List of memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery

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Entry sign at Arlington National Cemetery

Memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery include 28 major and 142 minor monuments and memorials. Arlington National Cemetery is a United States national cemetery located in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States. It is managed by the United States Army, rather than the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

The first major memorial in the cemetery was completed in 1866. Entry gates in the cemetery were later dedicated to Union Army generals. The Spanish-American War and World War I led to the construction of several more major memorials. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was constructed in 1921, although the large sarcophagus above the burial vault was not dedicated until 1932. Almost a third of the cemetery's major memorials have been constructed since 1983.

Owing to space constraints, Arlington National Cemetery does not permit the construction of large memorials or monuments without an act of Congress. The cemetery does, however, encourage the donation of trees ("living memorials") and permits small memorial plaques to be placed before these plantings. As of 2011, there were 142 such memorial plaques in the cemetery.

Memorials and monuments[edit]

Creating Arlington National Cemetery[edit]

The McClellan Gate, erected in 1879, was the second memorial emplaced at Arlington National Cemetery.

In 1778, John Parke Custis purchased a 1,100-acre (450 ha) tract of sylvan land on the Potomac River north of the town of Alexandria, Virginia.[1][2] This land became the Arlington Estate. In time, his granddaughter, Mary Anna Randolph Custis, inherited the estate.[3] She married Robert E. Lee, an impoverished lieutenant in the United States Army, in June 1831.[1] With the outbreak of the American Civil War on April 12, 1861, Robert E. Lee resigned from the United States Army and took command of Virginia's armed forces on April 23.[2] Mary Custis Lee fled the house on May 17,[4][5] and Union troops occupied Arlington Estate and Arlington House on May 24.[6]

On July 16, 1862, the United States Congress passed legislation authorizing the purchase of land for national cemeteries for military dead.[7] In May 1864, large numbers of Union forces died in the Battle of the Wilderness, requiring a large new cemetery to be built near the District of Columbia.[8] A study quickly determined that the Arlington Estate was the most suitable property for this purpose.[8] Although the first military burial at Arlington occurred on May 13, 1864,[2] formal authorization for burials did not occur until June 15, 1864.[5][9]

First memorials and monuments[edit]

The first memorials at Arlington National Cemetery were built during and immediately after the Civil War. These first memorials were small, as the federal government (burdened by the cost of the war) expended little money on the cemetery.[10]

The first memorial constructed was the Civil War Unknowns Monument. United States Army Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered the construction of the monument in 1865.[11] The bodies of 2,111 Union and Confederate dead were collected and placed in a vault beneath the monument, which was sealed in September 1866.[11]

In 1867, Congress enacted legislation requiring that all military cemeteries be fenced. Meigs ordered the construction of a red Seneca sandstone wall around the cemetery. The construction of the wall (which would not be complete until 1897) necessitated the construction of gates as well.[12] Construction began on a memorial to Major General George B. McClellan (the McClellan Gate) in 1870, but delays in obtaining high-quality red Seneca sandstone delayed its completion until 1879.[13]

The Spanish-American War of 1898 led to the creation of several new memorials: The Spanish-American War Memorial in 1902,[14] the Spanish-American War Nurses Memorial in 1905,[15] and the Rough Riders Memorial in 1907.[16] Two more major memorials were added prior to World War I: The Confederate Monument in 1914,[17] and the USS Maine Memorial in 1915.[18]

Another nine memorials, most of them commemorating World War I, were added in the 1920s and 1930s. This included the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which was dedicated on November 11, 1921. The cenotaph above the tomb is a later addition, and was dedicated on November 11, 1932.[19] At the end of World War II, the cemetery had a total of 16 major memorials. Another 12 major memorials were added after 1949, with eight of these constructed after 1983.

Former memorials and monuments[edit]

The Temple of Fame in 1903. The Civil War Unknowns Monument can be seen in the background under the trees.

