List of minerals (synonyms)

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The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date.

This list contains mineral synonyms, varieties and polytypes. The list is divided into groups:

For recognised minerals see list of minerals (complete)

  • Abbreviations:
    • "*" – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "?" – questionable/doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).
    • N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC.
    • I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.
    • H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, etc.)
      • ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.
    • group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.
    • no – no link available.
    • red. – redefinition of ...
    • Y: 1NNN – year of publication.
    • Y: old – known before publications were available.

List of main synonyms[edit]

Mainly renamed minerals and synonyms used by the Handbook of Mineralogy.[1]

A[edit]

  • A
    • Andorite IV: Quatrandorite; arrojadite-(BaFe): sigismundite;

B[edit]

  • B
    • Boldyrevite: UM1941-01-F:AlCaHMgNa; Britholite-(Ce): Lessingite-(Ce)

C[edit]

  • C
    • Chrysotile: Bostonite, Cyphoîte, Karystiolite, Krysolith, Kuphoite, Kupholite, Lefkasbestos, Picrosmine, Pikrosmin, Schweizerite, Ishkildite (var.); Clinozoisite-(Sr): Niigataite;

D–E[edit]

  • D
  • E
    • Epidote-(Pb): Hancockite;

F–G[edit]

  • F
    • Fraipontite: Zinalsite; Ferro-Ferritschermakite: Ferri-Ferrotschermakite;
  • G
    • Gagarinite-(Ce): Zajacite-(Ce)

H–J[edit]

  • H
    • Helvine: helvite; hinsdalite: orpheite; hydrokenoelsmoreite: alumotungstite, ferritungstite; hisingerite: sturtite;
  • I
  • J
    • Johnbaumite-M: fermorite;

K–L[edit]

  • K
    • Karpatite: pendletonite (CNMMN, 1971), carpathite and coronene
  • L
    • Litidionite: lithidionite

M[edit]

  • M
    • Manganohörnesite: manganese-hörnesite

N-O[edit]

  • N
    • Natrozippeite: sodium-zippeite; natroboltwoodite: sodium-boltwoodite;
  • O
    • Osmium: iridosmine (var.);

P–R[edit]

  • P
    • Pyrosmalite-Fe: Ferropyrosmalite
  • Q
    • Qingheiite: Qinghelite; Qitianlingite: Qitianglinite; Quartz: Azetulite, Azeztulite, Dragonite, Konilite, Lodolite, Quartz-alpha, Quertz; Quartz varieties: Agate, Amberine, Amethyst, Ametrine, Apricotine, Aventurine, Azurchalcedony, Basanite, Bayate, Beekite, Binghamite, Bloodstone, Buhrstone, Carnelian, Chalcedony, Chert, Chrysojasper, Citrine, Cotterite, Creolite, Cubosilicite, Dallasite, Damsonite, Darlingite, Diackethyst, Eisenkiesel, El Doradoite, Flint, Haytorite, Herbeckite, Irnimite, Jasper, Kinradite, Myrickite, Onyx, Pastelite, Prase, Prasiolite, Quartzine, Quetzalitztli, Ribbonstone, Sard, Sardonyx, Schwimmstein, Seftonite
  • R
    • Rutile: Cajuelite, Crispite, Dicksbergite, Edisonite, Gallitzinite, Paraedrite, Rutilite, Titankalk, Titanschorl; Rutile varieties: Ilmenorutile, Lusterite, Nigrine, Struverite; Römerite: Bückingite, Louderbackite, Roemerite;

S[edit]

  • S
    • Stibiconite: hydroroméite; smolyaninovite: smolianinovite; sofiite: sophiite;

T[edit]

  • T
    • Tadzhikite-(Ce): Tadzhikite-(Y); tantalite-(Fe): ferrotantalite; tantalite-(Mn): manganotantalite

U–Z[edit]

  • U
    • Uzonite: Usonite;
  • V
    • Veatchite-p: P-Veatchite;
  • W
  • X
    • Xanthoconite: Rittingerite, Xanthocone; Xonotlite: Calcium-Pectolite, Eakleite, Xenotlite, Xonaltite, Xonolite
  • Y
    • Yttrotungstite-(Ce): Cerotungstite-(Ce)
  • Z

Mineral varieties[edit]

Mainly minerals varieties used by the Handbook of Mineralogy.

