The Polish mannerism, though largely dominated by Italian architects and sculptors, has its unique characteristics which differentiate it from its Italian equivalent (attics, decorational motives, construction and shape of buildings, Dutch, Bohemian and German influences). Among notable architects and sculptors of Polish/Italian mannerism wer Santi Gucci, Jan Michałowicz of Urzędów, Giovanni Maria Padovano, Giovanni Battista di Quadro, Jan Frankiewicz, Galleazzo Appiani, Jan Jaroszewicz, Bernardo Morando, Kasper Fodyga, Krzysztof Bonadura, Antoneo de Galia and many others.
Polish mannerism (architect Jeremiasz Kwajer of Wrocław). The present clock tower was built when former 15th-century tower collapsed in 1569. It was established by Marcin Kromer. The new tower, built on square and octagonal plan, was covered with a mannerist spire and decorated with sgraffito patterns imitating rustication.
Polish/Dutch mannerism (architects Jan Maria Bernardoni and Paul Baudarth). The church was established by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, voivode of Kraków for Order of Friars Minor. The church was designed by Bernardoni and the construction process was conducted by Baudarth, an architect and goldsmith from Antwerp.
Ecce Homo Chapel
Dutch mannerism (architect Paul Baudarth). It was built on the plan of the Greek cross. The vault adorned with profuse stucco decorations in the style of Dutch mannerism.
Chapel of the Crucifixion
Dutch mannerism. The chapel is the first structure built by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski in Kalwaria and give a beginning to the whole complex.
Heart of Mary Chapel
Dutch mannerism (architect Paul Baudarth). It was built on the plan of a heart. The chapel commemorate Jesus' encounter with Mary on the road to Calvary.
Polish mannerism. The original gothic building was rebuilt for Jan Firlej, Grand Marshal of the Crown and his wife Barbara Mniszech. In 1604 the wedding ceremony of Marina Mniszech and False Dmitriy I, Tsar of Russia was held in the house. Richly decorated mannerist attic (caryatids, floral and animal motives) is attributed to the workshop of Santi Gucci.
Branicki Manor House
Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci). The manor house was created for Jan Branicki by enlarging the early 16th century keep. The rectangular building (12 x 10m) was decorated with sgraffito and crowned with an attic gabled with crenellation.
Polish mannerism. Collegium Iuridicum of the Jagiellonian University was founded in 1403 for the jurists, as one of the oldest university's buildings. The original gothic building was reconstructed in the mannerist style (arcade courtyard) and early baroque style (main portal).
Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). It is a former residence of the canons, founded in the 14th century. During the 16th-century reconstruction the arcade courtyard was added and the facade was adorned with a portal and sgraffito decoration.
Jewish mannerism (possibly workshop of Matteo Gucci). The tympanum of the Aron Kodesh bears a Hebrew inscription that reads: By me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things (Book of Proverbs 28:17).
Polish mannerism (architects Maciej Litwinkowicz and Jan Zatorczyk). The characteristics are late renaissance attic by Zatorczyk (1625) and sgraffito decoration imitating diamond-pointed rustication.
Polish mannerism. Vasa Gate was the only entrance to the Wawel Castle. The current building replaced an earlier gothic gate and was founded by king Sigismund III Vasa. The inner side was adorned with mannerist attic with palmettes, volutes and sheaves (the emblem of the house of Vasa).
Polish mannerism. The trapezoid shape courtyard was surrounded at the level of two upper storeys by arcades, embellished with 21 mascarons. The arcade risalit above the gate is a 17th-century addition.
Polish mannerism. For the first time the 14th-century castle was rebuilt in renaissance style between 1542-1544 by Niccolò Castiglione with participation of Gabriel Słoński of Kraków. The sponsor of the castle reconstruction in mannerist style was a Calvinist Stanisław Szafraniec, voivode of Sandomierz. At that time the original medieval tower was transformed into a scenic double loggia decorated in the sgraffito technique.
German mannerism (architect Bernard Niuron). The original gothic castle (built by duke Konrad I of Oleśnica) was successively enlarged and rebuilt by the powerful bohemian magnates the Poděbrads. The reconstruction in mannerist style began in 1585. Duke Charles II built a new eastern and southern wings. He also rebuilt the so-called Widow Palace. The courtyard was emebllished with characteristic balconies and the main gate portal was adorned with Silesian and Poděbrad family crests.