Several memorials and monuments in Arlington National Cemetery no longer exist. One of the earliest memorials to be built in the cemetery was the Sheridan Gate, named for General Philip Sheridan. The gate was constructed in 1879 of four Ionic columns salvaged from the demolition of the War Department Building (located at the site of the current Eisenhower Executive Office Building).[20] Initially, there was no name inscribed on the gate's pediment, although the last names of Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Edwin M. Stanton, and Winfield Scott were chiseled into the front of each column.[21] After the death of Sheridan, his last name was added to the pediment and the gate became known as the Sheridan Gate.[22] Another early memorial was the Ord-Weitzel Gate, named for Major General Edward Ord and Major General Godfrey Weitzel. Also completed in 1879, it was constructed from two salvaged War Department Building columns.[23] Like the Sheridan Gate, this gate was initially not dedicated to anyone. But by 1902, with the passing of both Ord and Weitzel, their names were inscribed into left and right columns of the gate, respectively.[24] Arlington National Cemetery's easternmost boundary had, since 1864, been the Arlington Ridge Road (what is present-day Eisenhower Drive). In 1971, the cemetery expanded eastward to its present boundary (the Jefferson Davis Highway). At that time, the Sheridan and Ord-Weitzel gates were dismantled and the columns, marble pediments, and iron gates put into outdoor storage. Unfortunately, both gates were severely damaged during their dismantling. They were further damaged by inappropriate outdoor storage, and have been heavily vandalized.[25]

In 1884, a Temple of Fame was erected in the center of the flower garden on the south side of Arlington House. The U.S. Patent Office building had suffered a fire in 1877, and it was torn down and rebuilt in 1879. In 1884, stone columns, pediments, and entablatures from this demolition were used to construct the Temple of Fame. The Temple was a round, Greek Revival, temple-like structure with Doric columns supporting a central dome. Inscribed on the pediment supporting the dome were the last names of great Americans such as George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and David Farragut. A year after it was built, the last names of several Union Civil War generals (such as George Meade, James B. McPherson, and James A. Garfield) were carved into the columns.[26] Since there wasn't enough marble to rebuild the dome, a tin dome (molded and painted to look like marble) was installed instead.[27] The Temple of Fame was demolished in 1967.[28]

New memorials and monuments[edit]

In 1960, the United States Congress enacted "The Act of 2 September 1960" (74 Stat; 24 U.S.C. 295a). As codified in Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 553, a concurrent or joint resolution of Congress is needed before any new memorial or monument may be placed at Arlington.[29] This requirement does not apply to group burials, for which an aboveground marker may be erected without congressional approval.[30]

The rules were relaxed somewhat in 2012. On August 6, 2012, Congress enacted the "Honoring America's Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012" (P.L. 112-154; 126 Stat. 1165). Title VI, Section 604 of this legislation permits the Secretary of the Army to establish regulations for the erection at Arlington National Cemetery of memorials or monuments to an individual or military event if 25 years have passed. Such monuments may be placed only in areas designated by the Secretary of the Army, and must be paid for entirely by private donations. All alternative locations to Arlington National Cemetery must be ruled out, and the United States Commission of Fine Arts must be consulted on the memorial's appropriateness. The 25-year requirement may be waived if the event or service is ongoing, or if a "manifest injustice" would occur. In such cases, Congress may override the waiver by joint resolution within 60 days.[31]

In 2012, legislation began moving through Congress to approve a "Place of Remembrance" at Arlington National Cemetery. The memorial will be an ossuary designed to contain fragments of remains which are unidentifiable through DNA analysis. The legislation required that these remains be cremated before placement in the memorial. Cemetery officials said that Arlington National Cemetery has no means of receiving and burying these remains, and placing them in the Tomb of the Unknowns would be inappropriate.[32] The legislation leaves the design and placement of the memorial up to cemetery officials. On September 18, 2012, the House of Representatives approved the memorial, sending the legislation to the Senate.[33] This legislation was not acted on by the Senate, and died at the end of the 112th United States Congress.