  1. Iridosmine*, an osmium variety, 01.AF.05 [25] [26] [27]
  2. Plagioclase solid solution series:
    1. An0: albite; An20: oligoclase; An40: andesine; An60: labradorite; An80: bytownite; An100: anorthite
    2. Oligoclase, albite variety, 09.FA.35 [28] [29] [30]
    3. Andesine, albite variety, 09.FA.35 [31] [32] [33]
    4. Labradorite, anorthite variety, 09.FA.35 [34] [35] [36]
    5. Bytownite, anorthite variety, 09.FA.35 [37] [38] [39]
  3. Ilmenorutile, a rutile variety, 04.DB.05 [40] [41] [42]
  4. Incaite*, a franckeite variety, 02.HF.25b [43] [44] [45]
  5. Kamacite, a native iron variety, 01.AE.05 [46] [47] [48]
  6. Kerolite* (discredited 1979), a Ni-bearing variety of talc (?), 09.EC.05, [49] [50] [no]
  7. Lewistonite* (discredited 1978), a carbonate-rich variety of fluorapatite, 08.BN.05 [51] [52] [no]
  8. Metaberyllite* (Y: 1973, discredited 2006), a variety of beryllite, 09.AE.05, [53] [54] [no]
  9. Potosiite*, a franckeite variety, 02.HF.25b [55] [56] [57]
  10. Sakharovaite* (Y: 1956, discredited 2006), a Bi-bearing variety of jamesonite, 02.HB.15, [58] [59] [60]
  11. Struverite*, a rutile variety, 04.DB.05 [61] [62] [63]

Doubtful procedures[edit]

