List of Sailor Moon characters
The Sailor Moon manga and anime series features an extensive cast of characters created by Naoko Takeuchi. The series takes place in Tokyo, Japan, where the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi?), a group of ten magical girls are reincarnated to combat an assortment of antagonists attempting to take over Tokyo, the Earth and eventually, the Milky Way galaxy. Each Soldier has a transformation sequence which grants her a uniform in her own theme-colors and her own kind of elemental power; these powers come from an object called a "Sailor Crystal" said to be within each of them. The ten Soldiers are named after planets of the Solar System, with the exception of Earth.
The Sailor Soldiers are led by the titular protagonist, Sailor Moon, whose first task is to find the other Soldiers: Sailors Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Venus, who serve as Sailor Moon's closest protectors. They are later joined by Sailor Chibimoon and four more Soldiers: Sailors Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and Saturn, who defends the Solar System from external threats. The series antagonists include Dark Kingdom, the Black Moon Clan, the Death Busters, the Dead Moon Circus, and Shadow Galactica.
Takeuchi's initial vision was a story called Codename: Sailor V, in which Sailor Venus discovers her magical powers and protects the people of Earth. After Codename: Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include five female superheroes who defend the galaxy.
- 1 Creation and conception
- 2 Protagonists
- 3 Antagonists
- 4 Other characters
- 4.1 Luna, Artemis, and Diana
- 4.2 The Tsukino family
- 4.3 Other humans
- 4.4 Nonhumans
- 5 Merchandise
- 6 Reception
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Creation and conception
Naoko Takeuchi initially wrote Codename: Sailor V, a one-shot manga which focused on Sailor Venus. When Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation by Toei Animation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include Sailor Venus as a part of a "sentai" (team of five) and created the characters of Sailors Moon, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter. The name "Sailor Soldier" comes from sailor fuku, a type of Japanese school uniform, and the Japanese word senshi, which can mean "soldier", "warrior", "guardian", or "fighter". Takeuchi named the term by fusing English and Japanese elements. The DIC Entertainment English adaptation of the anime changed it to "Sailor Scout" for most of its run. According to Takeuchi, only females can be Sailor Soldiers, although the series features at least one male character with a Sailor Crystal (Tuxedo Mask). In the anime's fifth season, the Sailor Starlights are depicted as men transforming into women when changing from their civilian forms into Sailor Soldiers (rather than just being women merely disguising as men as they appear in the manga), which strongly displeased Takeuchi as she felt this undermined her rule that only girls could be Sailor Soldiers.
In 2003, Takeuchi stated that she desired to create a series about girls in outer space, and Fumio Osano, her editor, suggested that Takeuchi add the "sailor suit" motif in the uniform worn by the Sailor Soldiers. Originally, each of the Soldiers were intended to have their own unique outfit; however, it was later determined that they would wear uniforms based on a single theme, and Sailor Moon's costume concept was the closest to that which would eventually be used for all the girls. The first uniform of the Soldiers allowed some differences (shoe style, sleeves, gloves), while in later stages of character design Takeuchi settled on a more unified appearance. Within the Sailor Team, only the outfit worn by Sailor Venus during her time as Sailor V varies significantly from the others; however, Sailor Moon, whatever form she takes, always has a more elaborate costume than any of the others, and gains minor, individual power-ups more frequently than any other character. Sailor Soldiers originating from outside the Solar System generally have very different and widely varying outfits, but one single feature, the sailor collar, connects them all. The uniforms of the Sailor Soldiers not only show their femininity, they "perform it excessively in frilly, girly fashion".
Most of the villains in the series have names that are related to minerals and gemstones, including Queen Beryl, the Black Moon Clan, Kaolinite and the Witches 5, Zirconia, her pet Zircon, the Amazon Trio, and Xenotime and Zeolite. Members of the Amazoness Quartet are named after the first four asteroids to be discovered. The Sailor Animamates have the prefix "Sailor" (despite not being true Sailor Soldiers in the manga), followed by the name of a metal and the name of an animal.
Usagi Tsukino (月野 うさぎ Tsukino Usagi?, called Serena Tsukino in the original English dub) is the main protagonist of the series and leader of the Sailor Soldiers. Usagi is a careless young girl with an enormous capacity for love, compassion, and understanding. Usagi transforms into the heroine called Sailor Moon, Soldier of Love and Justice. At the beginning of the series, she is fourteen years old and portrayed as an immature crybaby who resents fighting evil and wants nothing more than to be a normal girl. As she progresses, however, she embraces the chance to use her power to protect those she cares about.
Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru?, called Darien Shields in the original English dub) is a student somewhat older than Usagi. As a young child he experienced a terrible car-accident that robbed him of his parents and of his knowledge of his own identity. During the series it is revealed he has a special psychic rapport with Usagi and can sense when she is in danger, which inspires him to take on the guise of Tuxedo Mask and fight alongside the Sailor Soldiers when needed. After an initially confrontational relationship, he and Usagi remember their past lives together and fall in love again.
Ami Mizuno (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami?, called Amy Mizuno in the original English dub) is the second Sailor Soldier to be introduced in the series. Ami is a quiet but intelligent fourteen-year-old bookworm in Usagi's class with a rumored IQ of 300, she can transform into Sailor Mercury, Soldier of Water and Wisdom. Ami's shy exterior masks a passion for knowledge and for taking care of the people around her. She hopes to become a doctor one day, like her mother, and tends to be the practical one in the group. Secretly, she is also a fan of pop culture and romance novels, and becomes embarrassed whenever this is pointed out. Ami would also be considered the "tech girl" and the "brain" of the group by using her mini data computer, which is capable of scanning and detecting virtually anything she needs.
Rei Hino (火野 レイ Hino Rei?, called Raye Hino in the original English dub) is the third Sailor Soldier to be introduced. Rei is an elegant, fourteen-year-old miko (shrine maiden). Because of her work as a Shinto priestess, Rei has limited precognition and can dispel/nullify evil using special Shinto scrolls, even in her civilian form. She transforms into Sailor Mars, Soldier of Fire and Passion. She is very serious and focused, although she can get easily annoyed by Usagi Tsukino's laziness, but cares about her very much. Rei is portrayed as boy-crazy in the anime adaptation and short-tempered throughout, but is uninterested in romance and self-controlled in both the manga and live-action series. She attends a private, Catholic school separate from the other girls.
Makoto Kino (木野 まこと Kino Makoto?, called Lita Kino in the original English dub) is the fourth Sailor Soldier to be introduced. Makoto is a fourteen-year-old tomboy who is a student in Usagi Tsukino's class and has immense physical strength and in fact was rumored to have been kicked out of her previous school for fighting. Unusually tall and strong for a Japanese schoolgirl, she transforms into Sailor Jupiter, Soldier of Thunder and Strength. Both Makoto's parents died in a plane crash years ago, so she lives alone and takes care of herself. She cultivates her physical strength as well as more domestic interests, including housekeeping, cooking, and gardening. Makoto is also good at hand-to-hand combat. She wants to marry young and to own a flower-and-cake shop.
Minako Aino (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako?, called Mina Aino in the original English dub) is the fifth Sailor Soldier to be introduced. A fourteen-year-old perky dreamer, Minako acted on her own as Sailor V for some time. She has a companion cat called Artemis who works alongside Luna in guiding the Sailor Soldiers. Minako transforms into Sailor Venus, Soldier of Love and Beauty, and leads Sailor Moon's four inner soldiers, while acting as Sailor Moon's closest bodyguard-decoy because of their near-identical looks. She also dreams of becoming a famous singer and idol; she attends auditions whenever she can. In contrast, in the live-action series, she is a successful J-Pop singer (of whom Usagi, Ami, and Makoto are fans) and has a poor health condition (due to anemia), choosing to separate herself from the other Guardians as a result.
Sailor Chibi Moon
Chibiusa (ちびうさ Chibiusa?, called Rini in the original English dub) is the sixth Sailor Soldier to be introduced. The future daughter of Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion in the 30th century, she later trains with Sailor Moon to become a Sailor Soldier in her own right, and learns to transform into Sailor Chibi Moon (or Sailor Mini Moon in the English series). At times she has an adversarial relationship with her mother in the 20th century, as she is more mature than Usagi. But as the series progresses they develop a deep bond. Chibiusa wants to grow up to become a lady like her mother.