In May 2014, Arlington National Cemetery officials renamed the Old Amphitheater, rededicating it as the James R. Tanner Memorial Amphitheater. Tanner, a Union Army veteran, lost both legs during the American Civil War. He became a stenographer and clerk with the War Department, and took down most of the eyewitness testimony during the early hours of the investigation into the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Tanner is buried a few yards from the amphitheater.[34]

List of major memorials and monuments[edit]

The Canadian Cross of Sacrifice in 2011
The Rough Riders Monument in 2011

Below is a list of the major memorials and monuments in the cemetery.[35]

Site Date created Section Coordinates Notes
3rd Infantry (the Old Guard) Memorial 1990 46 38°52′36″N 77°04′26″W / 38.876774°N 77.073814°W / 38.876774; -77.073814 (3rd Infantry (the Old Guard) Memorial) [36]
Argonne Cross 1923 18 38°52′18″N 77°04′32″W / 38.871556°N 77.075582°W / 38.871556; -77.075582 (Argonne Cross) [37]
Arlington Memorial Amphitheater 1920 35/48 38°52′35″N 77°04′22″W / 38.876413°N 77.072746°W / 38.876413; -77.072746 (Arlington Memorial Amphitheater) [38]
Battle of the Bulge Memorial 2006 21 38°52′30″N 77°04′32″W / 38.874954°N 77.075566°W / 38.874954; -77.075566 (Battle of the Bulge Memorial) [39]
Canadian Cross of Sacrifice 1927 46 38°52′37″N 77°04′27″W / 38.876977°N 77.074106°W / 38.876977; -77.074106 (Canadian Cross of Sacrifice) [40]
Chaplains' Monument 1926 2 38°52′45″N 77°04′11″W / 38.879055°N 77.069846°W / 38.879055; -77.069846 (Chaplains' Monument) [41]
Civil War Unknowns Monument 1866 26 38°52′49″N 77°04′23″W / 38.880416°N 77.073183°W / 38.880416; -77.073183 (Civil War Unknowns Monument) [11]
Confederate Memorial 1914 16 38°52′34″N 77°04′38″W / 38.876121°N 77.077278°W / 38.876121; -77.077278 (Confederate Monument) [17]
Iran Rescue Mission Memorial 1983 46 38°52′36″N 77°04′26″W / 38.876761°N 77.074011°W / 38.876761; -77.074011 (Iran Rescue Mission Memorial) [42]
James Tanner Amphitheater 1874 / 2014 46 38°52′49″N 77°04′26″W / 38.880262°N 77.073885°W / 38.880262; -77.073885 (James R. Tanner Memorial Amphitheater) [a][34]
John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame 1963 45 38°52′54″N 77°04′17″W / 38.88153°N 77.07150°W / 38.88153; -77.07150 (John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame) [43]
Korean War Contemplative Bench 1987 48 38°52′37″N 77°04′23″W / 38.877083°N 77.073192°W / 38.877083; -77.073192 (Korean War Contemplative Bench) [44]
McClellan Gate 1879 33 38°52′44″N 77°04′02″W / 38.87879°N 77.067109°W / 38.87879; -77.067109 (McClellan Gate) [13]
Nurses Memorial 1938 21 38°52′30″N 77°04′29″W / 38.874874°N 77.074841°W / 38.874874; -77.074841 (Nurses Memorial) [45]
Pan Am Flight 103 Memorial 1995 1 38°52′51″N 77°04′30″W / 38.880875°N 77.074924°W / 38.880875; -77.074924 (Pan Am Flight 103 Memorial) [46]
Robert F. Kennedy Gravesite 1968 45 38°52′52″N 77°04′17″W / 38.88118°N 77.07150°W / 38.88118; -77.07150 (Grave of Robert F. Kennedy) [47]
Rough Riders Memorial 1907 22 38°52′32″N 77°04′34″W / 38.87543°N 77.075994°W / 38.87543; -77.075994 (Rough Riders Memorial) [16]
Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial 1987 46 38°52′36″N 77°04′27″W / 38.87675°N 77.074045°W / 38.87675; -77.074045 (Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial) [48]
Space Shuttle Columbia Memorial 2004 46 38°52′36″N 77°04′26″W / 38.876772°N 77.073979°W / 38.876772; -77.073979 (Space Shuttle Columbia Memorial) [49]
Spanish-American War Memorial 1902 22 38°52′31″N 77°04′28″W / 38.875374°N 77.074544°W / 38.875374; -77.074544 (Spanish-American War Memorial) [14]
Spanish-American War Nurses Memorial 1905 21 38°52′30″N 77°04′32″W / 38.874951°N 77.075426°W / 38.874951; -77.075426 (Spanish-American War Nurses Memorial) [15]
Tomb of the Unknowns 1921 48 38°52′35″N 77°04′20″W / 38.87638°N 77.07217°W / 38.87638; -77.07217 (Tomb of the Unknowns) [19]
United States Coast Guard Memorial 1928 4 38°52′15″N 77°04′06″W / 38.870885°N 77.068261°W / 38.870885; -77.068261 (United States Coast Guard Memorial) [50]
Unknown Dead of 1812 Memorial 1976 1 38°52′51″N 77°04′30″W / 38.880724°N 77.075119°W / 38.880724; -77.075119 (Unknown Dead of 1812 Memorial) [51]
USS Maine Mast Memorial 1915 24 38°52′35″N 77°04′29″W / 38.876503°N 77.074714°W / 38.876503; -77.074714 (USS Maine Memorial) [18]
USS Serpens Memorial 1949 34 38°52′27″N 77°04′07″W / 38.874035°N 77.068668°W / 38.874035; -77.068668 (USS Serpens Memorial) [52]
Victims of Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon Memorial 2005 64 38°52′24″N 77°03′39″W / 38.873461°N 77.060939°W / 38.873461; -77.060939 (Victims of Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon Memorial) [53]
William Howard Taft Monument 1932 30 38°53′01″N 77°04′10″W / 38.883667°N 77.069313°W / 38.883667; -77.069313 (William Howard Taft Monument) [54]
Woodhull Memorial Flagpole 1924 35 38°52′32″N 77°04′23″W / 38.875552°N 77.073075°W / 38.875552; -77.073075 (Woodhull Memorial Flagpole) [55]

