazine - Moon Mystery - Moon Impact Probe impact coordinates". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  76. ^ "JAXA Press Release (PDF)" (in Japanese). JAXA. 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  77. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Okina (Rstar) - Kaguya". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  78. ^ "JAXA 18 February 2009 SELENE status - Okina (Rstar) impact estimate position - (page 3 in Japanese translated with Babelfish)". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  79. ^ a b "Upcoming International Missions to the Moon" (PPT). NASA. 2007-01-11. Retrieved 2009-04-12.  / cf. 2.3t with fuel ("Spacecrafts launched in 2007". Retrieved 2009-04-12. )
  80. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Chang'e 1". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  81. ^ "China People's Daily Online, 2 March 2009 - Chang'e-1 impacts moon (coordinates)". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  82. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Chandrayaan 1". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  83. ^ "JAXA HOT TOPICS". JAXA. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  84. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - KAGUYA (SELENE)". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  85. ^ "JAXA Selenological & Engineering Explorer - KAGUYA (SELENE) impact coordinates". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  86. ^ "Guide to Seeing the LCROSS Lunar Impact". Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  87. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  88. ^ "Guide to Seeing the LCROSS Lunar Impact". Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  89. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - LCROSS Centaur". Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  90. ^ "NASA Probes Prepare for Mission-Ending Moon Impact". Retrieved 2012-12-13. 

External links[edit]