Unnamed minerals, controversial discreditations
  • Scandian ixiolite (of von Knorring)N, a Nb-bearing variety of ixiolite, 04.DB.25; possibly a separate species.[5][6]
  • Scandian ixiolite (of Bergstol)N, a Sc-bearing variety of ixiolite, 04.DB.25; possibly a separate species.[7][8]
  • Ktenasite (Y: 1950) 07.DD.20, possibly a mineral group, under review (Leverett et al., 2009–2011).[9]
  • Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)N.[10]
  • Unnamed (Co-analogue of Ktenasite)N.[11]
  • Mg- or Cd-bearing varieties are also known.
  • Calciogadolinite-Y? (Y: 1938) might be a calcian gadolinite.[12][13]
  • ClinotyroliteN (monoclinic), both minerals might belong to a mineral group since tyrolite was shown to be monoclinic (pseudo-orthorhombic).[14]
  • Pimelite* (Y: 1800, 1938) a nickel dominant smectite, is under review. Associations: nickel-bearing talc, yellow green nickeloan nontronite, red brown hematite stained nontronite, bright white montmorillonite.[15][16][17]
  • Tetranatrolite (discredited in 1999) might be identical to gonnardite, discreditation procedure apparently done without actually working on the type specimen or on any identified tetranatrolite itself.[18]
  • Yttromicrolite-(Y) within the framework of nomenclature of Hogarth (1977): discreditation was not made by proper way (in the course of defamation of Crook, 1982).[19]
  • Buserite (IMA 1970-024): dehydrates to birnessite, known synthetic compound.[20][21][22]
  • Zincobotryogen: it is discredited (IMA 1967 s.p.) but its crystal structure has been solved (space group 14).[23]
  • Strontioborite: it is discredited (IMA 1962 s.p.) but its crystal structure has been solved (space group 4).[24]
  • Aguilarite (Y: 1944, Ag4SeS, 2.BA.55): it might be two solid solution series, a monoclinic ‘acanthite-like’ series (from Ag2S - Ag2S0.4Se0.6), and an orthorhombic ‘naumannite-like’ series (from Ag2S0.3Se0.7 - Ag2Se).[25]
Controversial chemical formulas (IMA Master List)
Possible "analytical" artifacts
  • Astrophyllite and astrophyllite mineral group: astrophyllite's chemical formula is K
    2
    NaFe2+
    7
    Ti
    2
    (Si
    4
    O
    12
    )
    2
    O
    2
    (OH)
    4
    F
    , the inosilicate module is (Si4O12)2 and the oxygen is not bonded to the inosilicate.[26]
  • Claraite (1981-023) 05.DA.30 (IMA formula: Cu2+3CO3(OH)4·4H2O), but after U. Kolitsch it has essential As and S.[27]
  • Cosalite (Y: 1868) 02.JB.10 (IMA formula: Pb2Bi2S5). It might have copper as essential constituent (AM Clark, MH Hey (1993) Hey's mineral index: mineral species, varieties and synonyms), (Zak, L., Megarskaya, L., Mumme, W. G. (1992). "Rezbanyite from Ocna de fier (Vasko): a mixture of bismuthinite derivatives and cosalite". Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie. Monatshefte 1992: 69–79. ).
  • The general structural formula for cosalite can be expressed as: CuxAg(i + s)Pb[8–2s–0.5(x + i)]Bi(8 + s)S20.[28]
  • Kobeite-Y (Y: 1950) 04.DG.05, the original analytical determinations contain between 14.91% and 17.08% ZrO2 with only 1.99% and 1.59% SiO2 respectively. The chemical formula (IMA version: (Y,U)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6) doesn't contain Zr.
  • Mackinawite (Y: 1963) 02.CC.25 (IMA formula: (Fe,Ni)1+xS (x = 0-0.07)), sulfide anion (atoms per formula unit, apfu) might be too low due to analytical losses.[33][34][35]

Grandfathered IMA valid species[edit]

Rejected or discredited minerals[edit]

Non minerals[edit]

Mineral varieties[edit]

Polytypes[edit]

  • BarbertoniteD (discredited 2011) [167] [168] [169]
  • ClinobaryliteD (2002-015, IMA 2013-E) 09.BB.15 [170] [171] [no]
    (IUPAC: Diberyllium barium sorosilicate, Si2O7)
  • ManasseiteD (Y: 1941, 2012) 05.DA.45 [172] [173] [174][41]
    (IUPAC: Hexamagnesium dialuminium carbonate hexadecahydroxyl tetrahydrate)
  • OrthochamositeD (Y: 1951) 09.EC.55 [175] [no] [no]
    • Note: possibly a polytype of chamosite. Its formal discreditation was forgotten. It was on the IMA Master List (October 2008). Quote: "the varietal names of brunsvigite, corundophilite, daphnite, delessite, diabantite, grovesite, kiimmererite, kotchubeite, leuchtenbergite, orthochamosite, pennine, pseudothuringite, pycnochlorite, ripidolite, sheridanite, talc-chlorite and thuringite should be discarded."[42][43]
  • SjögreniteD (Y: 1941, discredited 2012) 05.DA.45 [176] [177] [178]
    (IUPAC: Hexamagnesium diiron(III) carbonate hexadecahydroxyl tetrahydrate)

Groups and pairs[edit]

Amphibole dump[edit]