List of minor memorials and monuments[edit]

The 63rd Infantry Division memorial plaque in Section 12
The Americal Division memorial plaque in Section 34
USS Salem memorial plaque in Section 12
The War Correspondents memorial in Section 46 is unusual for being of marble and designed like a book.

The U.S. Army has statutory authority to manage Arlington National Cemetery under the National Cemetery Act, as amended.[56] Under regulations issued in Title 32, Section 553.22 of the Code of Federal Regulations,[57] the Army established a mechanism for proposing and building minor memorials at Arlington National Cemetery without requiring an act of Congress. Appendix A to Section 553 ("Specifications for Tributes in Arlington National Cemetery") lays out the specific form these minor memorials may take. In summary, most minor memorials must be a small plaque no more than 36 square inches (230 cm2) in area, and no more than 2 inches (5.1 cm) thick. Wording must be dignified, and the Superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery has sole and unlimited authority to accept or reject the plaque's design and wording.

A short time prior to 2014, Arlington National Cemetery discontinued the practice of allowing memorial trees, accompanied by plaques, to be placed in the cemetery.[58]

Below is a list of the minor memorials and monuments in the cemetery.[59]

Memorial Section Tree
100th Infantry Division Association 034 Maple, Red
104th Timberwolf Division, World War II 032 Cherry, Yoshino
11th Airborne Division 009 Maple, Red
125th Air Transport Group 003 Maple, Red
13th Airborne Division 033 Zelkova, Japanese
144th Army Postal Unit 032 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
16th Infantry Regiment Association 003 Crape Myrtle, Common
173rd Airborne Brigade (Sky Soldiers) 033 Maple, Red
174th Field Artillery Battalion 034 Maple, Red
17th Airborne Division 033 Zelkova, Japanese
199th Light Infantry Brigade 031 Oak, Shumard
1st Armored "Old Ironsides" Division 046 Pine, Eastern White
1st Cavalry Division 033 Maple, Red
1st Marine Division Association 025 Cedar, Blue Atlas
23rd Infantry Regiment 031 Dogwood, Kousa
2nd US Infantry Division 037 Holly, American
319th Bomb Group Association 034 Maple, Red
325th Glider Regiment 007 Maple, Sugar
385th Bomb Group, 8th Air Force, World War II 046 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
3rd United States Infantry (The Old Guard) 035 Dogwood, Kousa
416th Bombardment Group (L) 048 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
423rd Army Field Artillery Battalion 003 Maple, Sugar
446th Bomb Group 034 Maple, Sugar
454th Bombardment Group 022 Oak, Pin
455th Bombardment Group 002 Oak, Pin
461st Bomb Group Association 034 Goldenrain Tree
484th Bombardment Group 033 Gingko
487th Bombardment Group 009 Holly, American
4th Infantry (Ivy) Division 021 Dogwood, Kousa
503rd Parachute Regimental Combat Team 033 Magnolia, Southern
505th Parachute Regimental Combat Team 033 Zelkova, Japanese
508th Parachute Infantry Regiment 035 Spruce, Colorado Blue
511th Parachute Infantry Regiment 048 Cherry, Yoshino
551st Parachute Infantry Battalion 033 Oak, Northern Red
56th Field Artillery Battalion, 8th Infantry Division 033 Maple, Red
5th Regimental Combat Team 005 Tuliptree
63rd Infantry Division 007 Oak, Pin
65th Infantry Division 021 Maple, Sugar
82nd Airborne Division 048 Pine, Austrian
82nd Airborne – Golden Brigade 007 Maple, Red
83rd Infantry Division Association 037 Dogwood, Flowering
8th Air Force Association 034 Maple, Red
93rd Bombardment Group 002 Holly, American
94th Infantry Division 046 Sweetgum, American
96th Infantry Division Association 034 Maple, Red
9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry Association (Buffalo Soldiers) 022 Dogwood, Kousa
African American Korean War Veterans 021 Oak, Sawtooth
Air Force Arlington Ladies (Vandenberg) 030 Oak, Swamp White
Airborne (50th Anniversary Foundation) 002 Maple, Red
America the Beautiful Grove 031 Zelkova, Japanese
Americal Division 034 Maple, Red
American Ex-Prisoners of War 033 Dogwood, Kousa
American War Mothers 035 Cedar, Blue Atlas
American-Armenian Volunteers at Argonne 018 Magnolia, Southern
Amphibious Scouts and Raiders of World War II 031 Maple, Red
