List of members of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

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The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, located in Springfield, Massachusetts, honors players who have shown exceptional skill at basketball, all-time great coaches, referees, and other major contributors to the sport. It is named after Dr. James Naismith, who conceived the sport in 1891; he was inducted into the Hall as a contributor in 1959.[1]

To be considered for induction, nominees must meet certain prerequisites. Players must have been retired for at least five years before becoming eligible. Referees and coaches must have either been retired for at least five years, or, if they are still active, have coached or officiated for at least 25 years at high-school-level programs or higher. Those being considered for induction as contributors may be inducted at any time; the Hall of Fame and its committees evaluate whether contributions are significant enough for the nominee to be inducted as a contributor.[2] Teams are also inducted at the committees' discretion.

As of the induction of the Class of 2013 on September 8, 2013, the Hall has formally inducted 326 individuals (158 players, 89 coaches, 3 as both players and coaches, 62 as contributors, and 14 referees) and 9 teams. The 2013 class consisted of six players, four coaches, and two contributors.[3] The induction class of 2014, consisting of four players, three coaches, two contributors, and one team, was announced in two phases on February 14[4] and April 7, 2014,[5] and will be formally enshrined on August 8.[5]

Members[edit]

Coaches[edit]

As part of the inaugural class of 1959, three coaches were inducted (Forrest C. "Phog" Allen, Henry Clifford Carlson and Walter E. Meanwell); in total, 92 coaches have been inducted into the Hall of Fame, with three coaches announced as part of the class of 2014. Nine of the inducted coaches were born outside the United States: Cesare Rubini (Italy, 1994), Aleksandr J. Gomelsky (Soviet Union, now Russia, 1995), Antonio Díaz-Miguel (Spain, 1997), Aleksandar "Aca" Nikolić (Yugoslavia, now Serbia, 1998), Geno Auriemma (Italy, 2006), Alessandro "Sandro" Gamba (Italy, 2006), Mirko Novosel (Yugoslavia, now Croatia, 2007), Pedro Ferrándiz (Spain, 2007), and Lidia Alexeeva (Soviet Union, now Russia, 2012). Six of them have won championships in the Euroleague or its historic predecessor, the FIBA Europe Champions Cup. Ten of the inducted coaches are women: L. Margaret Wade (1985), Jody Conradt (1998), Pat Head Summitt (2000), Sandra Kay Yow (2002), Sue Gunter (2005), Cathy Rush (2008), C. Vivian Stringer (2009), Tara VanDerveer (2011), Alexeeva (2012), and Sylvia Hatchell (2013). Three coaches have also been inducted as players: John Wooden, Bill Sharman, and Lenny Wilkens. The most recent coaches to be inducted are Hatchell, Guy Lewis, Rick Pitino, and Jerry Tarkanian.[3]

Most of the inductees have been college head coaches. Twenty-eight, plus 2014 induction class members Nolan Richardson and Gary Williams,[5] have led a team to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's championship and six have led a team to the NCAA women's championship. Seventeen inductees, plus 2014 class member Bob Leonard,[5] have coached in the National Basketball Association (NBA). All of them except Alvin F. Julian, Leonard, Don Nelson, Pitino, Jerry Sloan, and Tex Winter have won an NBA championship as head coaches (Leonard won three titles in the former American Basketball Association, Nelson won five NBA titles as a player, and Winter was an assistant on nine NBA championship teams). Larry Brown is the only inductee to coach both a college basketball team and a professional basketball team to a title, having coached the Kansas Jayhawks (NCAA) and the Detroit Pistons (NBA) to championships.

Seven coaching inductees have received the Hall's John Bunn Award, given annually for significant contributions to the sport—Red Auerbach, Henry Iba, Ray Meyer, Summitt, Winter, Wooden, and Morgan Wootten.

Twelve inductees have, either before or after their induction, won an Olympic medal coaching a men's national team to a top-three finish in the Olympic tournament. Eight coached the U.S. national team, while the other four coached foreign national teams. Six inductees—Summitt, Yow, Auriemma, Van Chancellor, VanDerveer, and Alexeeva—have led a women's national team to a top-three finish in the Olympics. Alexeeva led the Soviet Union to two golds, while all the others led the USA to golds (Auriemma after his induction, the others before being inducted).

Five individuals inducted as coaches were associated with teams that have been inducted to the Hall as units, and one other Hall of Fame coach was associated with a team that will be inducted in 2014. Donald L. "Don" Haskins, inducted in 1997, was the head coach of the 1966 Texas Western basketball team, which was inducted into the Hall in 2007. Chuck Daly, inducted in 1994, was the head coach of the "Dream Team", the USA team at the 1992 Olympics that featured 11 Hall of Fame players and was inducted as a unit in 2010. Wilkens, inducted as a coach in 1998, and Mike Krzyzewski, inducted in 2001, were Daly's assistants in 1992. Dutch Lonborg, inducted in 1973, was team manager for the 1960 U.S. men's Olympic team that was also inducted as a unit in 2010. Cathy Rush, inducted in 2008, was the head coach of the Immaculata University women's team of 1972–1974 that will be inducted in 2014.[5]

Contributors[edit]

