List of messiah claimants

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This is a list of people who have been said to be a messiah, either by themselves or by their followers. The list is divided into categories, which are sorted according to date of birth (where known).

Jewish messiah claimants[edit]

In Judaism, "messiah" originally meant a divinely appointed king, such as David, Cyrus the Great[1] or Alexander the Great.[2] Later, especially after the failure of the Hasmonean Kingdom (37 BC) and the Jewish–Roman wars (AD 66-135), the figure of the Jewish Messiah was one who would deliver the Jews from oppression and usher in an Olam Haba ("world to come") or Messianic Age.

  • Simon of Peraea (c. Unknown – 4 BCE), a former slave of Herod the Great who rebelled and was killed by the Romans.[3]
  • Jesus of Nazareth (c. 5 BCE – 30 CE), leader of a Jewish sect who was crucified by the Romans at the instigation of Jewish leaders; Jews who believed him to be the Messiah were the first Christians, also known as Jewish Christians.[4] Muslims,[5] Christians[6] and Messianic Jews[7] believe him to be the real Messiah.
  • Athronges (c. 3 CE),[8] a shepherd turned rebel leader.
  • Menahem ben Judah (?), allegedly son of Judas of Galilee, partook in a revolt against Agrippa II before being slain by a rival Zealot leader.
  • Vespasian, c. 70, according to Josephus[9]
  • Simon bar Kokhba (died c. 135), founded a short-lived Jewish state before being defeated in the Second Jewish-Roman War.
  • Moses of Crete (?), who in about 440–470 persuaded the Jews of Crete to walk into the sea, as Moses had done, to return to Israel. The results were disastrous and he soon disappeared.
  • Ishak ben Ya'kub Obadiah Abu 'Isa al-Isfahani (684–705), who led a revolt in Persia against the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.
    • Yudghan (?), a disciple of Abu 'Isa who continued the faith after Isa was slain.[10][11]
  • Serene (?), who around 720 claimed to be the Messiah and advocated expulsion of Muslims and relaxing various rabbinic laws before being arrested; he then recanted.
  • David Alroy (?), born in Kurdistan, who around 1160 agitated against the caliph before being assassinated.
  • Nissim ben Abraham (?), active around 1295.[10]
  • Moses Botarel of Cisneros (?), active around 1413; claimed to be a sorcerer able to combine the names of God.
  • Asher Lämmlein (?), a German near Venice who proclaimed himself a forerunner of the Messiah in 1502.
  • David Reubeni (1490–1541?) and Solomon Molcho (1500–1532), messianic adventurers who travelled in Portugal, Italy and Turkey; Molcho, who was a baptised Catholic, was tried by the Inquisition, convicted of apostasy and burned at the stake.
  • A mostly unknown Czech Jew from around the 1650s.[12]
  • Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676), an Ottoman Jew who claimed to be the Messiah, but then converted to Islam; still has followers today in the Donmeh.
    • Barukhia Russo (Osman Baba), successor of Sabbatai Zevi.
    • Jacob Querido (?–1690), claimed to be the new incarnation of Sabbatai; later converted to Islam and led the Donmeh.
    • Miguel Cardoso (1630–1706), another successor of Sabbatai who claimed to be the "Messiah ben Ephraim."
    • Mordecai Mokia (1650–1729), "the Rebuker," another person who proclaimed himself Messiah after Sabbatai's death.
    • Löbele Prossnitz (?–1750), attained some following amongst former followers of Sabbatai, calling himself the "Messiah ben Joseph."
  • Jacob Joseph Frank (1726–1791), who claimed to be the reincarnation of King David and preached a synthesis of Christianity and Judaism.
  • Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902–1994), the seventh Chabad Rabbi who tried to "prepare the way" for the Messiah. An unidentifiable number of his followers believe him to be the Messiah, though he himself never said this and actually scoffed at such claims which were made during his lifetime.[13][14]
  • Goel Ratzon (1951-), from Tel Aviv, claims to have supernatural healing powers and reportedly lived with 32 women who believed he was the Messiah. He also fathered 89 children, who were all given names that were variants of his own, but was arrested in 2010 on suspicions that he was abusing his "wives" and children.[15]

Christian messiah claimants[edit]

Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, Baha'u'llah
Simon Magus

Verses in the Christian bible tell that Jesus will come again in some fashion; various people have claimed to, in fact, be the second coming of Jesus. Others have been styled a new messiah still under the umbrella of Christianity.