Army Arlington Ladies 013 Holly, American
Bataan and Corregidor, American Defenders of 048 Dogwood, Kousa
Battle of the Bulge, Veterans of 046 Cherry, Japanese Flowering
Battlefield Commissions, National Order of 037 Maple, Red
Beirut Victims of Terrorism 059 Cedar of Lebanon
Berlin Airlift Veterans 006 Maple, Sugar
Buffalo Soldiers (92nd Infantry) 023 Maple, Red
Catholic War Veterans 012 Oak, Pin
China-Burma-India Veterans 002 Oak, Pin
Civil Air Patrol 033 Maple, Red
Danish Fight for Freedom Grove 024 Oak, English
Daughters of American Colonists 001 Oak, White
Daughters of Founders and Patriots of America 035 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
Daughters of the American Revolution (National) 031 Maple, Red
Daughters of the American Revolution (Arlington Chapter) 030 Maple, Sugar
El Salvador 012 Oak, White
Elbe River, American-Soviet Link-Up 07A Birch, Heritage River
Ex-POWs of the Korean War 002 Maple, Red
Flying Tigers 002 Oak, White
Frogmen, U.D.T. (Underwater Demolition Team) 031 Maple, Red
Gilbert Azaleas 035 Azalea
Glider Pilots, World War II 033 Maple, Red
Gold Star Mothers 002 Cedar, Blue Atlas
Indigenous People (Native Americans) 008 Cottonwood, Eastern
Jumping Mustangs, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry 048 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
Khe Sanh Veterans 002 Ginkgo
Korean War Dead 048 Mountainash, Korean
Korean War Vets 048 Pine, Korean
Landing Craft Support Ships (LCS(L) 1–130) 046 Oak, Willow
Laotian Counterparts 002 Cedar, Atlas
Lexington Minute Men 001 Hemlock, Eastern
Marshall Plan Anniversary 007 Oak, Swamp White
Medal of Honor Grove (American Forests) 048 Elm, Chinese
Merrill's Marauders (5307th Composite) 013 Elm, Hybrid
Military Chaplains 002 Ginkgo
Military Order of the World Wars 012 Zelkova, Japanese
Military Police 055 Magnolia, Southern
Miller, Glen (Army Air Force Orchestra) 013 Holly, American
Montford Point Marines 023 Pine, Eastern White
Mother of the Unknown Soldier (the Mother's Tree) 035 Birch, Heritage River
Nagata Japanese Cherry Trees 054 Cherry, Japanese Flowering
National Arborist Association 054 Oak, White
Naval Order of the United States 001 Holly, Japanese
Navy Arlington Ladies 034 Beech, Weeping European
Navy Bombing Squadron VB 104 012 Oak, Shumard
Operation Restore Hope 060 Sweetgum, American
Operation Tiger 013 Pine, Eastern White
Pacific Island Americans 026 Serviceberry, Downy
Paderewski (Polish Legion of American Veterans) 024 Linden, Little-leaf
Peace Maker, The – December 1999 003 Cedar, Blue Atlas
Pearl Harbor 035 Linden, Littleleaf
Persian Gulf War 060 Oak, Willow
POW-MIA 035 Serviceberry, Autumn Brilliance
Purple Heart, Military Order of the 035 Cherry, Kwanzan Japanese Flowering
Quartermaster Corps Association 034 Maple, Japanese
Rakkasans (187th Airborne) 07A Oak, Willow
Ranger Advisors 013 Magnolia, Southern
Retired Officers Association, The 048 Oak, Pin
Reuben H. Tucker Chapter, 82nd Airborne 031 Oak, Northern Red
Russian Orthodox Church 013 Magnolia, Southern
Schweinfurt 035 Oak, Northern Red
Special Operations 046 Oak, Northern Red
State Department African Embassy Bombing Victims 051 Tuliptree
Swiss Internees 012 Oak, Willow
Take Pride in America Grove 054 Dogwood, Kousa
Task Force Smith 021 Cherry, Yoshino
Triple Nickels (555th Parachute Infantry Division) 023 Hemlock, Eastern
Tuskegee Airmen 046 Maple, Sugar
U.S. Army Reserves 013 Maple, October Glory Red
U.S. Colored Troops and Freed Slaves 027 Maple, Red
U.S. LST Association (Liberty Ships) 003 Oak, Willow
U.S. Navy Cruiser Association 033 Maple, Red
Unit K-West and B-East (Navy Mess Stewards) 002 Cedar, Atlas
USS Boston Shipmates 048 Oak, Northern Red
USS Canberra Association 034 Maple, Japanese
USS Frank E. Evans Association 006 Magnolia, Saucer
USS Houston and HMAS Perth 012 Zelkova, Japanese
USS Iowa Victims 060 Redbud, Eastern
USS Salem Association 012 Oak, Northern Red
USS Underhill 033 Tupelo, Black
Victims of Terrorism 055 Magnolia, Southern
Vietnam 028 Maple, Red
Vietnam Veterans (VFW Ladies Auxiliary) 048 Spruce, Colorado Blue
Vietnamese Airborne Regiment Association 047 Maple, Red
War Correspondents 046 Oak, Willow
World War I 034 Spruce, Hoopsii Blue
World War II 036 Maple, Sugar