For a person to be inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor, they must have made "significant contributions to the game of basketball".[2] Of the inaugural Hall of Fame class of 1959, seven individuals were inducted as contributors, including James Naismith, the inventor of basketball. Once David Stern is inducted in 2014,[5] all former NBA commissioners (Maurice Podoloff, Walter Kennedy, Larry O'Brien, and Stern) will have been inducted. Ten individuals inducted as contributors have won the John Bunn Award, awarded by the Hall annually to a significant contributor: John Bunn (its inaugural recipient), Walter Kennedy, Clifford Fagan, Edward Gottlieb, Daniel Biasone, Larry O'Brien, Dave Gavitt, Meadowlark Lemon, and Tom "Satch" Sanders. Two inductees in this category are women: Senda Berenson Abbott and Bertha Teague (both inducted in 1985). Stern will be joined as a 2014 inductee in this category by Nat Clifton, one of the first African Americans to play in the NBA.[5]

Six inductees in this category were associated with teams that have been inducted to the Hall as units. Naismith organized The First Team, the group of players involved in the first-ever basketball game in 1891 and also inducted as part of the inaugural Class of 1959. Robert L. Douglas, inducted in 1972, was the founder and owner of the New York Renaissance, inducted in 1963. Pete Newell, inducted in 1979, was the head coach of the 1960 U.S. Olympic team inducted in 2010. Three were associated with the Harlem Globetrotters, inducted in 2002. Abe Saperstein, inducted in 1971, was the team's founder and owner. Kennedy, although best known for his time as NBA commissioner, was also the Globetrotters' public relations director in the 1950s. Lemon, inducted in 2003, was one of the team's most enduring on-court stars.

Ten individuals inducted in this category were born outside the United States—Naismith and Newell in Canada, Podoloff and Gottlieb in modern-day Ukraine (part of the Russian Empire when they were born in 1890 and 1898 respectively), Douglas in Saint Kitts and Nevis (part of the British West Indies at his birth in 1882), Saperstein in the United Kingdom, Biasone and Renato William Jones in Italy, Ferenc Hepp in modern-day Hungary (Austria–Hungary at his birth in 1909), and Borislav Stanković in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at his birth in 1925).

In total, 62 individuals have been inducted as contributors. The 2013 inductees in this category are Russ Granik, a 30-year NBA executive involved with numerous NBA negotiations and partially credited with arranging for the entry of NBA players on U.S. national teams, and Edwin Bancroft Henderson, responsible for introducing basketball to the African American community and organizing many early competitions involving African Americans.[6]