  • Simon Magus (early 1st century), was a Samaritan, and a native of Gitta; he was considered a god in Simonianism; he "darkly hinted" that he himself was Christ, calling himself the Standing One.
  • Dositheos the Samaritan (mid 1st century), was one of the supposed founders of Mandaeanism. After the time of Jesus he wished to persuade the Samaritans that he himself was the Messiah prophesied by Moses.[16] Dositheus pretended to be the Christ (Messiah), applying Deuteronomy 18:15 to himself, and he compares him with Theudas and Judas the Galilean.[16][17]
  • Tanchelm of Antwerp (c. 1110), who violently opposed the sacrament and the Eucharist.
  • Ann Lee (1736–1784), a central figure to the Shakers,[18] who thought she "embodied all the perfections of God" in female form and considered herself to be Christ’s female counterpart in 1772.[19]
  • Bernhard Müller (c. 1799–1834) claimed to be the Lion of Judah and a prophet in possession of the Philosopher's stone.
  • John Nichols Thom (1799–1838), a Cornish tax rebel.
  • Arnold Potter (1804–1872), Latter Day Saint schismatic leader; called himself "Potter Christ"
  • Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864), Hakka Chinese; claimed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ; started the Taiping Rebellion and founded the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. Committed suicide before the fall of Tianjing (Nanjing) in 1864.
  • Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, Bahá'u'lláh (1817–1864), born Shiite, adopting Bábism later in life, he claimed to be the promised one of all religions, and founded the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Jacobina Mentz Maurer (1841 or 1842-1874) was a German-Brazilian woman who lived and died in the state of Rio Grande do Sul who emerged as a messianic prophetess, a representation of God, and later declared the very reincarnation of Jesus Christ on earth by her German-speaking community called Die Muckers (or the false saints) by her enemies, Die Spotters (or the mockers). After a number of deadly confrontations with outsiders, Jacobina was shot to death together with many of her followers by the Brazilian Imperial Army.
  • William W. Davies (1833–1906), Latter Day Saint (Mormon) schismatic leader; claimed that his infant son Arthur (born 1868) was the reincarnated Jesus Christ.
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India (1835–1908), claimed to be the awaited Mahdi as well as (Second Coming) and likeness of Jesus the promised Messiah at the end of time, being the only person in Islamic history who claimed to be both. He claimed to be Jesus in the metaphorical sense; in character. He founded the Ahmadiyya Movement in 1889 envisioning it to be the rejuvenation of Islam, and claimed to be commissioned by God for the reformation of mankind.[20] He declared that Jesus survived crucifixion and died a natural death having migrated towards the east.[21]
  • Cyrus Reed Teed (October 18, 1839 - December 22, 1908, erroneously Cyrus Tweed) was a U.S. eclectic physician and alchemist turned religious leader and messiah. In 1869, claiming divine inspiration, Dr. Teed took on the name Koresh and proposed a new set of scientific and religious ideas he called Koreshanity.
  • Father Divine (George Baker) (c. 1880 – September 10, 1965), an African American spiritual leader from about 1907 until his death who claimed to be God.
  • André Matsoua (1899–1942), Congolese founder of Amicale, proponents of which subsequently adopted him as Messiah in the late 1920s.
  • Ahn Sahng-hong (1918–1985), founder of the World Mission Society Church of God and worshiped by the members as the messiah.[22]
  • Samael Aun Weor (1917–1977), born Víctor Manuel Gómez Rodríguez, Colombian citizen and later Mexican, was an author, lecturer and founder of the 'Universal Christian Gnostic Movement', according to him, 'the most powerful movement ever founded'. By 1972, he referenced that his death and resurrection would be occurring before 1978.[citation needed]
  • Sun Myung Moon (1920–2012), founder and leader of the Unification Church established in Seoul, South Korea, who considered himself the Second Coming of Christ, but not Jesus himself.[23] Although it is generally believed by Unification Church members ("Moonies") that he was the Messiah and the Second Coming of Christ and was anointed to fulfill Jesus' unfinished mission.[23]