German/Dutch mannerism (architect Friedrich Gross). It is the largest merchant house in Wrocław (16.25m wide), originally built in about 1300. The house was rebuilt for Daniel von Turnau und Kueschmalz and his wife Dorothea von Matte. The mannerist portal with founders' crests was carved by Gerhard Hendrik of Amsterdam. The house was named after griffins decorating the attic.
St. Mary Magdalene's Church - Pulpit
German mannerism (sculptor Friedrich Gross). It was carved in precious materials: Ruthenian alabaster from Lviv, Silesian sandstone, marble and gabbro from the Mount Ślęża. The alabaster reliefs on the sides depicts scenes from the Old Testament - The Fall of Jericho, Elijah calling down fire from heaven on Ahaziah's soldiers, David and Goliath encounter and Daniel in the Lion's Den.
Bohemian mannerism. The reconstruction of a medieval Piast Castle was started by Matthias von Logau (Maciej z Łagowa) and accomplished by his son Georg. The castle was adorned with beautifully carved sandstone portals and sgraffitos (Gate, 1570).
German/Dutch mannerism. The 14th-century church was reconstructed in mannerist style at Adam von Hanniwaldt's initiative. The undertaking was financially supported by Adam's brother Andreas, councillor at the court of Emperor Rudolph II. Among the artists employed in decoration of the church were eminent Dutch sculptors Adriaen de Vries and Gerhard Hendrik.
Silesian mannerism (architects Jacopo de Pario and Bernard Niuron of Lugano). It was built to replace former late gothic building burned in 1569. The architecture of the building was inspired by both Polish/Bohemian (loggia) and German mannerism (attics).
Bohemian mannerism. The ruined gothic castle (built in 1313 by Bolesław the Elder) was purcheased in 1581 by Kaspar von Pückler from the Emperor Rudolph II. Pückler enlarged and rebuilt the castle in mannerist style. In 1610 another wing was added to close the courtyard (sponsored by new owners von Promnitz family). The castle's architecture bears strong resemblance to renaissance residencies in Bohemia (e.g. Castle in Častolovice, 1588–1615).
Silesian mannerism. The building was founded at bishop Johann VI. von Sitsch's initiative. It was decorated with sculptures attributed to the workshop of Georg Pullmann. The architecture of the Town Scale was inspired by both Bohemian (arcades) and German mannerism (gables).
Polish/Bohemian mannerism (architect Giovanni Ricci). The tower was added to the gothic church (built before 1470) between 1582-1583 at initiative of Komorowski brothers - Jan Spytek and Krzysztof. The construction was conducted by a stonemason Maciej Świętek. In 1585 the stone-built tower was enhanced (17.5m high) with the upper part in brick and embellished with an arcade loggia.
Polish mannerism. The original 15th-century castle was rebuilt for Jan Spytek Komorowski, cup-bearer of Kraków. The new palace was decorated with an arcade courtyard and sgraffitos.
Polish mannerism (circle of Santi Gucci). The castle was built for Rafał Leszczyński and his son Andrzej as a fortified palace (palazzo in fortezza). The architecture of the castle merge all the characteristics of Polish mannerism - side towers, arcade courtyard and richly decorated attic.
Polish mannerism (architect Giuseppe Briccio with participation of Stefan Murator of Jarosław). Established by Zofia Odrowąż, wife of Jan Kostka, voivode of Pomerania.
Polish mannerism. Built for Stanisław Smiszowic, Jarosław's apothecary. In 1633 the building was purchased by Wilhelm Orsetti and rebuilt in 1646.
Church of St. Nicolas
Polish mannerism. The church was founded by Anna Kostka for Benedictine Sisters. The church was built on the plan of a Latin cross. Richly decorated mannerist portal, created in 1621, was during the construction of the abbey transferred to east elevation of the church in 1635.
Polish mannerism (architect Galleazzo Appiani). The construction was started by Stanisław Krasicki and accomplished by his son Marcin Krasicki, voivode of Podolia. It was built as a fortified palace. Each tower of the Krasicki Palace is different and both inner and the outer facades were decorated with profuse sgraffitos (they cover more than 7000 square meters in total).