A black-and-white of a man with a mustache wearing a suit and a tie
Luther Gulick, inducted in 1959
A black-and-white of a man wearing a suit and a tie looking to the right side
Amos Alonzo Stagg, inducted in 1959
Year Inductee Achievements Ref.
1959 Gulick, Luther H.Luther H. Gulick Head of Physical Education at School for Christian Workers (1887–1900); Chairman of Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Basketball Committee (1895–1905) [7]
1959 Hickox, Edward J. "Ed"Edward J. "Ed" Hickox Represented New England in Olympic Trials (Springfield College, 1936); five New England championships (Springfield College); Board of Directors of Basketball Hall of Fame (1959–66); National Association of Basketball Coaches (NABC) historian (1944–66) [8]
1959 Morgan, RalphRalph Morgan Founded Collegiate Basketball Rules Committee (1905); Secretary and Treasurer of Rules Committee (1905–31); Founded Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League (now the Ivy League) (1910); Secretary and Treasurer of Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League (1910–31) [9]
1959 Naismith, JamesJames Naismith Physical education instructor (Springfield College, 1890–95); invented the game of "basket ball," (now called basketball); developed basketball's original 13 rules; physical education professor (Kansas, 1917–37) [10]
1959 Olsen, Harold G.Harold G. Olsen Big Ten Championships (Ohio State; 1925, 1933, 1939, 1944, 1946); helped found NCAA tournament (1939); Chairman of NCAA Rules Committee; first Coach of Basketball Association of America's (BAA) Chicago Stags (1946–49) [11]
1959 Stagg, Amos AlonzoAmos Alonzo Stagg Played in the first public basketball game at Springfield and scored the team's only basket in a 5–1 loss; 7 Big Ten titles during late 19th century and early 20th century (Chicago) [12]
1959 Tower, OswaldOswald Tower Member of Basketball Rules Committee (1910–60); Editor of Official Basketball Guide (1915–60); official rules interpreter (1915–60); coach of Wilbraham (MA) Academy (1907–10) [13]
1960 Porter, Henry V.Henry V. Porter First representative for high schools on the National Basketball Rules Committee; pioneered use of motion pictures to study proper playing techniques; published the first high school rule book (1936); published the first state high school association publication, The Illinois Athlete [14]
1961 O'Brien, John J.John J. O'Brien President, Metropolitan Basketball League (1922–28, 1931–33); President and chairman of the board, American Basketball League (1928–31, 1933–53); dedicated to the advancement of professional basketball in the East; supporter of referees and one of the first league administrators to begin fining players [15]
1961 Schabinger, Arthur A.Arthur A. Schabinger Officiated in the Missouri Valley Conference, Big Eight, Kansas and Missouri Conferences, and the national AAU championships; one of the founders of the NABC; author of the NABC's Constitution and By-Laws, and designer of its emblem; promoted the adoption of molded basketball by colleges [16]
1961 Trester, Arthur L.Arthur L. Trester Commissioner of Indiana High School Athletic Association (1922–44); coach and referee in Indiana; known as the "Czar" of Indiana high school athletics [17]
1962 Morgenweck, FrankFrank Morgenweck Operated and coached professional teams in 14 cities in the National, New England, Western Massachusetts, Hudson River, Central, New York State, Inter-State, Metropolitan, Eastern States, and American leagues (1901–32); National League championship (Camden, 1904); Metropolitan League championships (Patterson, 1923; Kingston, 1928) [18]
1962 St. John, Lynn W.Lynn W. St. John Lobbied for formal national and international rules for amateur basketball for three decades; served on NCAA Rules Committee with James Naismith (1912–37); Chairman, Rules Committee (1919–37); Member, Olympic Basketball Committee (1936) [19]
1963 Reid, William A.William A. Reid Director of athletics, University of Detroit (1919); Director of athletics, Colgate University (1936–55); President, Eastern Collegiate Athletic Conference (ECAC) (1944–45); Director ECAC Executive Council (1945–49) [20]
1964 Bunn, John W.John W. Bunn Coached Stanford to Pacific Coast Conference championships (1936–38); Helms Athletic Foundation Championship (Stanford, 1937); Chairman, Basketball Hall of Fame (1949–63); Editor, College Guide and Official Rules Interpreter (1959–60) [21]
1964 Irish, Edward S. "Ned"Edward S. "Ned" Irish Basketball director, Madison Square Garden (1934); integral in formation of BAA (1946); founded the New York Knicks (1946); President, New York Knicks (1946–74) [22]
1964 Jones, R. WilliamR. William Jones Co-founded the International Amateur Basketball Federation (FIBA) (1932); organized men's and women's European Championships (1935–63); organized men's and women's World Championships (1950–63); organized Olympic Basketball Tournament (1936–60) [23]
1965 Brown, Walter A.Walter A. Brown President of the Boston Garden (1937–64); founded the Boston Celtics (1946); Celtics owner (1946–64); spearheaded the formation of the NBA (1949); President of the International Ice Hockey Federation [24]
1965 Hinkle, Paul D. "Tony"Paul D. "Tony" Hinkle Helms Athletic Foundation Championship (Butler, 1924, 1929); President, NABC (1954–55); Chairman, Rules Committee of the National Basketball Committee of U.S. and Canada; coached the Great Lakes Navy teams during World War II [25]
1965 Mokray, William G. "Bill"William G. "Bill" Mokray Started concept of college basketball doubleheaders at the Boston Garden (1944–45); first Chairman of the Hall of Fame Honors Committee (1959–64); owned the world's largest basketball library; considered the number-one authority on the game's history [26]
1968 Bee, Clair F.Clair F. Bee Influential in the development of 3-second rule; developed the 1-3-1 zone defense; National Invitation Tournament (NIT) championship (Long Island University, 1939, 1941); Author, Chip Hilton's Sports Stories for Young People'; Coach of the Baltimore Bullets (1952–54) [27]