  • Yahweh ben Yahweh (1935–2007), born as Hulon Mitchell, Jr., a black nationalist and separatist who created the Nation of Yahweh and allegedly orchestrated the murder of dozens of persons.
  • Laszlo Toth (born 1940) claimed he was Jesus Christ as he battered Michelangelo's Pieta with a geologist hammer.
  • Wayne Bent (born 1941), also known as Michael Travesser of the Lord Our Righteousness Church, also known as the "Strong City Cult", convicted December 15, 2008 of one count of criminal sexual contact of a minor and two counts of contributing to the delinquency of a minor in 2008.[24]
  • Iesu Matayoshi (born 1944), in 1997 he established the World Economic Community Party based on his conviction that he is God and the Christ.
  • Jung Myung Seok (born 1945), a South Korean who was a member of the Unification Church in the 1970s, before breaking off to found the dissenting group[25] now known as Providence Church in 1980.[26][27] He also considers himself the Second Coming of Christ, but not Jesus himself in 1980.[28] He believes he has come to finish the incomplete message and mission of Jesus Christ, asserting that he is the Messiah and has the responsibility to save all mankind.[29] He claims that the Christian doctrine of resurrection is false but that people can be saved through him.[30]
  • Claude Vorilhon now known as Raël "messenger of the Elohim" (born 1946), a French professional test driver and former automobile journalist became founder and leader of UFO religion the Raël Movement in 1972, which teaches that life on Earth was scientifically created by a species of extraterrestrials, which they call Elohim. He claimed he met an extraterrestrial humanoid in 1973 and became the Messiah.[31] Then devoted himself to the task he said was given by his "biological father", an extraterrestrial named Yahweh.[32]
  • José Luis de Jesús (1946–2013), founder and leader of Creciendo en Gracia sect (Growing In Grace International Ministry, Inc.), based in Miami, Florida. He claimed to be both Jesus Christ returned and the Antichrist, and exhibited a "666" tattoo on his forearm. He has referred to himself as Jesucristo Hombre, which translates to "Jesus Christ made Man".
  • Inri Cristo (born 1948) of Indaial, Brazil, a claimant to be the second Jesus.[33]
  • Apollo Quiboloy (born 1950), founder and leader of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ religious group, who claims that Jesus Christ is the "Almighty Father," that Quiboloy is "His Appointed Son," and that salvation is now completed. Proclaims himself as the "Appointed Son of the God" not direct to the point as the "Begotten Son of the God" in 1985.[34]
  • David Icke (born 1952), of Great Britain, has described himself as "the son of God", and a "channel for the Christ spirit".
  • Brian David Mitchell was born on October 18, 1953 in Salt Lake City, Utah, he believed himself the fore-ordained angel born on earth to be the Davidic "servant" prepared by God as a type of Messiah who would restore the divinely led kingdom of Israel[disambiguation needed] to the world in preparation for Christ's second coming. (Mitchell's belief in such an end-times figure – also known among many fundamentalist Latter Day Saints as "the One Mighty and Strong" – appeared to be based in part on a reading of the biblical book of Isaiah by the independent LDS Hebraist, Avraham Gileadi, with which Mitchell became familiar from his former participation with Stirling Allan's American Study Group.)[35][36]
  • David Koresh (Vernon Wayne Howell) (1959–1993), leader of the Branch Davidians.
  • Maria Devi Christos (born 1960), founder of the Great White Brotherhood.
  • Sergei Torop (born 1961), who started to call himself "Vissarion", founder of the Church of the Last Testament and the spiritual community Ecopolis Tiberkul in Southern Siberia.
  • David Shayler (born 1965), former MI5 agent and whistleblower who declared himself the Messiah on 7 July 2007.[37]
  • Alan John Miller (born 1962), founder of Divine Truth, a new religious movement based in Australia. Alan John Miller, also known as A.J., who claims to be Jesus of Nazareth through reincarnation. Miller was formerly an elder in the Jehovah's Witnesses.

