List of massacres in the United States

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This is a list of massacres in the United States; death tolls may be approximate.

Name Date Location State Deaths Notes


Guadalupe Canyon massacre 1881 Aug 13 Guadalupe Mountains, Arizona Territory Arizona 5 1 wounded; cowboys ambushed while sleeping. Perpetrators disputed.[1]
Bisbee massacre 1883 Dec 8 Bisbee, Arizona Territory Arizona 4 2 wounded by bandits during a general store robbery; one died soon after and is included in fatalities.[2]
Chinese massacre 1871 Oct 24 Los Angeles, California California 18+ killed by hanging and unknown injured in ethnic white mob violence against people and property in Chinatown.[3][4]
Golden Dragon massacre 1977 Sep 4 San Francisco California 5 11 injured[5]
Bloody Island Massacre 1850 May 15 Clear Lake California 60-100 Retaliation by a Cavalry Regiment of the US Army for the murder of Frontiersman Andrew Kelsey and Charles Stone.
Ludlow Massacre 1914 Apr 20 Ludlow Colorado 19 killed by Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, many of whom were immigrants or minorities.[6]
Columbine Mine massacre 1927 Nov 21 Serene Colorado 6 miners killed with machine guns during coal mine strike.[7]
Rosewood massacre 1923 Jan Rosewood Florida 8 and the entire population of African-Americans in and near Rosewood, about 350, were forced from their homes and never returned.[8]
Hanapepe massacre 1924 Sep 9 Hanapepe Hawaii 20 101 arrested[9]
Haymarket affair 1886 May 4 Chicago Illinois 11 more than 130 injured by dynamite bomb and crossfire of bullets[10]
Herrin massacre 1922 Jun 21 Herrin Illinois 23 strikebreakers and union guards at coal mine.[11]
Saint Valentine's Day massacre 1929 Feb 14 Chicago Illinois 7 Prohibition gang killing.[12]
Brown's Chicken Massacre 1994 Feb 14 Palatine Illinois 7 Store robbery with murder
Villisca Massacre 1912 Jun 10 Villisca Iowa 8 unsolved axe murders of members of 2 families.[13][14][15]
Pottawatomie Massacre 1856 May 24–25 Franklin County Kansas 5 John Brown and followers killed 5 pro-slavery Kansans.[16][17]
Marais des Cygnes massacre 1858 May 19 Linn County Kansas 5 Last major outbreak of violence in Bleeding Kansas[18]
Lawrence Massacre 1863 Aug 21 Douglas County Kansas 185-200 Confederates killed civilians and burned a quarter of the town.[19]
Wichita Massacre 2000 Dec 8-14 Wichita Kansas 5 Two brothers committed multiple acts of assault, robbery, rape and the murder of several people and a dog over the course of a week.[20]
Bloody Monday 1855 Aug 6 Louisville Kentucky 22+ scores injured in religious mob violence and arson.[21]
Colfax massacre 1873 Apr 13 Colfax Louisiana 83-153 blacks killed at courthouse and as prisoners afterwards.[22]
Coushatta massacre 1874 Aug Coushatta Louisiana 11-26 six whites, remainder black killed as political intimidation.[23][24]
Thibodaux massacre 1887 Nov 22 Thibodaux Louisiana 35+ perhaps as many as 300 killed, 5+ injuries to striking black sugar-cane workers.[25][26]
Boston Massacre 1770 Mar 5 Boston Massachusetts 5 11 civilians injured by British Army soldiers.[27]
Blackfriars Massacre 1978 Jun 28 Boston Massachusetts 4 four criminals known to the police and a Boston television investigative news anchorman and reporter, allegedly over the sale of cocaine. Perpetrators never determined.[28]
Haun's Mill massacre 1838 Oct 30 Fairview Township Missouri 19 mob/militia attacked Mormons[29]
Kansas City massacre 1933 Jun 17 Kansas City Missouri 5 the dead include law enforcement officers and a criminal fugitive shot by members of a gang[30]
Sacking of Osceola 1861 Sep 23 Osceola Missouri 9 Tried by drumhead court martial and executed, town of 3,000 sacked and burned in a raid by Jim Lane's Kansas Brigade.[31][better source needed]
Centralia Massacre 1864 Sep 27 Centralia Missouri 24 unarmed U.S. soldiers murdered by their Confederate captors including Jesse James. 123 killed in ensuing Battle of Centralia.[32]
Baylor Massacre 1778 Sep 27 River Vale New Jersey 15 54 captured or wounded by British[33]
Shelton Laurel Massacre 1863 Jan 18 Madison County North Carolina 13 unarmed Unionists, including three boys, were shot by Confederates after capture.[34]
Greenwood Massacre 1921 May 31 and Jun 1 City of Tulsa, Oklahoma 39-300 ≥800 wounded. One of the nation's worst incidents of racial violence.