Nearby memorials and monuments[edit]

The National Seabee Memorial on Memorial Drive

Several memorials and monuments are immediately adjacent to Arlington National Cemetery. These are often mistakenly assumed to be part of the cemetery, but are not. These include:

  • The Marine Corps War Memorial – First erected in 1954, it is on the grounds of the George Washington Memorial Parkway about 1,000 feet (300 m) north of the cemetery.
  • The Netherlands Carillon – First erected in 1954, it was moved to its present location north of the cemetery in 1960. It is on the grounds of the George Washington Memorial Parkway, about 75 feet (23 m) north of the cemetery.
  • Women in Military Service for America Memorial – Opened in 1997, this memorial is on the grounds of the George Washington Memorial Parkway. Although the memorial appears to be part of the ceremonial entrance to Arlington National Cemetery, it is not.

Memorial Avenue[edit]

A number of public improvements and memorials were planned for construction in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area for the 1932 bicentennial of the birth of George Washington, the first President of the United States and American Revolutionary War hero. Among these were Arlington Memorial Bridge and the Mount Vernon Memorial Parkway (now known as the George Washington Memorial Parkway). To link the Virginia landing of the bridge with Arlington National Cemetery, a wide avenue known as Memorial Avenue was constructed and a new entrance to the cemetery (the Hemicycle) constructed.

