List of military operations on the Eastern Front of World War II

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This is a list of military operations in Europe on the "Eastern Front". These were operations by Germany and its allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its allies on the other and were a consequence of the German invasion in 1941. The geographic boundaries have blurred edges. Finland, classed elsewhere as a "Nordic" country, participated in Barbarossa but later fought against German troops (see Military operations in Scandinavia and Iceland during World War II). Yugoslavia, for much of the war, was part of operations in southern Europe but it was liberated by the Red Army. In the cases of Finland and Yugoslavia, therefore, operations are likely to be entered in different lists, depending on the protagonists - not geography. Soviet operations in Iran will be listed in the List of World War II military operations.

Eastern Front[edit]

Axis[edit]

In alphabetic order

  • Aktion 24 (1945) Germany — largely unsuccessful attempts to use Mistels and explosive-laden Do 24s to destroy strategic river bridges
  • Aster (1944) Germany — withdrawal from Estonia.
  • Barbarossa ("Red Beard" was the nickname for Emperor Frederick I) (1941) Germany Italy Romania Hungary Slovakia Finland — invasion of the Soviet Union.
    • Haifisch ("Shark") (1941) Germany — deception operation for Barbarossa, feint on Scotland and north-east England from Norway.
    • Harpune ("Harpoon") (1941) Germany — deception operation for Barbarossa, feint on southern England from France.
    • Taifun ("Typhoon") (1941) Germany — offensive to capture Moscow before winter.
  • Beowulf I & II (Heroic figure) (1941) Germany — two separate plans to assault the Estonian islands of Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Muhu
    • Nordwind ("Northern wind") (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
      • Lel (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
      • Nau (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
      • Stimmung ("Tendency") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
    • Siegfried (Heroic figure)(1941) Germany — German assault on Hiiumaa
      • Ost ("East") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
      • Mitte ("Middle") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
      • West (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
    • Südwind ("Southern wind") (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
    • Weststurm ("Western Storm") (1941) Germany — naval bombardment in support of Beowulf II
    • Westwind (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
    • Edelweiss (1942) Germany — advance through the Caucasus to the Baku oil fields and Black Sea coast
    • Kreml ("Kremlin") (1942) Germany — deception operation to conceal southern offensive
  • BLAU ("BLUE") (1942) Germany — Umbrella name for drive towards southern Soviet Union.
  • Delphin ("Dolphin") (1943) Germany — German withdrawal from Saaremaa, Estonia.
  • Eisenhammer ("Iron Hammer") (1943) Germany — abandoned plan to attack Soviet power plants power generators near Moscow and Gorky, using Mistel composite aircraft, abandoned in 1945.
  • Eisstoss ("Ice Push") (1941) GermanyLuftwaffe raids on Soviet warships near Leningrad including;
    • Froschlaich ("FrogSpawn") (1941) - air raids against Soviet Navy yards at Leningrad, USSR; part of Operation Eisstoss
    • Götz v. Berlichingen (a knight in the Swabian war) (1941) - air raids against Soviet Navy at Leningrad, USSR; part of Operation Eisstoss
  • Feuerzauber ("Fire Magic") (1942) Germany — planned capture of Leningrad
  • Flamingo (1942) Germany — planting of Mishinskii as German agent in Soviet military hierarchy
  • Frühlingserwachen ("Spring Awakening") (1945) Germany Hungary — counterattack against Soviets in Hungary. Last major offensive on Eastern Front.
  • Hannibal (1945) Germany — evacuation of East Prussia
  • Joseph (1944) Germany — proposal to destroy electricity supplies to Moscow
  • Konrad (1945) Germany Hungary — German-Hungarian efforts to relieve the encircled garrison in Budapest
  • Laura (1944) Germany — proposed evacuation of Courland
  • Margarethe (1944) Germany — military operation to keep Hungary from defecting
  • Narwa I II III (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Nordlicht ("Northern Lights") (1942) Germany — planned assault on Leningrad
  • Polikov (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Rennstrecke (1944) Germany — planned air supply of German troops isolated behind Soviet lines (later found out as a Soviet deception)
  • Salzsee (1944) Germany — sabotage operations in Kalmutskaya, USSR
  • Schamil (1942) Germany
  • Sonnenwende ("Winter Solstice") (1945) Germany — offensive in Pomerania to stall the advance on Berlin
  • TrappenJagd ("Bastard Hunt") (1942) Germany Romania — offensive in the Kerch Peninsula
  • Wilddieb (1944) GermanyRSHA operation to monitor radio traffic from isolated German troops
  • Wolf (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Wunderland ("Wonderland") (1942) Germany
  • Zitadelle ("Citadel") (1943) Germany — German offensive at Kursk

Soviet Union[edit]

Operations listed here are some of the better known strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II, and exclude operations by partisans or "Home Armies". These are included under List of World War II military operations. Names of other operations have not been recorded and these have become known by their regional objective.[1]

In alphabetic order

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ See Glantz paper titled: "The Soviet-German War 1941-1945: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay" presented as the 20th anniversary distinguished lecture at the Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs Clemson University October 11, 2001