1969 Taylor, Charles H. "Chuck"Charles H. "Chuck" Taylor Shoe salesman; Organized first basketball clinic at North Carolina State University (1922); developed the popular Converse Basketball Yearbook (1922); selected All-America teams (1932); The Chuck Taylor "All-Star" was the official shoe of the Olympics (1936–68) [28]
1971 Saperstein, Abraham M. "Abe"Abraham M. "Abe" Saperstein Owner of the Harlem Globetrotters. Saperstein's Globetrotters played before 55 million fans in 87 countries; the Globetrotters were part of the first basketball sellout ever at Madison Square Garden; led the Globetrotters to the World Professional Title (1940); won the International Cup with the Globetrotters (1943–44) [29]
1972 Douglas, Robert L. "Bob"Robert L. "Bob" Douglas Owned and coached New York Renaissance (1922–49); World Professional Championship with Renaissance (1939); known as "The Father of Black Professional Basketball" [30]
1972 Gottlieb, Edward "Ed"Edward "Ed" Gottlieb BAA Championship (Philadelphia Warriors, 1947); NBA Championship (Philadelphia Warriors, 1956); Coach and Owner of Warriors (1946–55 and 1946–62); Chairman of NBA Rules Committee for 25 years; served as NBA schedule maker for 30 years [31]
1972 Wells, W.R. Clifford "Cliff"W.R. Clifford "Cliff" Wells 50 district, regional, and invitational tournaments, including two championships (Indiana state; 1919, 1934); first President, Indiana High School Coaching Association; member of National Rules Committee (1952–56); first full-time executive secretary and director of Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame (1963–66) [32]
1973 Ripley, Elmer H.Elmer H. Ripley 2 NCAA Tournament (Georgetown; 1941, 1943); Eastern Championship (Georgetown, 1943); Israeli Olympic team coach (Melbourne, 1956); Canadian Olympic team coach (Rome, 1960) [33]
1974 Fisher, Harry A.Harry A. Fisher 2 Helms Athletic Foundation Championship (Columbia; 1904–05); Helms Athletic Foundation All-America (Columbia; 1904–05); Eastern Intercollegiate League championship (Columbia; 1911–12, 1914); editor of Collegiate Guide (1905–15) [34]
1974 Podoloff, MauriceMaurice Podoloff Served as NBA's first commissioner (1949–63); negotiated NBA's first TV contract (1954); arranged for construction and use of the first 24-second clock (1954); NBA's MVP Award is named in his honor [35]
1975 Liston, Emil S.Emil S. Liston 2 Kansas Conference Championship (Baker University; 1930, 1937); President of Kansas Conference Coaches Association (1936–38); created National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball (NAIB)/National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) tournament (1937); served as NAIA executive secretary (1940–49) [36]
1979 McLendon, John B.John B. McLendon 3 NAIA championship (Tennessee State; 1957–59); NAIA Coach of the Year (1958); 8 CIAA championships (1941, 1943–44, 1946–47, 1949–50, 1952); first African-American coach with Cleveland Pipers of the American Basketball League, later coach of the Denver Rockets (ABA) [37]
1979 Newell, Peter F. "Pete"Peter F. "Pete" Newell NCAA Championship (California; 1959); NIT Championship (San Francisco, 1949); Olympic Gold Medal (Rome, 1960) with the 1960 United States Olympic Team inducted as a unit in 2010; National Coach of the Year (1960) [38]
1980 Harrison, Lester "Les"Lester "Les" Harrison Organized Rochester Seagrams, Ebers, and Pros (1920s–40s); Owner of Rochester Royals (1945–1958); NBA championship (Rochester Royals, 1951); instrumental in formation of NBA (1949); organized Kodak Classic Collegiate Tournament (now Rochester Basketball Classic) [39]
1981 Hepp, FerencFerenc Hepp Member of FIBA Technical Commission (1948–56); President of Hungarian Basketball Federation (1954); member of FIBA Central Board (1956); member of FIBA Commission of Finances and Amateurism (1960–80) [40]
1981 Kennedy, James WalterJames Walter Kennedy Public Relations Director (BAA/NBA; 1946–51); Public Relations Director (Harlem Globetrotters, 1950s); NBA Commissioner (1963–75); John Bunn Award (1975); NBA named their citizenship award in his honor [41]
1982 Duer, Alva O.Alva O. Duer NAIB Finals appearance (Pepperdine; 1945); Director and founder of NAIB/NAIA National Basketball Championship Tournament (1949–75); member of U.S. Basketball Association Ethics Committee (1960–64); Board of Directors, U.S. Olympic Committee [42]
1983 Wilke, Louis G.Louis G. Wilke Chairman, AAU Basketball Committee, seven terms; Chairman and team manager, Olympic Basketball Committee (1948); Executive board member, U.S. Olympic Committee (1956, 1960); Vice-chairman, Pan American Federation and FIBA Rules Committee (1962) [43]
1984 Fagan, Clifford B. "Cliff"Clifford B. "Cliff" Fagan Executive Secretary of Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association (1947–57); Secretary of National Basketball Rules Committee (1958–77); Executive Director of National Federation of High Schools, (1959–77); member of U.S. Olympic Committee Board of Directors (1961–76) [44]
1984 Steitz, Edward S. "Ed"Edward S. "Ed" Steitz Instrumental in the reinstatement of the dunk (1976); eliminated jump ball with the exception of the start of the game and overtime (1981); advocate of the 45-second shot clock and three-point shot (1985); NIT Selection Committee (1962–68) [45]
1985 Abbott, Senda BerensonSenda Berenson Abbott Director of Physical Education (Smith College; 1892–11); organized first women's game at Smith College (March 22, 1893); author, Basketball Guide for Women (1901–07); Chairperson, Basketball Committee for Women (1905–17) [46]
1985 Teague, Bertha F.Bertha F. Teague 8 Oklahoma state championships and 7 runner-ups; compiled 36 20-plus win seasons, including 28 consecutive (1930–57); founded the first girls' basketball clinic and camp in the Southwest; coach of the Decade (1930s, 1940s, 1960s) by Jim Thorpe Athletic Awards Committee (1974) [47]