Muslim messiah claimants[edit]

Islamic tradition has a prophecy of the Mahdi, who will come alongside the return of Isa (Jesus).

  • Muhammad Jaunpuri (1443–1505), who traveled Northeastern India; he influenced the Mahdavia and the Zikris.
  • Báb (1819–1850), who declared himself to be the promised Mahdi in Shiraz, Iran in 1844. (Related to Baha'i claims.)
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) of Qadian, 'the Promised Messiah' return of Jesus as well as the 'Mahdi', founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. He preached that Jesus Christ had survived crucifixion and died a natural death. He was the only person in Islamic history to have claimed to be both the promised return of Jesus as well as the promised Mahdi.
  • Muhammad Ahmad ("The Mad Mahdi") (1844–1885), who declared himself the Mahdi in 1881, defeated the Ottoman Egyptian authority, and founded a short-lived empire in Sudan.
  • Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (1864–1920), who led the Dervish State in present-day Somalia in a two-decade long resistance movement between 1900 and 1920.
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), an Egyptian-American biochemist who claimed that he had discovered a mathematical code in the text of the Qur'an involving the number 19; he later claimed to be the "Messenger of the Covenant" and founded the "Submitters International" movement before being murdered.
  • Juhayman al-Otaibi (1936–1980), who seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca in November 1979 and declared his son-in-law the Mahdi.

Other/combination messiah claimants[edit]

Haile Selassie, also known as Ras Tafari

This list features people who are said, either by themselves or their followers, to be some form of a messiah that do not easily fit into only Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

  • Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (1892–1975), Messiah of the Rastafari movement. Never claimed himself to be Messiah, but was thus proclaimed by Leonard Howell, amongst others.
  • André Matsoua (1899–1942), Congolese founder of Amicale, proponents of which subsequently adopted him as Messiah.
  • Samael Aun Weor (1917–1977), born Víctor Manuel Gómez Rodríguez, Colombian citizen and later Mexican, was an author, lecturer and founder of the 'Universal Christian Gnostic Movement', according to him, 'the most powerful movement ever founded'. By 1972, Samael Aun Weor referenced that his death and resurrection would be occurring before 1978.
  • Nirmala Srivastava (1923–2011), guru and goddess of Sahaja Yoga, proclaimed herself to be the Comforter promised by Jesus (that is, the incarnation of the Holy Ghost / Adi Shakti).[38][39]
  • Jose Luis de Jesus Miranda (born 1946 - died 2013), a Puerto Rican preacher who had claimed to be both "the Man Jesus Christ" and the Antichrist at the same time. He claimed he was indwelled with the same spirit that dwelled in Jesus, however, Miranda also contradicted his claims of being Christ incarnate by also claiming he was the Antichrist, even going as far as tattooing the number of the beast (666) on his forearm, a behavior his followers also adopted. Founder of the "Growing in Grace" ministries, Miranda died on August 14, 2013 due to liver cancer.
  • Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (born 25 November 1941) is a spiritual leader and the founder of the spiritual movements Messiah Foundation International (MFI) and Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam.[40][41] He is controversial for being declared the Mehdi, Messiah, and Kalki Avatar by the MFI.[42][43][44]
  • Raël, leader of the International Raëlian Movement (born 30 September 1946); Rael claimed he met an extraterrestrial being in 1973 and became the Messiah.
  • World Teacher (unknown), a being claimed to be the Theosophical Maitreya and the Messiah (promised one) of all religions. He is said to have descended from the higher planes and manifested a physical body in early 1977 in the Himalayas, then on 19 July 1977 he is said to have taken a commercial airplane flight from Pakistan to England. He is currently said to be living in secret in London;[45][46][47] promoted by New Age activist Benjamin Creme and his organization, Share International (See Maitreya (Benjamin Creme)).
  • Ryuho Okawa (born 7 July 1956), is the founder of Happy Science in Japan. Okawa claims to channel the spirits of Muhammad, Christ, Buddha and Confucius and claims to be the incarnation of the supreme spiritual being called El Cantare.
  • White Calf Buffalo Woman/PtesanWi alsoTwin Deer Woman http://white-buffalo-calf-woman.blogspot.com/ http://www.whitebuffalocalfwoman.org/ She is the fulfillment of native American prophecy. In past generations, she taught the Lakotas seven sacred rituals and gave them the chanunpa or sacred pipe which is the holiest of all worship symbols. After teaching the people and giving them her gifts, PtesanWi left them promising to return & she has returned. She also is a Coszmic Messiah, sharing her Presence with other women & men who understand this, of all the world as partners, and all people who live in Gratitude to Mother Earth Father Sky & understand that all are Relatives
  • Maitreya Miranda [August 8, 1965] Maitreya Miranda Linda Weisz is described as the Feminine Christ, the embodiment of the Sacred Feminine/ the Goddess, and the World Avatar awaited under many different names in many different cultures. http://mirandalindaweisz.authorsxpress.com/author/mirandalindaweisz/In 1996 a reincarnation process was initiated, resulting in her second birth, 11.11.2000. Miranda Linda knows herself to be Maitreya, a highly enlightened Pleiadian/Venusian avatar, who has come to assist humanity in its transformation and ascension process. Her predestined mission is to act as the unifying bridge within humanity, and the intermediary between humanity and its extra-terrestrial family. Miranda* has a special gift for using her mind and multisensory awareness to give her the clarity to see people and events non-judgmentally and as they truly are. Her perspective is universal and not tied to any one religion, and recognizes the Light and Love in them all.
  • Her Holiness Alexandra Hehpsehboah http://www.saoshyant.org Advocating kindness, compassion and respect for all, Her Holiness Alexandra brings the great joy of motherly love energy to the planet and is known around the world as the "Mother to Humanity." She calls all to return to the Creator and seek the Creator within. Sje explains that this is not a religion, not something new but reactivation of a way of peaceful and harmonious existence - a way of life that is more than 10,000 years old.It is bringing back ancient wisdom from the time that followed the last major polar shift, long predating religions of today such as Christianity, Islam and new Buddhism. Her love radiates and embraces all who are in need. And, as an earthly mother would pull back a child about to step off the curb into oncoming traffic, Her Holiness alerts humanity to dangers ahead and gives them an opportunity for preparedness and change. Many have recognized her as Wholly, including Zararthustrians who recognize her as the Saoshyant, First Nations' elders and medicine men, yogis from India, Tibetan lamas, NASA engineer, Rabbis, Chinese and western astrologers, Padre Pio, Krishnamurti, Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi and more.