Discredited, renamed and/or hypothetical amphiboles
  • AluminobarroisiteD (Y: 1978) 09.DE.20 [185] [186] [no]
  • Alumino-magnesiotaramiteN (2006-024) 09.DE.20 [187]
    • It isn't an IMA approved mineral.
  • AluminotschermakiteD (Y: 1978) 09.DE.10 [188] [no] [no]
  • Cannilloitech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.10 [189] [no] [no]
    (Ca3(Mg4Al)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2)
  • Clinoferroholmquistitech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.05 [190] [191] [no]
  • Ferribarroisitech (Y: 1997, 2012) 09.D? [192] [no] [no]
  • Ferric-nybøitech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.25 [193] [no] [no]
  • Ferri-ferrobarroisite (Y: 1918) 09.DE.20 [194] [195] [no]
  • Ferri-ferrotschermakite (Y: 1918) 09.D?. [196] [197] [no]
  • Ferrikaersutite (2011-035) 09.?? [198] [no] [no]
  • Ferri-magnesiotaramite (Y: 1997) 09.DE.20 [199] [200] [no]
  • Ferri-ottoliniite (2001-067a) 09.DE.15 [201] [202] [no]
  • Ferritschermakitech (Y: 1949) 09.DE.10 [203] [204] [no]
  • Ferrobarroisitech (Y: 1978) 09.DE.20 [205] [206] [207]
  • Ferro-eckermannitech (Y: 1964) 09.DE.25 [208] [209] [no]
  • Ferrokaersutitech (Y: 1978) 09.DE.15 [210] [211] [212]
  • Ferroleakeitech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.25 [213] [214] [no]
  • Ferronybøitech (Y: 1997) 09.?? [215] [no] [no]
  • Ferropedrizitech (Y: 2003) 09.DE.25 [216] [no] [no]
  • Ferrotschermakite (Y: 1945) 09.DE.10 [217] [218] [219]
  • Ferrowinchitech (Y: 1978) 09.DE.20 [220] [221] [no]
  • Magnesiosadanagaite (2002-051) 09.DE.15 [222] [223] [224]
  • Magnesiotaramite (Y: 1978) 09.DE.20 [225] [226] [227]
  • Manganocummingtonitech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.05 [228] [229] [no]
  • Manganogruneritech (Y: 1997) 09.DE.05 [230] [231] [232]
  • Parvo-mangano-edenite (2003-062) 09.DE.15 [233] [234] [no]
  • Parvo-manganotremolite (2004-045) 09.DE.10 [235] [236] [no]
  • PedriziteH (Y: 2000) 09.DE.25 [237] [no] [no]
  • PermanganogruneriteH (Y: 1997) 09.DE.05 [238] [239] [no]
  • Potassic-aluminosadanagaite (Y: 2003) 09.?? [no] [no] [no]
  • Potassichastingsitech (Y: 2003) 09.D? [240] [no] [no][241]
  • Protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite (1986-007) 09.DD.05 [242] [243] [no]
  • Sodicanthophyllite (Y: 1977) 09.DD.05 [244] [245] [no]
  • Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite (1995-045) 09.DE.25 [246] [247] [no]
  • Sodic-ferro-anthophyllitech (Y: 1997) 09.DD.05 [248] [249] [no]
  • Sodic-ferrogedritech (Y: 1997) 09.DD.05 [250] [251] [no]
  • Sodic-ferropedrizitech (Y: 2003) 09.DE.25 [252] [no] [no]
  • Sodicgedritech (Y: 1997) 09.DD.05 [253] [254] [no]
  • Sodicpedrizitech (Y: 2003) 09.DE.25 [255] [no] [no]

Polytypes[edit]

Based on Nickel (1993).[44]

Arrojadite group[edit]

Hydrotalcite supergroup[edit]

The hydrotalcite supergroup might need another review.[26]