1991 Fleisher, Lawrence "Larry"Lawrence "Larry" Fleisher NBA Players Association general counsel (1963–87); developed free-agent system (1976); established antidrug agreement; involved in ABA-NBA merger [48]
1991 O'Brien, Lawrence F. "Larry"Lawrence F. "Larry" O'Brien NBA Commissioner (1975–84); The Sporting News Sportsman of the Year (1976); created NBA college scholarship program (1980); developed antidrug program (1984); President, Basketball Hall of Fame (1985–87) [49]
1991 Stankovic, Borislav "Boris"Borislav "Boris" Stankovic Italian national championship (Oransoda team, 1968); oversaw the introduction of the three-point line in international competition; overseen reorganization of FIBA into zonal administration system; member of International Olympic Committee [50]
1999 Embry, Wayne R.Wayne R. Embry Five-time NBA All-Star (1961–65); NBA championship (Boston Celtics, 1968); first African American NBA general manager (Milwaukee Bucks, 1971–79); later GM of the Cleveland Cavaliers; The Sporting News NBA Executive of the Year (1992, 1998) [51]
1999 Zollner, FredFred Zollner Owner of the Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons/Detroit Pistons (1941–1974); NBL championship (Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons, 1944–45); key figure in the merger of the BAA and NBL to form the NBA; NBA Finals appearance (Fort Wayne Pistons, 1955–56); named "Mr. Pro Basketball" at the 1975 Silver Anniversary All-Star Game [52]
2000 Biasone, Daniel "Danny"Daniel "Danny" Biasone President and founder (Syracuse Nationals, 1946–63); inventor of 24-second shot clock (1954); NBA championship (Syracuse Nationals, 1955); John Bunn Award (1982) [53]
2000 Newton, Charles MartinCharles Martin Newton NCAA Championship (Kentucky, 1951); Southeastern Conference (SEC) Coach of the Year (1972 and 1976 with Alabama, 1988 and 1989 with Vanderbilt); President, USA Basketball (1992–96); John Bunn Award (1997) [54]
2003 Hearn, Francis D. "Chick"Francis D. "Chick" Hearn Los Angeles Lakers broadcaster; Three-time National Sportscaster of the Year (1959, 1965, 1987); Curt Gowdy Media Award (1992); Emmy Award for Excellence in Basketball Coverage (1965); Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame (1986) [55]
2003 Lemon, MeadowlarkMeadowlark Lemon Longtime player for the Harlem Globetrotters; John Bunn Award (1998); played in more than 16,000 games; known as the "Clown Prince of Basketball" [56]
2003 Lloyd, Earl F.Earl F. Lloyd CIAA "Player of the Decade" for the 1940s; NAIA Silver and Golden Anniversary Teams; first African American to play in an NBA game (1950);[57] NBA Championship Team (1955); first African American bench coach (1968) [58]
2004 Colangelo, JerryJerry Colangelo Owner and GM of the Phoenix Suns; The Sporting News NBA Executive of the Year (1976, 1981, 1989, 1993); youngest general manager in professional sports (1968); enshrined in Illinois Basketball Hall of Fame (1995); former Chairman and CEO of the Arizona Diamondbacks; GM of the U.S. Men's National Basketball team (2005–present) [59]
2005 Brown, Hubert "Hubie"Hubert "Hubie" Brown Coach of the Atlanta Hawks; New York Knicks and Memphis Grizzlies; Two-time NBA Coach of the Year (1978, 2004); ABA Championship (Kentucky Colonels, 1975); Curt Gowdy Media Award (2000); nominated for a Sports Emmy (1994, 1999) [60]
2006 Gavitt, DaveDave Gavitt Coach, 1980 United States Olympic Team; five-time New England Coach of the Year; John Bunn Lifetime Achievement Award (1987); Naismith Outstanding Contribution to Basketball Award winner (1993) [61]
2008 Davidson, WilliamWilliam Davidson Principal owner, Detroit Pistons (1974–2009); NBA championships (Detroit Pistons, 1989–90, 2004); Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) championships (Detroit Shock, 2003, 2006, 2008); first owner in North American sports history to win championships in three different major professional leagues (NBA, WNBA, and National Hockey League (NHL)) [62]
2008 Vitale, DickDick Vitale ESPN Broadcaster; Sports Personality of the Year by the American Sportscasters Association (1989); Curt Gowdy Media Award (1998); NABC Cliff Wells Appreciation Award (2000); Books include Time Out Baby!, Campus Chaos, Living a Dream and Holding Court [63]
2010 Buss, JerryJerry Buss Owner of the Los Angeles Lakers (1979–2013) and Los Angeles Sparks (1997–2006); 10 NBA championships (Lakers, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1987–88, 2000–02, 2009–10); two WNBA championships (Sparks, 2000–01) [64]
2011 Sanders, Tom "Satch"Tom "Satch" Sanders Player with the Boston Celtics (1960–73); 8 NBA championships (1961–66, 1968, 1969); later coach of the Celtics and Harvard University; key developer of the NBA's Rookie Transition Program and founder of many of the league's player programs; John Bunn Award (2007) [65]
2012 Barksdale, DonaldDonald Barksdale First African American to be named to a major college All-America team (Helms Foundation, 1947, with UCLA); first African American to play for and win Olympic gold with Team USA (1948); first African American to play in the NBA All-Star Game (1953) [66]
2012 Knight, PhilPhil Knight Co-founder of Nike, "credited with expanding the game of basketball around the world through its innovative products and influential marketing" and "the first sports brand to incorporate top athletes to connect with consumers emotionally" (most notably Michael Jordan) [67]
2013 Granik, RussRuss Granik NBA executive from 1976 to 2006, "involved in every major negotiation including television contracts, collective bargaining, and league expansion" during his tenure; also president of USA Basketball who helped oversee the inclusion of NBA players in the 1992 Olympic "Dream Team" [68]
2013 Henderson, Edwin BancroftEdwin Bancroft Henderson Dubbed the "Father of Black Basketball"; introduced the sport to the black community in Washington, D.C. in the early 20th century and formed many organizations to govern and promote the sport among African Americans [69]