Memorial Avenue is part of the George Washington Memorial Parkway.[60] The roadway was formally transferred from the U.S. Army to the Department of the Interior in October 1940.[61] The memorials and monuments which line Memorial Avenue are often believed to be part of Arlington National Cemetery, but are not. The memorials and monuments on Memorial Avenue include (as of 2012):[62]

  • 101st Airborne Division Memorial
  • 4th Infantry (Ivy) Division Memorial
  • Armored Forces Memorial
  • The Hiker, the Spanish-American War Veterans Memorial
  • National Seabee Memorial
  • Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr. Memorial

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Built in 1874, the structure was not designated a memorial until May 30, 2014.
Citations
  1. ^ a b Silber, p. 125.
  2. ^ a b c "Arlington National Cemetery," p. 77.
  3. ^ Silber, p. 126.
  4. ^ McCaslin, p. 79-80.
  5. ^ a b Atkinson, p. 25.
  6. ^ Chase, p. 176.
  7. ^ "Arlington," p. 77.
  8. ^ a b Cultural Landscape Program, p. 84. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  9. ^ McCaslin, p. 82.
  10. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 97. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  11. ^ a b c Cultural Landscape Program, p. 96. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  12. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 102. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  13. ^ a b Hughes and Ware, p. 72.
  14. ^ a b "Dedication of Monument." Washington Post. May 15, 1902; "To Spanish War Soldiers." Washington Post. May 20, 1902.
  15. ^ a b "In Memory of Nurses." Washington Post. May 3, 1905.
  16. ^ a b "Rough Riders' Shaft." Washington Post. March 28, 1907; "Greeted High Officials." Washington Post. April 12, 1907.
  17. ^ a b "Gray and Blue Join." Washington Post. June 5, 1914.
  18. ^ a b The USS Maine Memorial was dedicated on May 31, 1915. See: "Honor Heroes Today." Washington Post. May 31, 1915.
  19. ^ a b "Thousands at Arlington Cemetery Visit Shrine of the Unknown." Washington Post. November 14, 1921; Hull, Harris B. "Formal Dedication of Soldier Tomb is Planned On Friday." Washington Post. November 6, 1932; "Armistice Program Will Be Impressive." Washington Post. November 10, 1932.
  20. ^ Bigler, p. 32-33.
  21. ^ Decker and McSween, p. 86.
  22. ^ Historic American Buildings Survey, Arlington National Cemetery, Sheridan Gate, p. 3. Accessed 2012-07-15.
  23. ^ Goode, p. 334.
  24. ^ Historic American Buildings Survey, Arlington National Cemetery, Ord-Weitzel Gate, p. 3. Accessed 2012-07-15.
  25. ^ Historic American Buildings Survey, Arlington National Cemetery, Sheridan Gate, p. 19, accessed 2012-07-15; Historic American Buildings Survey, Arlington National Cemetery, Ord-Weitzel Gate, p. 5, accessed 2012-07-15.
  26. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 122. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  27. ^ Poole, p. 120.
  28. ^ Cultural Landscape Program, p. 164. Accessed 2012-04-29.
  29. ^ "Commemorative Memorial Markers." Arlington National Cemetery. 2011, accessed 2012-07-015; "Activists on Quest for Civilian War Dead Memorial." CNN.com. August 6, 1999, accessed 2012-07-15.
  30. ^ Watkins, Zina L. Memorials: Creating National, State, and Local Memorials. Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. Order Code RS21080. September 1, 2006. Accessed 2012-08-07.
  31. ^ Honoring America’s Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012. Title VI. Section 604. August 6, 2012. Accessed 2013-05-05.
  32. ^ "Fast Track: 'Place of Remembrance' Planned for Arlington." Navy Times. June 25, 2012.
  33. ^ Maze, Rick. "House OKs Memorial for Unidentified Remains." Army Times. September 19, 2012. Accessed 2012-09-25.
  34. ^ a b Ruane, Michael E. (May 16, 2014). "Arlington Cemetery to Rename Old Ampitheater for Civil War Double Amputee James Tanner". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 29, 2014. 
  35. ^ Atkinson, p. 20.
  36. ^ The 3rd Infantry Division monument was dedicated on August 15, 1990, honoring the veterans who fought in World War I and World War II. See: Polk, p. 72.