Hydrotalcite group
Suggested: Mg
6
Mn3+
2
(OH)
16
[CO
3
]·4H
2
O
Suggested: Ni
6
Fe3+
2
(OH)
16
Cl
2
·4H
2
O
Suggested: Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O
  • IowaiteA (1967-002), chemical formula
Suggested: Mg
6
Fe3+
2
(OH)
16
Cl
2
·4H
2
O
Suggested: possibly Ni2+
6
Ni3+
2
(OH)
16
S·4H
2
O
Suggested: Mg
6
Al
2
(OH)
16
(OH)
2
·4H
2
O
Suggested: Mg
6
Fe3+
2
(OH)
16
[CO
3
]·4H
2
O
Suggested: Ni
6
Fe3+
2
(OH)
16
[CO
3
]·4H
2
O
Suggested: Mg6Cr2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O
  • TakoviteA (Y: 1957, 1977 s.p.), chemical formula
Suggested: Ni6Al2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O
Suggested: Mg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2·4H2O
Quintinite group
  • CaresiteA (1992-030), chemical formula
Suggested: Fe3+
4
Al
2
(OH)
12
[CO
3
]·3H
2
O
Suggested: Mn4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O
Suggested: Mg4Al2(OH)12Cl2·2H2O
Suggested: Ni
4
Co3+
2
(OH)
12
[CO
3
]·3H
2
O
Suggested: Mg4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O
Suggested: Zn4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O
Fougèrite group
Suggested: Fe2+
4
Fe3+
2
(OH)
12
[CO
3
]·3H
2
O
Suggested: Fe3+
6
O
4
(OH)
8
[CO
3
]·3H
2
O
Suggested: Fe2+
2
Fe3+
4
O
2
(OH)
10
[CO
3
]·3H
2
O
Woodwardite group
Suggested: (Ni1-x Fe3+x )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n <3x /2)
Suggested: (Cu1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Zn1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n < 3x /2)
Cualstibite group
Suggested: Cu2Al(OH)6[Sb(OH)6]
  • OmsiteA (2012-025), chemical formula
Suggested: Ni
2
Fe3+
(OH)
6
[Sb(OH)
6
]
Suggested: Zn2Al(OH)6[Sb(OH)6]
Glaucocerinite group
Suggested: (Ni1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Zn1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Ni1-x Fe3+x )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Cu1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Mg1-x Fe3+x )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Suggested: (Zn1-xAlx )(SO4)x /2(OH)2·nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x /2)
Wermlandite group
Suggested: Mg18Al9(OH)54Sr2(CO3)9(H2O)6(H3O)5
Suggested: Mg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2·6H2O, possibly more than one species
Suggested: possibly Zn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2·6H2O
Suggested: Fe2+
6
Al
3
(OH)
18
[Na(H
2
O)
6
](SO
4
)
2
·6H
2
O
  • ShigaiteA (1984-057), chemical formula
Suggested: Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2·6H2O
Suggested: Mg7Al2(OH)18[Ca(H2O)6](SO4)2·6H2O
Hydrocalumite group
Suggested: Ca4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2·4H2O, possibly multiple species
  • KuzeliteA (1996-053), chemical formula
Suggested: Ca4Al2(OH)12(SO4)·6H2O