Players[edit]

As part of the inaugural class of 1959, four players were inducted, including George Mikan, who was the first NBA player to be enshrined. In total, 161 players have been inducted into the Hall of Fame; 98 of them have played in the NBA. All four individuals who have been announced as 2014 player inductees, Šarūnas Marčiulionis, Alonzo Mourning, Mitch Richmond, and Guy Rodgers, are also former NBA players.[5] The 1993 class had the most player inductees, with eight. No players were inducted in 1965, 1967, 1968 and 2007. Three players have also been inducted as coaches: John Wooden in 1973, Lenny Wilkens in 1998, and Bill Sharman in 2004. The most recent player inductees, all in 2013, are Roger Brown, Richie Guerin, Bernard King, Gary Payton, Oscar Schmidt, and Dawn Staley.[3]

Sixteen player inductees are women: Lusia Harris-Stewart (1992), Nera D. White (1992), Ann E. Meyers (1993), Uljana Semjonova (1993), Carol A. Blazejowski (1994), Anne T. Donovan (1994), Cheryl Miller (1995), Nancy I. Lieberman (1996), Joan Crawford (1997), Denise M. Curry (1997), Lynette Woodard (2004), Hortência de Fatima Marcari (2005), Cynthia Cooper-Dyke (2010), Teresa Edwards (2011), Katrina McClain Johnson (2012), and Dawn Staley (2013). Among these, only Lieberman, Woodard, Cooper-Dyke, Edwards, and Staley have played in the Women's National Basketball Association.[70][71][72][73][74] Harris-Stewart is the only female drafted by an NBA team,[75] while Meyers is the only one to have been signed by an NBA team.[76]

Two player inductees have won the John Bunn Award—Bob Cousy and Wooden.

Twelve player inductees, plus one player announced as a 2014 inductee, were born outside the United States. Canadian-born Robert J. "Bob" Houbregs (inducted 1987) was drafted by NBA's Milwaukee Hawks in 1953 and played five seasons in the league.[77] Four of these individuals were born in the former Soviet UnionSergei A. Belov, Marčiulionis, Arvydas Sabonis, and Uljana Semjonova. Belov, inducted in 1992, was born in modern-day Russia, and Sabonis, inducted in 2011, and Marčiulionis, to be inducted in 2014, were born in today's Lithuania. All three won gold medals for the USSR at the Olympic Games. Marčiulionis and Sabonis each added two bronze medals for Lithuania after the restoration of its independence in 1990; Marčiulionis is also credited by the Hall with resurrecting the Lithuania national team after independence.[5] Semjonova, inducted in 1993, was born in what is now Latvia. She won two Olympic golds with the USSR women's team. Krešimir Ćosić, Dražen Petrović, and Dražen Dalipagić (inducted in 1996, 2002 and 2004 respectively) represented Yugoslavia internationally during their careers, and Petrović represented Croatia after the initial breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. Italian-born Dino Meneghin (inducted 2003) spent much of his career playing in the Italian A League. Three Brazilians have represented their homeland internationally—Hortência de Fatima Marcari (inducted in 2005) for the women's national team, and Maciel "Ubiratan" Pereira (inducted in 2010) and Oscar Schmidt (inducted in 2013) for the men's national team. American Dominique Wilkins, inducted in 2006, was born in France while his father was stationed there while in the U.S. Air Force.

Referees[edit]

The Referee category has existed since the beginning of the Hall of Fame and the first referee was inducted in 1959. Since then, 14 referees have been inducted,[2] with Hank Nichols being the most recent entrant in 2012.[78] Ernest C. Quigley, born in Canada, is the only inductee in this category born outside of the United States.