Jewish mannerism. The facade bears a Hebrew inscription that reads: He was afraid and said, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God; this is the gate of heaven." (Genesis 28:17)
Polish mannerism (architect Antonio Pellaccini with participation of Szymon Sarocki). The church was erected by Łukasz Opaliński and his wife Anna Pilecka in gratitude to God for granted victory over the Devil of Łańcut - Stanisław Stadnicki.
first half of the 17th century
Polish mannerism. The monastery was surrounded by a wall 10 m high. The pentagonal wall tower so-called puntone was built at that time.
Polish mannerism (architect Antonio Pellaccini with participation of Szymon Sarocki). The mannerist monastery building was built adjacent to the church and connected with the church's presbytery. It was constructed as a one-storeyed four-wing building with a cloister in the center and pavilions at the corners.
Polish mannerism (architect Galleazzo Appiani). The original 14th-century castle was rebuilt for Marcin Krasicki. The mannerist decorations of tower link to solutions adopted in Krasiczyn Palace.
Polish mannerism (architect - probably Galleazzo Appiani). The church was founded in 1620 by Marcin Krasicki, starost of Przemyśl and owner of Krasiczyn. The construction started in 1630 and was conducted by master craftsman Ligęski of Przemyśl.
Przemyśl Cathedral - Fredro Tomb
Polish mannerism. The tomb monument was constructed for Jan Fredro, castellan of Przemyśl and his wife Anna ze Stadnickich. It was carved in limestone and alabaster in tuscan order. The top of the tomb is decorated with a sculpture of archangel Michael.
Polish mannerism (architect Tomasz Nikiel of Pińczów). Tęczyński Chapel was founded by Mikołaj Firlej, voivode of Kraków to commemorate himself and his first wife Elżbieta Ligęza. The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel in Kraków, and its profuse interior decorations are attributed to the workshop of Santi Gucci.
Italian/Dutch mannerism (architect Tommaso Poncino). The palace was established by Jakub Zadzik, bishop of Kraków. The building was inspired by the royal residences in Warsaw and modelled in the so-called Poggio–Reale style. Steep roofs, towers and decorations are Dutch style features.
Polish mannerism. The original romanesque church (built in 1171) was enlarged and rebuilt at cardinal John Albert Vasa's initiative.
Polish mannerism. The original 1380 building was rebuilt in the mannerist style in the beginning of the 17th century, when the Polish Brethren were exiled from the city. The western facade with mannerist gable was accomplished in 1642.
late 16th century
Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). The building is the only preserved of four garden pavilions of the Pińczów Castle. The pavilion was built on a pentagonal plan and covered with tented roof; the portal was adorned with Jastrzębiec coat of arms.
Jewish mannerism (possibly workshop of Santi Gucci). In 1594 Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski issues a privilege asserting the Pińczów Jewish community's right to build a synagogue.
St. Anne's Chapel
Polish mannerism (architect Santi Gucci). The building was established by Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski, marquess in Mirów to commemorate a Jubilee of 1600.
Polish mannerism (Pińczów workshop, circle of Santi Gucci). Tęczyński Chapel was founded by Katarzyna Leszczyńska to commemorate her husband Andrzej Tęczyński, castellan of Bełz and son Jacek. The chapel was modelled after the Sigismund's Chapel and decorated with rustication.
Polish mannerism/early baroque (architect Wawrzyniec Senes of Sent). The palace was built for Krzysztof Ossoliński as a fortified palace with bastions on plan of a regular pentagon. Krzyżtopór has 4 towers (seasons of the year), 12 halls (months), 52 chambers (weeks of the year) and 365 windows (days of the year).
^ abc(Polish)"Historia". www.mariacki.com. Retrieved 2009-12-28....cyborium, wykonane w latach 1551-1554 przez rzeźbiarza i architekta Jana Marię Mosca zwanego Padovano, zaangażowanego przez ówczesnych prowizorów kościoła Andrzeja Marstellę i Jerzego Pipana. (...) ...balustrada i ażurowe bramki, odlane w brązie w 1595 roku przez Michała Otta, który ozdobił je herbami Polski i Litwy.
^ abThe portal was decorted with a Leszczyc coat of arms and a Latin inscription: Procul este profani - let the unsanctified keep their distance.(Polish)"Dom Dziekański". www.krakow.travel. Retrieved 2009-12-28.