List of massacres in Azerbaijan

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Azerbaijan (numbers may be approximate):

Name Year Date Location Deaths Victims Notes
Battle of Ganja (1804) 1804 February Ganja 3,000[1][2]-7,000[3] Azeri inhabitants of Ganja Civilians were massacred during the capture of the city by the Russians; some of the captured soldiers were executed[4]
Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907 1905– 1907 February Baku; Nakhichevan; Shusha; Tiflis 3,000-10,000 Armenians, Azeris
Shamkhor Massacre 1918 January Şəmkir 1,000 Russians Russian soldiers killed by Azerbaijani nationalists[5][6][7]
March Days 1918 March 30-April 2 Azerbaijan 3,000-12,000 Azeris Azeris killed by Russian Bolsheviks[8]
September Days 1918 September Baku 10,000-30,000 Armenians Armenians killed by the Army of Islam;[9][10] victims include small children, and many robberies and rapes took place during the massacre[11]
Khaibalikend Massacre 1919 June 5-7 Nagorno-Karabakh 600-700 Armenians Armenians killed by armed ethnic Azeri and Kurdish irregulars and Azerbaijani soldiers;[12] many women and children were killed, bodies were dumped into water wells, and the villages of Khaibalikend, Jamillu, Karkujahan and Pahliul were destroyed[13][14]
Shusha pogrom 1920 March 22–26 Shusha 20,000-30,000[15][16] Armenians Armenian killed by Azerbaijanis; many children were killed and many women were raped
Sumgait pogrom 1988 February 27-March 1 Sumgait 32 Armenians Armenians killed by Azeris; 20 ambulances were destroyed,[17] and reports detail widespread rape,[18] mutilation, robberies, and disembowling of fetuses[19]
Kirovabad pogrom 1988 November Kirovabad 130[20] Armenians Armenians killed by Azeris[21]
Pogrom of Armenians in Baku 1990 January 13 Baku 90 Armenians Armenians killed; many incidents of rape, robbery, and torture;[22] 700 injured[23]
Black January 1990 January 19–20 Baku, Azerbaijan 133-137 Azeris Azeris killed by Soviets; many women and children among the dead
Malibeyli and Gushchular Massacre 1992 February 10–12 Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, Yukhari Gushchular villages of Shusha Rayon 15-50 Azeris Azeris killed by Armenian irregular armed units[24]
Capture of Garadaghly 1992 February 17 Qaradağlı, Khojavend 20-90 Azeris Azeris killed[25]
Khojaly Massacre 1992 February 25—26 Xocalı, Azerbaijan 161-613 Azeris Azeris killed by Armenian Troops; many women and children among the dead
Maraga Massacre 1992 April 10 Maraga 40-100 Armenians Armenians killed, many decapitated; bodies were buried in a mass grave outside the village[26]


  1. ^ Peter Avery; William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (1991-10-25). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
  2. ^ John F. Baddeley, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
  3. ^ Mansoori, Firooz (2008). "17". Studies in History,Language and Culture of Azerbaijan (in Persian). Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. p. 245. ISBN 978-600-90271-1-8. 
  5. ^ The formation of the Soviet Union: communism and nationalism, 1917-1923 By Richard Pipes - page 103
  6. ^ the Modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet history, Volume 39 by Joseph L. Wieczynski - page 170
  7. ^ Wladimir S. Woytinsky: La Democratie. p. 113
  8. ^ Michael Smith. "Pamiat' ob utratakh i Azerbaidzhanskoe obshchestvo/Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani. National Memory". Azerbaidzhan i Rossiia: obshchestva i gosudarstva (Azerbaijan and Russia: Societies and States) (in Russian). Sakharov Center. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  9. ^ Hovannisian. Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 227.
  10. ^ Human Rights Watch. Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1995.
  11. ^ Walker. Armenia, p. 261.
  12. ^ Hovannisian, Richard. The Republic of Armenia: Vol. I, The First Year, 1918-1919. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971, pp. 176-177, notes 51-52.
  13. ^ (Armenian) Vratsian, Simon. Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն (The Republic of Armenia). Paris: H.H.D. Amerikayi Publishing, 1928, pp. 286-87.
  14. ^ Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, Vol. I, p. 181.
  15. ^ "The Nagorno-Karabagh Crisis:A Blueprint for Resolution" (PDF). Public International Law & Policy Group and the New England Center for International Law & Policy. June 2000. p. 3. In August 1919, the Karabagh National Council entered into a provisional treaty agreement with the Azerbaijani government. Despite signing the Agreement, the Azerbaijani government continuously violated the terms of the treaty. This culminated in March 1920 with the Azerbaijanis' massacre of Armenians in Karabagh's former capital, Shushi, in which it is estimated that more than 20,000 Armenians were killed. 
  16. ^ Why IDPs Matter in the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict by Seepan V. Parseghian, p.5
  17. ^ (Russian) "Сумгаит, Один месяц поздно" ("Sumgait, One Month Later"). Moskovskiye Novosti. April 13, 1988.
  18. ^ Shahmuratian. Sumgait Tragedy, Interview with Levon Akopyan, p. 227.
  19. ^ Lee, Gary. "Eerie Silence Hangs Over Soviet City." Washington Post. September 4, 1988. p. A33. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
  20. ^ "130 Died, Sakharov Says". The New York Times. 1988-11-26. p. 6. Retrieved 2013-02-22. 
  21. ^ Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Cornell University Press, 2001, p. 77.
  22. ^ Committee on the elimination of discrimination against women
  23. ^ Europa World Year: Book 1 - Page 638, Taylor & Francis Group
  24. ^ Goldman, Robert K. (1992). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Praeger Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  25. ^ "Letter dated 20 May 2005 from the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  26. ^ Cox, Caroline and John Eibner. Ethnic Cleansing in Progress: War in Nagorno Karabakh. Zurich and Washington D.C.: Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World, p. 58, 1993.