Pyrochlore supergroup[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Subcommittee on zeolite minerals of the IMA/CNMNC
    • Douglas S. Coombs, Alberto Alberti, Thomas Armbruster, Gilberto Artioli, Carmine Colella, Ermanno Galli, Joel D. Grice, Friedrich Liebau, Joseph A. Mandarino, Hideo Minato, Ernest H. Nickel, Elio Passaglia, Donald R. Peacor, Simona Quartieri, Romano Rinaldi, Malcolm I. Ross, Richard A. Sheppard, Ekkehart Tillmanns, and Giovanna Vezzalini (December 1997). "Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the international mineralogical association, commission on new minerals and mineral names". The Canadian Mineralogist 35: 1571–1606. 
  • "Subcommittee on amphiboles of the IMA/CNMNC"
    • Leake, Bernard E. (November 1978). "Nomenclature of amphiboles". The Canadian Mineralogist 16: 501–520. 
    • Hawthorne, Frank C. (May 1983). "The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles". The Canadian Mineralogist 21 (2): 173–480. 
    • Joseph A. Mandarino (1998). "The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995): The Amphibole Group". The Mineralogical Record 29 (3): 169–174. 
    • Bernard E. Leake, Alan R. Woolley, Charles E. S. Arps, William D. Birch, M. Charles Gilbert, Joel D. Grice, Frank C. Hawthorne, Akira Kato, Hanan J. Kisch, Vladimir G. Krivovichev, Kees Linthout, Jo Laird, Joseph A. Mandarino, Walter V. Maresch, Ernest H. Nickel, Nicholas M. S. Rock, John C. Schumacher, David C. Smith, Nick C. N. Stephenson, Luciano Ungaretti, Eric J. W. Whittaker, and Guo Youzhi (February 1997). "Nomenclature of amphiboles: Report of the subcommittee on amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, commission on new minerals and mineral names". The Canadian Mineralogist 35: 219–246. 
    • Bernard E. Leake, Alan R. Woolley, William D. Birch, Ernst A.J. Burke, Giovanni Ferraris, Joel D. Grice, Frank C. Hawthorne, Hanan J. Kisch, Vladimir G. Krivovichev, John C. Schumacher, Nicholas C.N. Stephenson, and Eric J.W. Whittaker (December 2003). "Nomenclature of amphiboles: additions and revisions to the International Mineralogical Association’s 1997 recommendations". The Canadian Mineralogist 41: 1355–1362. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.41.6.1355. 
    • Burke, Ernst A.J.; Leake, Bernard E. (December 2004). "Named amphiboles: A new category of amphiboles recognized by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), and the proper order of prefixes to be used in amphibole names". The Canadian Mineralogist 42 (6): 1881–1884. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.42.6.1881. 
    • Bernard E. Leake, Alan R. Woolley, William D. Birch, Ernst A.J. Burke, Giovanni Ferraris, Joel D. Grice, Frank C. Hawthorne, Hanan J. Kisch, Vladimir G. Krivovichev, John C. Schumacher, Nicholas C.N. Stephenson, and Eric J.W. Whittaker (2004). "Nomenclature of amphiboles: additions and revisions to the International Mineralogical Association's amphibole nomenclature". American Mineralogist 89 (5-6): 883–887. 
    • Hawthorne, Frank C.; Oberti, Roberta (October 2007). "Classification of the Amphiboles". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 67 (1): 55–88. doi:10.2138/rmg.2007.67.2. 
    • Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacher, Mark D. Welch (2012). "Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup". American Mineralogist 97: 2031–2048. doi:10.2138/am.2012.4276. 

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IMA Database of Mineral Properties
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ [5]
  7. ^ [6]
  8. ^ [7]
  9. ^ [8]
  10. ^ [9]
  11. ^ [10]
  12. ^ [11]
  13. ^ [12]
  14. ^ [13]
  15. ^ [14]
  16. ^ Spangenberg, Kurt (1938) Die wasserhaltigen Nickelsilicate, Cent. Mineral. Abt. A., p. 360-364
  17. ^ George T. Faust (1966) The Hydrous Nickel-Magnesium Silicates - The Garnierite Group, American Mineralogist, 51, p. 279-298
  18. ^ [15]
  19. ^ [16]
  20. ^ Mindat.org - Buserite
  21. ^ Burns R G, Burns V E, Stockman H W (1983). "A review of the todorokite-buserite problem: implications to the mineralogy of marine manganese nodules". American Mineralogist 68: 972–980. 
  22. ^ Golden, D.C., C.C. Chen, and J.B. Dixon. "Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment". Clays and Clay Minerals 35: 271–280. doi:10.1346/ccmn.1987.0350404. 
  23. ^ Susse P (1968). "Die Kristallstruktur des Botryogens". Acta Crystallographica B 24: 760–767. doi:10.1107/s0567740868003171. 
  24. ^ Brovkin A A, Zayakina N V, Brovkina V S (1975). "Crystal structure of strontioborite Sr[B8O11(OH)4]". Soviet Physics - Crystallography 20: 563–566. 
  25. ^ Bindi, L. & Pingitore, N.E. (2013) On the symmetry and crystal structure of aguilarite, Ag4SeS. Mineralogican Magazine, 77, 21-31
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