Year Inductee Achievements[a] Ref.
1959 Kennedy, Matthew P. "Pat"Matthew P. "Pat" Kennedy Officiated high school, college, and professional games (1924–56); officiated in NCAA and NIT tournaments; BAA/NBA supervisor of referees (1946–50); officiated for the Harlem Globetrotters (1950–56) [79]
1960 Hepbron, George T.George T. Hepbron Conducted first national rules seminar; editor of AAU Basketball Guide (1901–14); secretary of the Olympic Basketball Committee (1903) [80]
1961 Hoyt, George H.George H. Hoyt Founded Eastern Massachusetts Board of Approved Basketball Officials; founded New England Interscholastic Basketball Tournament; chief of officials for the Eastern Massachusetts High School Tournament; refereed high school and college games [81]
1961 Quigley, Ernest C.Ernest C. Quigley Supervisor of NCAA tournament officials (1940–42); member of NCAA Football Rules Committee (1946–54); officiated more than 1,500 games in 40-year career; was Major League Baseball umpire for 25 years [82]
1961 Tobey, David "Dave"David "Dave" Tobey Officiated in the Eastern Intercollegiate Conference, the Eastern Conference, the Ivy League, and in the National Invitation Tournament; Executive Committee of the New York City High School Coaches Association; honorary member of the International Association of Approved Basketball Officials (IAABO) [83]
1962 Walsh, David H.David H. Walsh New Jersey State championship at Hoboken High School (1924); Associate Director of Collegiate Basketball Officials Bureau (1941–56); co-author of first Manual of Basketball Officiating; officiated in the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball Conference and the Eastern Conference [84]
1978 Nucatola, John P.John P. Nucatola Officiated in 18 NCAA tournaments, in 18 National Invitation Tournaments; original referee in the BAA and NBA (1946–54); officiated in the Olympics (Helsinki, 1952, Melbourne, 1956) [85]
1979 Enright, James E. "Jim"James E. "Jim" Enright Officiated in Olympic playoffs (London, 1948, Helsinki, 1952), in NCAA Final Four (1954), in NCAA regional tournaments (1952, 1953); officiated two Major League Baseball All-Star Games (1950, 1962) [86]
1980 Shirley, J. DallasJ. Dallas Shirley Officiated in the Olympics (Rome, 1960); chief official of Pan American Games (1959); Chairman of U.S. Olympic Basketball Officials Committee (1976); conducted clinics in the U.S. and 13 foreign countries [87]
1983 Leith, Lloyd R.Lloyd R. Leith Officiated NCAA championship game between Kentucky and Kansas State (1951); officiated in the NCAA tournament for 16 years; became the tenth referee enshrined into the Hall; supervisor of officials of the Pacific Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (1955–62) [88]
1986 Mihalik, Zigmund J. "Red"Zigmund J. "Red" Mihalik Officiated 6 NCAA championship finals; refereed 3 NAIA Finals and 3 NIT Finals; officiated in the Olympics (Tokyo, 1964, Mexico City, 1968); best referee by Dell Publications [89]
1995 Strom, EarlEarl Strom Officiated in 7 NBA All-Star Games, in 29 NBA and ABA Finals; officiated in 2,400 regular season and 295 playoff games; NBA crew chief (1967–68) [90]
2007 Rudolph, Marvin "Mendy"Marvin "Mendy" Rudolph Officiated 2,112 NBA games, a record at the time of his retirement; first referee to officiate more than 2,000 NBA games; referee of 8 NBA All-Star Games and at least 1 game of the NBA Finals for 22 consecutive seasons; NBA Head of Officials [91]
2012 Nichols, HankHank Nichols Officiated six NCAA men's Division I championship games, most notably in 1975 (the final game of John Wooden) and 1979 (the start of the rivalry between Larry Bird and Magic Johnson), and 10 Final Fours; only official to work the NCAA and NIT championship games in the same year; first NCAA Coordinator of Men's Basketball Officials (1986); often called the "John Wooden of officials" [92]

Teams[edit]

The Team category has existed since the beginning of the Hall of Fame and the first teams were inducted in 1959. Since then, nine teams have been inducted, with the most recent being the pioneering all-women's All American Red Heads, inducted in 2012.[78] The Immaculata University women's team of 1972–1974 will become the tenth inductee in this category in 2014.[5]