Setsuna Meioh (冥王 せつな Meiō Setsuna?, called Trista Meioh in the original English dub) is the seventh Sailor Soldier to be introduced. A mysterious woman who appears first as Sailor Pluto, the Soldier of Time and Space, who has the duty of guarding the time corridor from unauthorized travelers. Only later does she appear on Earth, living as a college student. She has a distant personality and can be very stern, but can also be quite friendly and helps the Sailor Soldiers when she can. After so long at the Gate of Time she carries a deep sense of loneliness, although she is close friends with Chibiusa. Sailor Pluto's talisman is her Garnet Rod, which aids her with her power to freeze time and attacks.
Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか Ten'ō Haruka?, called Amara Tenoh in the original English dub) is the eighth Sailor Soldier to be introduced. Haruka is a good-natured, masculine-acting girl who is a year older than most of the other Sailor Soldiers. She is able to transform into Sailor Uranus, Soldier of the Sky and of Fury. Before becoming a Sailor Soldier, she dreamt of becoming a racer, and she has excellent driving skills. She tends to dress and, in the anime, speak like a man. When it comes to fighting the enemy she distrusts outside help and prefers to work solely with Sailor Neptune and, later, Pluto and Saturn. Sailor Uranus's talisman, known as the Space Sword, aids her with her fighting and attacks.
Michiru Kaioh (海王 みちる Kaiō Michiru?, called Michelle Kaioh in the original English dub) is the ninth Sailor Soldier to be introduced. She is an elegant and talented violinist and painter with family money of an age with her partner and lover, Haruka Tenoh. She is able to transform into Sailor Neptune, Soldier of the Ocean and Embrace. She worked alone for some time before finding her partner, Sailor Uranus. Neptune has ultimately given up her own dreams for the life of a Soldier. She is fully devoted to this duty and willing to make any sacrifice for it. Sailor Neptune's talisman is her Deep Aqua Mirror, which aids her with her intuition and revealing cloaked evil.
Hotaru Tomoe (土萠 ほたる Tomoe Hotaru?) is the last of the Sailor Soldiers to be introduced. A sweet, lonely young girl, she is the daughter of Soichi Tomoe, a mad scientist. A terrible laboratory accident in her youth significantly compromised her health in the anime adaptation and destroyed a large portion of her body (which was later rebuilt with electronic components by her father) in the manga. After overcoming the darkness that has surrounded her family, Hotaru is able to become the Soldier of Death and Rebirth, Sailor Saturn. She is often pensive, and as a human has the inexplicable power to heal others. Sailor Saturn's weapon is her Silence Glaive, which aids her with her power to generate barriers and the power to destroy a planet. However, when she uses that power, she kills herself but is reborn afterwards.
The Dark Kingdom (ダーク・キングダム Dāku Kingudamu?, called Negaverse in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Dark Kingdom arc of the manga, the first season of the anime, and the live-action series. Serving under its ruler Queen Beryl, the Shitenou and monsters of the Dark Kingdom attempt to both gather human energy and find the Silver Crystal in order to reawaken the evil entity Queen Metaria, the monster responsible for the destruction of the Silver Millennium.
The Makaiju (魔界樹 Makai Ju?, called Doom Tree Aliens in the original English dub) are minor antagonists appearing only in the first thirteen episodes of Sailor Moon R. They are two aliens named Ail and An, who supply the eponymous Makaiju ("Hell Tree") with human energy in order to revive it so that it can, in turn, continue giving them energy to survive.
Black Moon Clan
The Black Moon Clan (ブラック・ムーン一族 Burakku Mūn Ichizoku?, called Negamoon Family in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Black Moon arc of the manga and in the majority of Sailor Moon R. Members of the Black Moon Clan come from Planet Nemesis, a fictional tenth planet of the Solar System, and have the distinction of having black, upside-down crescents on their foreheads. They are led by Prince Diamond, who has been manipulated by the Wiseman so that he and the Black Moon Clan members gather power for him.
The Death Busters (デス・バスターズ Desu Basutāzu?, called Bureau of Bad Behavior in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Mugen/Infinity arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon S. Led by Professor Tomoe, the Death Busters have as main goal the resurrection of Mistress 9, who in turn would bring the alien creature Pharaoh 90 to Earth to destroy it in an event known as "Silence".
Dead Moon Circus
The Dead Moon Circus (デッド・ムーン・サーカス Deddo Mūn Sākasu?, called Dark Moon Circus in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Dream arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon Super S. Led by Zirconia, members of the Dead Moon Circus are looking for the Golden Crystal, which will allow their Queen Nehelenia to break free of her entrapment within a mirror and take over the Earth.