  • MaRaIamma Rajchelle OneFamily, First but not Last or Only Retroactive, Present and Proactive CoSavioRa, Deliverer of the New Millenniall Golden Rule/Raj of the MotherFatherGoddessGod, that achieves Good Faith for all humanity via reparation to Females and Feminine modes, restores Common Sense reparative 5050 gender and yin/yang balance in Politicall, EcoNomicall, Sociopsychologicall~Anthropologicall including Geneallogicall and Spirituall Life, especially attentive to Nature/Human Nature and moves the HumanFamlyCommunity beyond Primative patriarchy and false hierarchy pecking orders to Cooperation, Partnership and Sustainable Peace and Prosperity with Eternall Youth. She states that anyone who spreads the essential elements of the New Millenniall Golden Rule http://5050now.wordpress.com/newmillenniallgoldenrule-the-5-pillars-of-change/ which combines the Panchayat Raj http://www.hindu.com/2001/10/03/stories/05032524.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchayati_raj#Reservation_for_women_in_PRIs_in_India allready in use in India, the Genuine Progress Indicator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine_progress_indicator#The_components_of_GPI http://www.yesmagazine.org/new-economy/maryland-launches-genuine-progress-indicator, already in use in Mary (MaRaIam)land, & the indigenous-Heritage Circle Process, allready in use by millions, becomes CoSavioRa, or Coszmic Mariam~Sophia~Christ, and Wellcomes all as Lovingkin~d Reconnecting Cousinasz & Cousinsz, Sisters and Brothers of OneFamily, created by the MotherFatherGoddessGod http://5050now.wordpress.com/help-wantedpositions-available/ . The daughter and granddaughter of a very loving and intelligent mother and grandmother and a father who attempted to serve community, but who were all imbedded in patriarchy hampering their and their family lives & fullest Whollyness, & deeply moved by a Teacher named Mrs. Light to understand that reall achievement of Democracy is Divine Governance, she has a Ph.D. from Loyola University in Psychology focussing on intergenerational family emotiopsychosociospirituall processes, ran for CoPresidentiall/Higher Office in the Millenniall Year "2000" in Maryland, with the late Hjalmer Wayne Erickson and is a reincarnated younger Sister/First Cousin Rachel of both Mariam of Magdalla & Jesus, niece of Mariam of Nazateth, as well as on the Da Vinci Code branch of France, that is also connected to the Rabbinical daughters Rachel who she reincarnates,sister of equally important Mariam and Jocheved of famed 1000 year Millennium Family of Rebbitzim & Rabbi Rashi of Troyes, France, thereby, on the usually misnomered Davidic branch of Judeo-Christianity, which should be called the Michali-Davidic branch, usually prophesized as that would bring forth a Messiah, and for whom Rachel, called Mother of Israel was ancestor, and via additional family migration also is a partial reincarnation and geneallogically related to the youngest women of the most famous ancient families of the Middle East & Fertile Crescent, Rome and farther back to the long sustained gender ballanced Pasiphaen~Minoan Civilization (thought to be Atlantis) B'Hai & Unitarianism, & via the Roma, Hinduism, & Buddhism originating from & going back to the long sustained gender ballanced Vedic India, all of which can be verified. She is also partial reincarnation of Rachel ~Carson, Rachel~Foster~Avery, & Mary (MaRaIam) ~Lambert, wife of Thomas ~Paine, the giver of Common Sense in 1776, who she regards as having been a partial reincarnation of one of Jesus' brothers and states indicates Gene Roddenberry foresaw her Coming in the T'Pau (The Power) character of Loving Logic in the utopian Star Trek vision. She therefore calls Herself an Everyday Time Travelleing Common Sense Good Faith CoSavioRa, & states that the Government of the Planet Earth as part of the New Millenniall CoFederation of the Golden Rule, Sits upon "MYOur Shouldersz" in IntergeneRationall Sisterhood and Brotherhood.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Messiah: "In Isa. xlv. 1 Cyrus is called "God's anointed one," ...:
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Messiah: Alexander as Messiah
  3. ^ JA 17.10.6
  4. ^ David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 709. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18. 
  6. ^ Christianity at a glance, BBC. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  7. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). "Messianic Jewish theology". Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  8. ^ (JA 17.10.7)
  9. ^ "What more than all else incited them [the Jews] to the [1st Roman] war was an ambiguous oracle ... found in their sacred scriptures, to the effect that at that time one from their country would become ruler of the world. This they understood to mean someone of their own race, and many of their wise men went astray in their interpretation of it. The oracle, however, in reality signified the sovereignty of Vespasian who was proclaimed Emperor on Jewish soil" — Josephus' Jewish War 6.312-13 in Crossan's Who Killed Jesus?, page 44, ISBN 0-06-061479-X
