The massacre was ordered by Dingane, a Zulu chieftain. Piet Retief was killed last. The treaty handing over a tract of land to the Voortrekkers signed between Dingane and Piet Retief two days before the massacre was later found on Retief's remains.
^Van der Hoogt, Cornelius W; White, Montagu (1900). "The founding of Natal". The story of the Boers : narrated by their own leaders: prepared under the authority of the South African Republics. New York: Bradley. p. 86. Retrieved 2009-11-28.