Shadow Galactica (シャドウ・ギャラクティカ Shadō Gyarakutika?) are the main antagonists in the Stars arc of the manga and most of Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Shadow Galactica is an organization of corrupted Sailor Soldiers led by Sailor Galaxia, who devote themselves to stealing "starseeds", the essence of sentient life, from all in the Milky Way. Their final goal is that of reorganizing the universe in the image that Chaos, the ultime villain of the series, desires.
Luna, Artemis, and Diana
The series includes three different cat characters who act as advisors to their respective owners. Each has the power of speech, and bears a crescent moon symbol on his or her forehead. The two older cats, Luna and Artemis, lived millennia before the main plot in the Moon Kingdom and acted as advisors to Queen Serenity —the third, Diana, is much younger and was born on Earth. Because of this close association with the moon, they are each named after Greek and Roman cats serve as mentors and confidantes, as well as a source of information and new tools. They are able to advise the Sailor Soldiers on their duties, on the history of the Moon Kingdom, and on ancient legends which illuminate the best course of action. In addition, they are able to produce special items that allow the Soldiers to awaken, or that strengthen their powers. The feline characters are featured less prominently as the series progresses, but increased emphasis is placed on them as more than counselors. They are shown to have additional physical forms, a deeper backstory, and even an unrequited love or two.
In the anime, it is never suggested that the cats are anything but cats, and only Luna ever transforms into a human. In Act 41 of the manga, however, Sailor Moon's power causes her companions to revert to their true forms. The Sailor Soldiers become princesses, and the three cats are teleported to Sailor Moon's location, where they take on human forms. Luna's shape is the same as she had acquired previously, Artemis gets reverted to the form he had taken earlier in the arc to save Minako, while Diana is shown this way for the first time. (Both Luna and Diana have odango incorporated into their hairstyles, probably modelled after Usagi.)
The reason for their transformation is not discussed until Act 46 of the manga, in which the three are attacked by Sailor Tin Nyanko. She calls them traitors, using her power to change them once again into humans, and then chasing them and trying to kill them. When she introduces herself to Sailor Moon, Luna realizes who she really is—a false Soldier from their original planet, Mau (named after the real cat species the Egyptian Mau), which had once been protected by Sailor Mau. Artemis terms it a peace-loving world, but Tin Nyanko informs him that after he and Luna "abandoned" it, its people were wiped out by Sailor Galaxia. At this point, Diana, also in human form, arrives from the future and tries to intervene, but Tin Nyanko hits all three of them with blasts from her bracelets, and they shift to ordinary cats, unable to speak. Later, as they care for the badly injured cats, Princess Kakyuu tells Usagi that the three of them have powerful starseeds, as brilliant as Sailor Crystals. In Act 47, it is revealed that their inability to speak is a result of injuries to the crescent moon symbols on the cats' foreheads, and before leaving to fight Galaxia, Usagi leaves them in the care of her mother. In the next Act, they are brought to the River Lethe and killed by Sailor Lethe. They are reincarnated at the end of the series with everyone else.
Although Luna takes the largest role of the three, technically Artemis was the first; he figures prominently in Codename: Sailor V, the manga series which preceded Sailor Moon.
In the Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon series, Luna and Artemis are portrayed as stuffed toys rather than real cats. Usually they are represented by a puppet, though CGI effects are used for complicated scenes.
Luna (ルナ Runa?) is a black cat who was a devoted servant to Princess Serenity and advisor to the Queen. When the kingdom fell, she and Artemis were put into a long sleep and sent down to Earth to look after the Sailor Soldiers, who would eventually be reborn there. Part of Luna's memory was suppressed, to make her task easier; she only knowing that she was supposed to find and awaken the Sailor Soldiers. She found Usagi Tsukino first and taught her to become Sailor Moon, not knowing that this was merely a disguise meant to hide Usagi's true identity as the reincarnated princess. Luna has blue eyes in the manga and live-action series, but red eyes in the anime. Luna also provides the Soldiers with many of their special items, particularly early on. The items always spring into existence, seemingly out of thin air, and it is unclear whether she is creating them herself or simply producing them from some other location.
Over the course of the series, Luna develops a close bond with Usagi, though early on it is on uneasy terms, as Luna often upsets Usagi by giving her advice she does not want, often leading to comic results. She also becomes good friends with Ami Mizuno. She and Artemis have an implied romantic relationship, which is confirmed when they meet Diana, who is their daughter from the future. During the Sailor Stars anime, Luna also develops a crush on Kou Yaten, one of the Three Lights.
