List of mayors of New York City
This list includes mayors who governed the city of New York at times when its territory was smaller than it is today. Before 1874, the city covered little or no land beyond the island of Manhattan, but later annexed territory in the area that formed the Borough of the Bronx in 1898. The city's consolidation in 1898 defined the current boundaries of the five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island. See History of New York City.
During the Dutch colonial period from 1625 to 1664, New Amsterdam was governed by a Director-General. For the year prior to the establishment of the office of Mayor of New York in 1665, New York was run by Richard Nicolls, who was the British military governor of the Province of New York. Thomas Willett was the first person to be specifically appointed mayor.
Mayors were appointed by provincial governors until 1777 when a Council of Appointment was formed by New York State. In 1821 the New York City Council – then known as the Common Council – began appointing mayors. Since 1834 mayors have been elected by direct popular vote.
The longest-serving mayors so far have been Fiorello H. La Guardia (1934–1945), Robert F. Wagner, Jr. (1954–1965) and Edward I. Koch (1978–1989), each of whom was in office for twelve years (three successive 4-year terms); current Mayor Michael Bloomberg will match their longevity if he completes his third term on December 31, 2013. The shortest terms in office since 1834 have been those of acting mayors Thomas Coman (five weeks from Monday, November 30, 1868, to Monday, January 4, 1869) and Samuel B. H. Vance (one month from November 30 to December 31, 1874).
Although being Mayor of New York City has been described as the "second toughest job in America" after the Presidency, and although several mayors – most recently John Lindsay and Rudolph Giuliani – have sought the Presidency, no one person has yet held both positions. Indeed no sitting or former mayor has been elected to another public office since Ardolph Loges Kline (acting mayor in late 1913) was re-elected Alderman in 1913 and later elected in 1920 to his only term in Congress. Neither has any mayor so far (out of more than a hundred) been female, nor has any except David Dinkins been non-white.
Mayors of the unconsolidated City
Before 1680, mayors served one-year terms. As of 1680, they served two-year terms. Exceptions are noted thus (*). A dagger (†) indicates mayoralties cut short by death in office. [When the same man served more than one continuous term, his name is lightly shaded purely for clarity, but the tints have no other significance.]
After 1820, the mayor was appointed by the city's Common Council. Peter Delanoy (1689–1691) was the only mayor elected by popular vote before 1834. (See Note 1 directly below this table).
|no.||Name||Starting year of Office||Ending year of Office||Political Party|
|1||Thomas Willett (1st term)||1665||1666|
|2||Thomas Delavall (1st term)||1666||1667|
|3||Thomas Willett (2nd term)||1667||1668|
|4||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (1st term)||1668||1671|
|5||Thomas Delavall (2nd term)||1671||1672|
|7||John Lawrence (1st term)||1673||1675|
|8||William Dervall||1675 October 17||1676 October 14|
|9||Nicholas De Mayer||1676 October 14||1677|
|10||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1677||1678|
|11||Thomas Delavall (3rd term)||1678||1679|
|13||William Dyre||1680 October 30||1682|
|14||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (2nd term)||1682||1684|
|15||Gabriel Minvielle (*)||1684||1685|
|16||Nicholas Bayard (*)||1685||1686|
|17||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1686||1688|
|18||Peter Delanoy 1||1689||1691|
|19||John Lawrence (2nd term *)||1691 May||1691 October|
|20||Abraham de Peyster||1691 October||1694|
|23||Johannes de Peyster||1698||1699|
|25||Isaac De Reimer||1700||1701|
|30||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1710||1711|
|33||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1719||1720|
|36||Robert Lurting †||1726||1735 †|
|38||John Cruger †||1739||1744 August 13 †|
|40||Edward Holland †||1747||1757 †|
|41||John Cruger, Jr.||1757||1766|
|47||DeWitt Clinton (1st term)||1803||1807|
|49||DeWitt Clinton (2nd term)||1808||1810||Democratic-Republican|
|50||Jacob Radcliff (1st term)||1810||1811|
|51||DeWitt Clinton (3rd term)||1811||1815||Democratic-Republican|
|53||Jacob Radcliff (2nd term)||1815||1818|
|54||Cadwallader D. Colden||1818||1821||Federalist|
|56||William Paulding, Jr. (1st term)||1825||1826||Democratic|
|58||William Paulding Jr. (2nd term)||1827||1829||Democratic|
- Peter Delanoy was the first and only directly-elected mayor of New York until 1834. Appointed mayors resumed in the wake of Leisler's Rebellion.