  37. ^ The cross was approved by the Secretary of War on November 17, 1921, and dedicated on November 13, 1923. See: Peters, p. 233; United States Commission of Fine Arts, p. 69; "Dedicate Arlington War Cross." Washington Post. November 14, 1923.
  38. ^ "Army and Navy Chiefs and Veterans' Representatives Dedicate Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington Cemetery." Washington Post. May 16, 1920.
  39. ^ Atkinson, p. 132.
  40. ^ "Canadian Troops Bring Color, Music to War Ceremony." Washington Post. November 10, 1927.
  41. ^ The first memorial to chaplains serving in the U.S. armed forces was dedicated on May 5, 1926. The World War I Chaplains Memorial is dedicated to those military chaplains of all faiths who died serving in that war. A second memorial, the Protestant Chaplains Memorial, was dedicated on October 26, 1981, and honors Protestant Christian military chaplains who died serving in World War I and World War II. A Catholic Chaplains Memorial was dedicated on May 21, 1989, to those Roman Catholic military chaplains who died in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. See: "Tablet for Heroic Chaplains of Army Will Be Unveiled." Washington Post. April 25, 1926; Garamone, Jim. "Monument Recognizes Jewish Chaplains' Sacrifices." American Forces Press Service. October 24, 2011, accessed 2012-07-14; Harris, Hamil R. "Arlington Memorial Recognizes Jewish Chaplains." Washington Post. October 28, 2011.
  42. ^ Bigler, p. 99.
  43. ^ Semple, Jr., Robert B. "Johnson at Grave With the Kennedys." New York Times. March 16, 1967.
  44. ^ Andrews and Davidson, p. 61.
  45. ^ "Arlington Monument Unveiled to Watch Over Graves of Nurses." Washington Post. November 9, 1938.
  46. ^ Nguyen, Lan. "Remembering Flight 103." Washington Post. November 4, 1995.
  47. ^ "Robert Kennedy's Body Now at Permanent Site," United Press International, December 2, 1971.
  48. ^ Cohn, D'Vera. "Challenger Crew Is Honored at Arlington." Washington Post. March 22, 1987.
  49. ^ White, Josh. "Monument to Columbia Crew Dedicated." Washington Post. February 3, 2004.
  50. ^ The Coast Guard memorial was dedicated May 23, 1928. See: Dodge, p. 92.
  51. ^ The National Society of the United States Daughters of the War of 1812 provided funding for this memorial, which was dedicated on April 8, 1976. See: Peters, p. 270.
  52. ^ The dead of the USS Serpens were reinterred in Arlington National Cemetery on June 15, 1949, and the memorial near their mass grave dedicated at that time. See: Peters, p. 272.
  53. ^ Cass, Connie. "Cremated Remains of Pentagon Victims Are Laid to Rest at National Cemetery. Associated Press. September 13, 2002.
  54. ^ Peters, p. 203.
  55. ^ The flagpole is dedicated to the memory of U.S. Navy Commander Maxwell Woodhull and his son, U.S. Army brevet Brigadier General Maxwell Van Zandt Woodhull. It was the latter who left a large sum of money in his will to pay for the flagpole. It was erected in 1924. See: Holt, p. 337; "Woodhull Memorial Flagstaff." Arlington National Cemetery. 2011. Accessed 2012-07-14.
  56. ^ Communications & Outreach Support Division. National Cemetery Administration. "History and Development of the National Cemetery Administration." U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. January 2009, p. 1-6. Accessed 2012-07-15.
  57. ^ 32 Code of Federal Regulations 553, adopted May 19, 1977, unless otherwise noted. Current as of July 12, 2012.
  58. ^ "Arlington National Cemetery Historic District. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. NPS Form 10-900". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. February 2, 2014. p. Section 7, page 4. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  59. ^ "ANC Memorial Trees." Arlington National Cemetery. No date. Accessed 2012-07-14.
  60. ^ See: Historic American Engineering Record. George Washington Memorial Parkway. HAER No. VA-69. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1998, p. 184. Accessed 2013-05-05.
  61. ^ Secrest, James D. "Vote Due Today On Garrison Land." Washington Post. October 9, 1940.
  62. ^ "Monuments on Memorial Avenue, National Park Service." Arlington National Cemetery. 2011. Accessed 2012-07-14.

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