Luna has a special manga story devoted to her, entitled "The Lover of Princess Kaguya," in which she falls in love with a human named Kakeru. This story was adapted in Sailor Moon S: The Movie, and features Luna's first transformation into human form, which has blue eyes even in the anime. Throughout the movie, she gets a cold and tries to find her way home despite Artemis' plea to go with her. She ends up lying in the street until she is rescued by Kakeru from roadkill.
In the first official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Luna was the eighth most popular character out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Luna was the twenty-second most popular character.
In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Jill Frappier, who portrayed the character with an English accent, described as "fairly old, not to mention cranky and British". Her role in the series has been compared to Rupert Giles' in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Michelle Ruff.
In Act 27 of the live-action series, Luna gains the ability to turn into a young human girl, going by the name Luna Tsukino while able, to become a Sailor Guardian. Her personality as a human girl is essentially identical to her normal self, except that she has a mild obsession with sweet foods and easily is overwhelmed by her feline nature, fearful of dogs and is easily distracted by toys. She also has heightened hearing and cat-like quickness. Luna involuntarily transforms back into a plushie under certain circumstances such as sneezing, taking a direct attack from an enemy, or falling unconscious.
By dialing 6-7-2 on her Lunatia S (a special cell phone) and shouting "Luna Prism Power, Make up!" she can transform into Sailor Luna, the "Guardian of Love and Small Things." In this form she uses a special attack called "Luna Sucre Candy" which bombards an enemy in exploding sweets. Her main weapon is a "candy" wand, which looks similar to Sailor Moon's "Moon Stick" and which she can transform into various other objects, such as a paper fan or a butterfly net.
In the Special Act epilogue, Luna is the only one of the Sailor Guardians who is still able to transform without outside assistance. She is also shown living mainly as a human with Usagi's family, with whom she gets along quite well, though she still takes on her cat form when necessary. She is also shown to have taken on some of the personality traits of Usagi and her mother, such as acting in the same melodramatic manner when waking up in the morning.
Takeuchi designed the character of Sailor Luna. One of the only times she appears in an outfit other than those Takeuchi designed—her Sailor suit or her purple shirt and yellow skirt—is in the Special Act, where she serves as the flower girl at Usagi and Mamoru's wedding. Luna's human form is played by Rina Koike, who thought that she was going to play Chibiusa until she went in for a costume fitting.
Artemis (アルテミス Arutemisu?) is the deaf white cat companion to the leader of the Sailor Soldiers—he trained Minako Aino as Sailor V, and remains by her side when she takes on her proper role as Sailor Venus.
His memory of the Silver Millennium seems to be more intact than Luna's—in fact, before appearing in the Sailor Moon series he guides her through the Sailor V video game at the Crown Game Center arcade, but not revealing his true identity (and giving the codename "Central Control" in the dubbed anime). When a technical problem reveals him, Luna is greatly annoyed to learn that he's been the one guiding her all along. Later, he fills in the details of her true mission. He has green eyes in the manga and live-action series, but blue eyes in the anime.
Artemis is more easygoing than Luna, and has a "big brother" relationship with Minako, although his attraction to her is sometimes implied. He also cares very deeply about Luna, often comforting her when she is distressed and stating his admiration of her. In addition, he is a good father to Diana as evidenced by her affection for him.
In the Sailor V manga and the live-action series, Artemis gives special items to the Soldiers, although unlike Luna he does not seem to produce them himself. He never does this in the Sailor Moon manga or the anime. He also does not seem to mind the fact that he is named after a female goddess, even when teased about it by Minako.
In the first official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Artemis was the seventeenth most popular character out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Artemis was the twenty-sixth most popular character.
In the original Japanese series, Artemis is voiced by Yasuhiro Takato. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Ron Rubin. He appears in the first Sailor Moon musical, played by a cat-suited Keiji Himeno. In the live-action series, he is represented as a toy, stuffed cat, and is voiced by Kappei Yamaguchi. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Johnny Yong Bosch.
Diana (ダイアナ Daiana?) is the third of the feline characters to appear, though the circumstances of her introduction vary. In the manga, she first appears when the Sailor Soldiers travel to the 30th century in Act 18. There, she is revealed as the child of Luna and Artemis, and when the Senshi return to the 20th century in Act 23, she goes with them.