Cherokee Courthouse Shootout 1872 Apr 15 Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) Oklahoma 11 died in a shoot out in a crowded courtroom, the dead included 8 Deputy US Marshals and 3 Cherokee citizens. Six Cherokee were wounded including the defendant and the judge.[35]
Chinese Massacre Cove 1887 May Wallowa County Oregon 10-34 Chinese gold miners ambushed and murdered by a gang of horse thieves.
Lattimer massacre 1897 Sep 10 near Hazleton Pennsylvania 19 coal miners killed by sheriff's posse
Ponce massacre 1937 Mar 21 Ponce Puerto Rico 19 protestors killed by police
Río Piedras massacre 1935 Oct 24 Río Piedras Puerto Rico 5 protestors killed by police
Orangeburg Massacre 1968 Feb 8 Orangeburg South Carolina 3 28 injured by 9 Highway Patrol officers firing into a crowd of protestors against segregation.
Hamburg Massacre 1876 Jul 4 Hamburg South Carolina 7 town looted in a racially motivated incident during Reconstruction.
Waxhaw Massacre 1780 May 29 Lancaster South Carolina 118 150 wounded, 53 captured by British against American Revolutionary soldiers
Fort Pillow massacre 1864 Apr 12 Henning Tennessee 297 277 Federal black troops by Confederate soldiers
Dawson Massacre 1842 Sep 17 near San Antonio de Bexar Texas 36 15 injured Americans killed by Mexican artillery fire after raising white flag.
Goliad massacre 1836 Mar 27 Goliad Texas 300+ 28 escaped, 100 spared as prisoners in mass killing ordered by Antonio López de Santa Anna
Nueces massacre 1862 Aug 10 Kinney County Texas 34 German Texans killed by Confederate soldiers
Mountain Meadows massacre 1857 Sep 7–11 Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory Utah 100-140 Emigrant wagon train annihilated by the Mormon Utah Territorial Militia and some Paiute Native Americans
Midnight Massacre 1945 Jul 7–8 Salina, Utah Utah 9 German POWs killed by an American guard
Westminster massacre 1775 Mar 13 Westminster (then part of the New Hampshire Grants) Vermont 2 killed by officers of the British crown in endeavoring to subdue a mob.
Saltville massacre 1864 Oct 2-3 Saltville Virginia 45-50 Wounded/captured Federal black troops by Confederate soldiers and guerrillas [36]
Everett massacre 1916 Nov 5 Everett Washington 5 27 injured and scores of labor unionists arrested by police and vigilantes.
Centralia Massacre 1919 Nov 11 Centralia Washington 6 many injured in street conflict between American Legion and Industrial Workers of the World members
Wah Mee massacre 1983 Feb 18 Seattle Washington 13 1 injured by 3 perpetrators during an armed robbery
Bay View Massacre 1886 May 5 Bay View Wisconsin 7 Labor protesters killed by National Guardsmen
Rock Springs massacre 1885 Sep 2 Rock Springs Wyoming 28 15 injured in a racial dispute between white and Chinese miners.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Traywick, Ben T., Wyatt Earp's Thirteen Dead Men: Chapter 6, The Tombstone News, accessdate 26 December 2012.