Popularly-elected mayors of the unconsolidated City
Under the Charter of 1834, mayors were elected annually. After 1849, they served two-year terms.
|no.||Name||Starting year of Office||Ending year of Office||Political Party|
|61||Cornelius Van Wyck Lawrence||1834||1837||Democratic|
|65||James Harper||1844||1845||American Republican/Know-Nothing|
|66||William F. Havemeyer (1st term)||1845||1846||Democratic|
|67||Andrew H. Mickle||1846||1847|
|69||William F. Havemeyer (2nd term)||1848||1849||Democratic|
|70||Caleb Smith Woodhull||1849||1851||Whig|
|72||Jacob Aaron Westervelt||1853||1855||Democratic|
|73||Fernando Wood (1st term)||1855||1858|
|74||Daniel F. Tiemann||1858||1860||Coalition (People's Union, American, Democratic)|
|75||Fernando Wood (2nd term)||1860||1862||Democratic|
|77||Charles Godfrey Gunther||1864||1866||Democratic|
|78||John T. Hoffman 1||1866||1868|
|Acting||Thomas Coman 1||1868 November 30||1869 January 4|
|79||Abraham Oakey Hall||1869||1872||Republican|
|80||William F. Havemeyer 2 (3rd term) †||1873||1874 November 30 †|
|Acting||Samuel B. H. Vance 2||1874 November 30||1874 December 31|
|81||William H. Wickham||1875||1876||Democratic|
|82||Smith Ely, Jr.||1877||1878|
|84||William Russell Grace (1st term)||1881||1882||Democratic (anti-Tammany)|
|86||William Russell Grace (2nd term)||1885||1886||Independent|
|87||Abram S. Hewitt||1887||1888||Democratic|
|88||Hugh L. Grant||1889||1892|
|89||Thomas F. Gilroy||1893||1894|
|90||William L. Strong||1895||1897||Fusion|
- John T. Hoffman resigned after his election as Governor of New York state but before the end of his mayoral term. Thomas Coman, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Hoffman's term as acting Mayor until his elected successor, A. Oakey Hall, took office.
- William F. Havemeyer died during his last term of office. Samuel B. H. Vance, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Havemeyer's term as acting Mayor until his elected successor, William H. Wickham took office.
Mayors since the 1898 Consolidation
The 1898–1901 term was for four years. The Charter was changed to make the Mayor's term a two-year one beginning in 1902, but after two such terms was changed back to resume four-year terms in 1906. George B. McClellan, Jr. thus served one two-year term from 1904 to 1905, during which he was elected to a four-year term from 1906 to 1909. See New York City mayoral elections#Terms and term limits (since 1834).