  10. ^ a b Rabow, Jerry (2002-11-01). 50 Jewish messiahs: the untold life stories of 50 Jewish messiahs since Jesus and how they changed the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim worlds. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. ISBN 978-965-229-288-9. 
  11. ^ Worth, Roland H. (2005-07-30). Messiahs and messianic movements through 1899. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2311-8. 
  12. ^ A page from the Jewish Museum of Prague about Solomon Molcho mentions this nameless Czech Jew.
  13. ^ David Berger, The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference
  14. ^ The Rebbe's Army, Chapter 14, ISBN 978-0-8052-1138-2
  15. ^ "In Israel, the Messiah with More Than 30 'Wives'". 
  16. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia: Dositheans: "Origen states that "Dositheus the Samaritan, after the time of Jesus, wished to persuade the Samaritans that he himself was the Messias prophesied by Moses" (Contra Celsum, VI, ii); and he classes him with John the Baptist, Theodas, and Judas of Galilee as people whom the Jews mistakenly held to be the Christ (Hom. xxv in Lucam; Contra Celsum, I, lvii)."
  17. ^ See "Contra Celsum," i. 57, vi. 11; in Matth. Comm. ser. xxxiii.; "Homil." xxv. in Lucam; "De Principiis," iv. 17.
  18. ^ Campion, Nardi Reeder (1976), Ann the Word: The Life of Mother Ann Lee, Founder of the Shakers, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, ISBN 978-0-316-12767-7 
  19. ^ http://www.answers.com/topic/ann-lee Answers.com Mother Ann Lee (section Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Ann Lee)
  20. ^ Jesus in India, Preface
  21. ^ http://www.alislam.org/library/books/jesus-in-india/index.html
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ a b Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus--establishing a "true family" untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."..."Although Moon often predicts in his sermons that a breakthrough is near, Moffitt realizes that Moon may not come to be seen as the messiah in his lifetime."
  24. ^ "Sect Leader Who Allegedly Sought Virgins Found Guilty on Sex Charge". AP (TAOS, N.M: Fox News). 15 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  25. ^ Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  26. ^ "Guru said to have raped prospective brides before mass weddings". Asahi Shimbun. 2006-08-03. 
  27. ^ "Concerns raised about cult led by fugitive". Asahi Shimbun. 2006-07-28. 
  28. ^ "Claims sect using social groups to recruit members". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  29. ^ "Suspect of Corrupt Cult Founder Arrested in China". The Korea Times. 2007-05-13. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  30. ^ "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". The Korea Times. 2008-02-21. Archived from the original on 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  31. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design.
  32. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design; 290-1.
  33. ^ Summary of INRI CRISTO’s life
  34. ^ Kingdom of Jesus Christ | Kingdom Doctrines | Holy One
  35. ^ Duffy, John-Charles (October 15, 2003). "The Making of Immanuel: Brian David Mitchell and the Mormon Fringe". Sunstone magazine. 
  36. ^ Manson, Pamela; Neugebauer, Cimaron (December 3, 2010). "Mitchell defense rests in Smart kidnap case". Salt Lake Tribune. p. 6. 
  37. ^ "The MI5 Messiah: Why David Shayler believes he's the son of God | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  38. ^ Judith Coney, Sahaja Yoga: Socializing Processes in a South Asian New Religious Movement (1999) p27 "She began her mission of salvation in earnest, establishing a reputation as a faith healer ... Then, on December 2nd 1979, in London, she unequivocally declared her divinity to her followers: '[Today] is the day I declare that I am the One who has to save the humanity. I declare, I am the one who is Adi Shakti, who is the Mother of all the mothers, who is the Primordial Mother, the Shakti, the purest desire of God, who has incarnated on this Earth to give meaning to itself...' Since then, she is most often understood by her followers to be the Devi, the Goddess of Indian mythology, returned to save the world."
  39. ^ ::Sahaja Yoga-Tamil:: Adi Sakthi By Thirumoolar
  40. ^ "Messiah Foundation International Site about Shahi". Messiah Foundation International. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Website from Pakistan Sector". goharshahi.pk. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Structure and objective of the Mehdi Foundation and the perception of this movement in Pakistan". 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2009 
  43. ^ "Jail upon burning the Pakistani Passports". British Broadcasting Cooperation (Urdu). 25 April 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2010. 
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  45. ^ Share International index
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