  2. ^ "John Heath and the Bisbee Massacre". Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  3. ^ Zesch, Scott, "Chinese Los Angeles in 1870—1871: The Makings of a Massacre", Southern California Quarterly, 90 (Summer 2008), 109-158
  4. ^ De Falla, Paul M., "Lantern in the Western Sky", The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (March 1960), 57-88 (Part I), and 42 (June 1960), 161-185 (Part II)
  5. ^ Mullen, Kevin J., Chinatown Squad: Policing the Dragon from the Gold Rush to the 21st Century 978-0926664104 - 208 pages Noir Publications, 1 September 2008
  6. ^ Simmons, R. Laurie, Thomas H. Simmons, Charles Haecker, and Erika Martin Siebert (May 2008), National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ludlow Tent Colony Site (pdf), National Park Service 
  7. ^ Myers, Richard; Eric Margolis; Joanna Sampson; Phil Goodstein (2005). May, Lowell, ed. Slaughter in Serene: the Columbine Coal Strike Reader. Bread and Roses Workers' Cultural Center & Industrial Workers of the World. ISBN 0-917124-01-4. 
  8. ^ D'Orso, Michael (1996). Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood, Grosset/Putnam. ISBN 0-399-14147-2
  9. ^ Chapin, Helen Geracimos (1996). "Suppressing the News and Contributing to a Massacre". Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 131–138. ISBN 978-0-8248-1718-3. 
  10. ^ "Lists of National Historic Landmarks". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. March 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  11. ^ Paul M. Angle, Bloody Williamson: A Chapter in American Lawlessness, University of Illinois Press, 1992, page 294
  12. ^ Taylor, Troy 2008. Blood, Roses and Valentines: The haunted history of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, accessdate 27 December 2012
  13. ^ PDF He said he killed eight at God's command: Iowa preacher studying sermon on 'slay utterly' when impulse to slay seized him. New York Times, 2 September 1917, accessdate 28 December 2012
  14. ^ Villisca Axe Murders, 1912, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  15. ^ Carlson, Mark, 100 Years After Iowa Ax Murders, Case Remains Unsolved KCRG ABC, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  16. ^ PBS Online. People & Events: Pottawatomie Massacre "John Brown's Holy War." The American Experience. WGBH, 1999, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  17. ^ Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights. New York: Vintage, 2005. ISBN 0-375-41188-7.
  18. ^ Kansas Historical Society. Marais des Cygnes Massacre site, June 2011, accessdate 28 December 2012.
  19. ^ Goodrich, Thomas. Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre. Kent State University Press 12 December 1992. 978-0873384766. 207 pages.
  20. ^ Crime Library. The Wichita Horror, accessdate 25 October 2014.
  21. ^ Hutcheon, Wallace S., Jr., The Louisville Riots of August, 1855. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 69 (1971), pp. 150-72
  22. ^ Lane, Charles, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction, Henry Holt & Company, New York. 2008. pp. 54–56
  23. ^ Alexander, Danielle "Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction", Humanities, January/February 2004, Vol.25/No. 1., accessdate 14 Apr 2008
  24. ^ Shoalmire, Jimmy G., Carpetbagger Extraordinary: Marshall H. Twitchell, 1840-1905, dissertation at Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, 1969
  25. ^ Bell, Ellen Baker, Thibodaux Massacre (1887), KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana, 15 September 2011, accessdate 2 January 2013
  26. ^ Rodrigue, John. Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisiana’s Sugar Parishes, 1862–1880. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001.
  27. ^ A Fair Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston. London: B. White. 1770. OCLC 535966548.  Original printing of the governor's account.
  28. ^ "Ten Most Wanted". FBI. United States Government. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  29. ^ Baugh, Alexander L. (Spring 2010). Jacob Hawn and the Hawn's Mill Massacre: Missouri millwright and Oregon pioneer. Mormon Historical Studies 11 (1) (Mormon Historic Sites Foundation). OCLC 722375475. 
  30. ^ FBI story of the Kansas City Massacre
  31. ^ Sunderwith, Richard, The Burning of Osceola, Missouri
  32. ^ Quantrell, Charles W., A History of His Guerrilla Warfare on the Missouri And Kansas Border During the Civil War, Kessinger Publishing, 1 March 2005, pages 175-176.
  33. ^ "Skirmish Near Tappan". Rivington's Royal Gazette. 3 October 1778. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  34. ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, Tennessee, The University of Tennessee Press. p. 144.
  35. ^ Smith, Robert Barr, Blood Bath at Going Snake: The Cherokee Courtroom Shootout. , 2004. Wild West, History Net]
  36. ^ "Was there a Saltville Massacre in 1864?" David Brown's analysis