A black-and-white image of young male basketball players dressed in team uniform, sitting around a display that holds trophies. The plaque below the display reads "Pan-American Basket Ball Champions."
Buffalo Germans, inducted in 1961
The 1992 United States national men basketball team playing at the 1992 Summer Olympics at Barcelona. The team was inducted in 2010.
Year Inductee Achievements[a] Ref.
1959 First Team Founded during a class at the Springfield YMCA; first game of basketball played on December 21, 1891 and consisted of 18 players, 9 to a side; score of first game was 1–0; toured U.S. and helped popularize basketball in the months following its invention [93]
1959 Original Celtics First professional team to sign exclusive player contracts; 2 American Basketball League (ABL) championships (1926–27); introduced post play, zone defenses, and switching man-to-man defense [94]
1961 Buffalo Germans Pan American Championship (1901); Olympic exhibition title (St. Louis, 1904); went undefeated in 5 of first 18 seasons; won 111 straight games (1908–10) [95]
1963 New York Renaissance Founded and owned by Hall of Famer Robert L. Douglas; World Professional Tournament (1939) [96]
2002 Harlem Globetrotters Played more than 20,000 games in more than 100 countries; the 25th anniversary tour was highlighted by a game before 75,000 fans in Berlin's Olympic Stadium (1951); won John Bunn Award (1999) [97]
2007 Texas Western Won the 1966 NCAA National Championship, started 5 African-American players (Bobby Joe Hill, David Lattin, Orsten Artis, Willie Worsley, & Harry Flournoy); finished the season with a 28–1 record; coached by Hall of Famer Don Haskins [98]
2010 1960 United States Olympic Team Widely considered the greatest amateur team ever assembled; won the gold medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics with an 8–0 record and an average victory margin of over 40 points; roster (Jay Arnette, Walt Bellamy, Bob Boozer, Terry Dischinger, Burdette Haldorson, Darrall Imhoff, Allen Kelley, Lester Lane, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson, Adrian Smith, Jerry West) included four Hall of Fame players (Bellamy, Lucas, Robertson, West) and 10 future NBA players, with four named consecutively as Rookies of the Year (Robertson, Bellamy, Dischinger, Lucas from 1961–64) and three named among the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996 (Lucas, Robertson, West); coaching staff (Pete Newell, Warren Womble, Dutch Lonborg) included two Hall of Famers (Newell and Lonborg) [99]
2010 1992 United States Olympic Team ("Dream Team") Called by the Hall of Fame "the greatest collection of basketball talent on the planet"; won the gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics with an 8–0 record and an average victory margin of nearly 44 points; roster (Charles Barkley, Larry Bird, Clyde Drexler, Patrick Ewing, Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, Christian Laettner, Karl Malone, Chris Mullin, Scottie Pippen, David Robinson, John Stockton) included 11 Hall of Fame players (all except Laettner) and 10 named among the NBA's 50 Greatest (all except Laettner and Mullin); coaching staff (Chuck Daly, Lenny Wilkens, Mike Krzyzewski, P. J. Carlesimo) included three Hall of Famers (Daly, Wilkens, Krzyzewski) [100]
2012 All American Red Heads All-women's team founded in 1936 playing against men's teams under men's rules; won 96 straight games at one point; credited by the Hall with "shattering stereotypes about female athletes and overcoming social barriers that existed on and off the basketball court" [101]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "James Naismith Biography". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 28, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c "Guidelines For Nomination and Election Into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 11, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c "Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Announces Class of 2013" (Press release). Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. April 8, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Five Direct-Elect Members Announced for the Class of 2014 by the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame" (Press release). Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Announces Class of 2014" (Press release). Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Five Direct-Elect Members Announced for the Class of 2013 By the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame" (Press release). Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. February 15, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Luther H. Gulick". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Edward J. "Ed" Hickox". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Ralph Morgan". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  10. ^ "James Naismith". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Harold G. Olsen". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Amos Alonzo Stagg". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Oswald Tower". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Henry V. Porter". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  15. ^ "John J. O'Brien". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Arthur A. Schabinger". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Arthur L. Trester". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Frank Morgenweck". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Lynn W. St. John". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  20. ^ "William A. Reid". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  21. ^ "John W. Bunn". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Edward S. "Ned" Irish". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  23. ^ "R. William Jones". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Walter A. Brown". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Paul D. "Tony" Hinkle". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  26. ^ "William G. "Bill" Mokray". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Clair F. Bee". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Charles H. "Chuck" Taylor". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Abraham M. "Abe" Saperstein". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Robert L. "Bob" Douglas". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Edward "Ed" Gottlieb". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  32. ^ "W.R. Clifford "Cliff" Wells". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Elmer H. Ripley". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Harry A. Fisher". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Maurice Podoloff". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Emil S. Liston". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  37. ^ "John B. McLendon". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Peter F. "Pete" Newell". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Lester "Les" Harrison". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Ferenc Hepp". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  41. ^ "James Walter Kennedy". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Alva O. Duer". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Louis G. Wilke". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Clifford B. "Cliff" Fagan". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Edward S. "Ed" Steitz". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Senda Berenson Abbott". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Bertha F. Teague". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Lawrence "Larry" Fleisher". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Lawrence F. "Larry" O'Brien". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Borislav "Boris" Stankovic". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Wayne R. Embry". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Fred Zollner". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Daniel "Danny" Biasone". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Charles Martin Newton". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  55. ^ "Francis D. "Chic" Hearn". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  56. ^ "Meadowlark Lemon". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  57. ^ Lloyd was one of three African Americans who were on NBA rosters at the start of the 1950–51 season (a fourth would make his debut later that season). The others who started that season were Chuck Cooper, the first of the three to be drafted, and Nat Clifton, the first of the three to sign an NBA contract. Lloyd was the first to play in a game because his team was the first to open its season.
  58. ^ "Earl F. Lloyd". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  59. ^ "Jerry Colangelo". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  60. ^ "Hubert "Hubie" Brown". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Dave Gavitt". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  62. ^ "William Davidson". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  63. ^ "Dick Vitale". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  64. ^ "Jerry Buss". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  65. ^ "Tom "Satch" Sanders". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 15, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Donald Barksdale". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  67. ^ "Phil Knight". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  68. ^ "Russ Granik". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  69. ^ "Edwin Bancroft Henderson". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Nancy Lieberman". Women's Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Lynette Woodard". Women's Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Cynthis Cooper-Dyke". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  73. ^ "Teresa Edwards". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  74. ^ "Dawn Staley". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  75. ^ Kim, Randy. "Draft Oddities". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  76. ^ "Mercury Name Ann Meyers Drysdale As General Manager". WNBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  77. ^ "Bob Houbregs". basketball-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  78. ^ a b "Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Announces Class of 2012" (Press release). Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. April 2, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Matthew P. "Pat" Kennedy". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  80. ^ "George T. Hepbron". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  81. ^ "George H. Hoyt". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  82. ^ "Ernest C. Quigley". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  83. ^ "David "Dave" Tobey". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  84. ^ "David H. Walsh". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  85. ^ "John P. Nucatola". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  86. ^ "James E. "Jim" Enright". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  87. ^ "J. Dallas Shirley". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  88. ^ "Lloyd R. Leith". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  89. ^ "Zigmund J. "Red" Mihalik". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  90. ^ "Earl Strom". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  91. ^ "Marvin Rudolph". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  92. ^ "Hank Nichols". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  93. ^ "First Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  94. ^ "Original Celtics". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Buffalo Germans". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  96. ^ "New York Renaissance". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  97. ^ "Harlem Globetrotters". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Texas Western". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  99. ^ "1960 United States Olympic Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  100. ^ "1992 United States Olympic Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  101. ^ "All American Red Heads". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 7, 2012.