|91||Robert A. Van Wyck||January 1||1898||December 31||1901||4 years||Democratic|
|92||Seth Low 1||January 1||1902||December 31||1903||2 years||Citizens Union/Republican/
|93||George B. McClellan, Jr.||January 1||1904||December 31||1909||6 years||Democratic|
|94||William Jay Gaynor 2 †||January 1||1910||September 10||1913 †||3 years, 253 days|
|Acting||Ardolph Loges Kline 3||September 10||1913||December 31||1913||113 days||Republican|
|95||John Purroy Mitchel||January 1||1914||December 31||1917||4 years||Fusion|
|96||John F. Hylan||January 1||1918||December 31||1925||8 years||Democratic|
|97||James J. Walker 4||January 1||1926||September 1||1932||6 years, 244 days|
|Acting||Joseph V. McKee 5||September 1||1932||December 31||1932||121 days|
|98||John P. O'Brien||January 1||1933||December 31||1933||1 year|
|99||Fiorello H. La Guardia||January 1||1934||December 31||1945||12 years||Republican / Fusion|
|100||William O'Dwyer 6||January 1||1946||August 31||1950||4 years, 243 days||Democratic|
|Acting||Vincent R. Impellitteri 7||August 31||1950||November 14||1950||75 days||Democratic (as acting mayor)|
|101||November 14||1950||December 31||1953||3 years, 48 days||Independent (as elected mayor)|
|102||Robert F. Wagner, Jr.||January 1||1954||December 31||1965||12 years||Democratic|
|103||John V. Lindsay||January 1||1966||December 31||1973||8 years||Republican / Liberal 1966–69;
Democratic / Liberal 1970–73
|104||Abraham D. Beame||January 1||1974||December 31||1977||4 years||Democratic|
|105||Edward I. Koch||January 1||1978||December 31||1989||12 years|
|106||David N. Dinkins ♥||January 1||1990||December 31||1993||4 years|
|107||Rudolph W. Giuliani ♥||January 1||1994||December 31||2001||8 years||Republican|
|108||Michael R. Bloomberg ♥||January 1||2002||11 years, 346 days||Republican 2002–07;
Independent since 2007.
† died in office ; ♥ still living as of December 10, 2013
- Seth Low previously served as Mayor of the City of Brooklyn from 1882 to 1885.
- William Jay Gaynor died September 10, 1913.
- Ardolph L. Kline, the unelected President of the Board of Aldermen, succeeded as acting Mayor upon William Gaynor's death, but then sought re-election as an Alderman (successfully) rather than election as Mayor. Kline has thus been the only mayor since 1834 never to win a city-wide election (having been appointed Vice President of the Board of Aldermen by his colleagues and then succeeding to the Presidency mid-term, rather than winning it by popular election at large).
- James J. "Jimmy" Walker resigned September 1, 1932 and went to Europe, amid allegations of corruption in his administration.
- Joseph V. McKee, as President of the Board of Aldermen, became Acting Mayor in Walker's place, but was then defeated in a special election by John P. O'Brien.
- William O'Dwyer resigned August 31, 1950, during a police corruption scandal, after which he was appointed Ambassador to Mexico by President Harry S. Truman.
- Vincent R. Impellitteri, President of the New York City Council, became Acting Mayor when O'Dwyer resigned on August 31, 1950, and was then elected to the office in a special election held on November 7, 1950. He was inaugurated on November 14.
Living former mayors
As of February 2013[update], the two living former mayors were also the two who had served most recently.
The most recent former mayor to die — on February 1, 2013 — was their immediate predecessor, Ed Koch (who was born in December 1924 and served from 1978 to 1989).
|Name||Date of birth||Term of office||Party||Former mayors alive at inauguration|
|David Dinkins||July 10, 1927||1990 to 1993||Democratic||Robert Wagner†, John Lindsay, Abe Beame, Ed Koch|
|Rudolph Giuliani||May 28, 1944||1994 to 2001||Republican||John Lindsay†, Abe Beame†, Ed Koch, David Dinkins|
|February 14, 1942||2002–present||Republican/
|Ed Koch†, David Dinkins, Rudolph Giuliani|
- Election results for Mayor of New York
- History of New York City
- Mayors of the City of Brooklyn (1834–98)
- Popik, Barry. ""'Second toughest job in America' (nyc mayor)" The Big Apple (December 31, 2007) (see the list of references from reliable sources in the entry)
- "The Green Book: Mayors of the City of New York" on the official NYC website. When a former mayor serves again after a break in office, a new number is assigned to his resumed service. However, the five acting mayoralties are unnumbered.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195116348. pp.99-100