In the anime, she does not appear until Episode 126 (English dub), and Episode 133 (Japanese) of the SuperS series, when the grey kitten suddenly jumps out of the bushes, calls Artemis her Daddy, and nuzzles up against him. Artemis is shocked and confused to find out that he has a daughter, while an angry Luna accuses him of an affair with another female cat and scratches him across the face before running off, leaving him alone with a puzzled Diana. Only later it is revealed that Diana has come from the future and that her mother is Luna. In both versions of the series, Diana has pink eyes.
Just as Luna and Artemis guide Usagi and Minako, Diana acts as a guardian to Chibiusa. She is very curious, eager to help, and deeply polite, always addressing Usagi and Mamoru with the Japanese honorific "-sama" and calling Chibiusa by her formal title, Small Lady. She is also able to help the Sailor Soldiers on occasion, despite her youth, and often because of the knowledge she has gained in the future. In Act 46 of manga, having returned to the future along with Chibiusa, she is able to sense the danger her parents are in and go back in time to save them from being killed.
In the second official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Diana was the sixteenth most popular character out of fifty choices.
She is voiced by Kumiko Nishihara. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Loretta Jafelice in the series, and by Naomi Emmerson in Sailor Moon Supers: The Movie. She does not appear in either the musicals or the live-action series.
The Tsukino family
Ikuko Tsukino (月野 育子 Tsukino Ikuko?) is the Earth mother of protagonist Usagi Tsukino (Sailor Moon). She cares for Chibiusa when she is present, whom she believes to be her niece, but who in truth is her future granddaughter. She also cares for Chibichibi, whom she believes to be her second daughter. Ikuko's name and design are modeled after Takeuchi's mother. She is often seen cooking and chiding Usagi for her grades in school; still, they're shown to be pretty close, since she gives Usagi advice on relationships of all kinds from time to time, and eagerly accepts her relationship with Mamoru. Her hair color is inconsistent between releases. The anime gives her purple hair, while colored manga artwork gives it a more pink shade, however the colored pages in the re-released volume one colors it the same shade of yellow as Usagi. The live-action series give her a normal shade of brown.
Unlike most of the minor cast, Ikuko is one of the few human characters to appear in Sailor Stars. In the anime when ChibiChibi arrives, and in the manga she cares for the injured cats when Usagi leaves to fight Galaxia. It is unknown whether or not she is still alive in the time of Crystal Tokyo.
In the live-action series, Ikuko is a completely different character than either of her other incarnations. She is extremely outgoing (even more so than Usagi), quirky, and determined. She changes her hairstyle almost every day, is constantly trying out new (and questionable) omelette recipes, and loves nothing more than being in the spotlight. She is even high school friends with Minako's manager, and it is said the two of them were big participants in their school's theater program.
In the anime series, her voice actress is Sanae Takagi. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Tara Platt. In the 2014 anime, she is voiced by Yuko Mizutani. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, she is portrayed by Kaori Moriwaka.
Kenji Tsukino (月野 謙之 Tsukino Kenji?) is Usagi's Earth father. Kenji, like his wife Ikuko, is totally clueless about Usagi's real identity. A stereotypical well-meaning Japanese salaryman, he works as a magazine reporter and later as an editor-in-chief. Kenji is quite affectionate with his wife. Early on, he becomes very upset when he sees Usagi with Mamoru Chiba, thinking he's too old for her and that Umino is a better candidate.
In the manga it can be noted that Kenji is the one member of his family who notices the similarities between Sailor Moon and Usagi. He senses a maturity in his daughter that comes when she is finally aware of her status as Princess Serenity, and notes that at times her beauty seems serene.
Unlike the rest of the family who have notable roles later on, he fades from the series after the second story arc of the anime. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he never appears in the main body of the series, which is explained by his always being away on business trips. His wife teasingly complains to him about this over the phone, but laughs it away and seems genuinely proud of and happy with him. He does appear briefly in the direct-to-DVD Special Act however, crying at Usagi's wedding.
His voice actor in the original Japanese version is Yuji Machi, who had previously voiced Ultraman Tiga. David Huband and Keith Silverstein provide the character's voice in the DIC/Cloverway and Viz English adaptations, respectively. In the Special Act of the live-action series he is played by series director Ryuta Tasaki.
Shingo Tsukino (月野 進悟 Tsukino Shingo?) is Usagi's obnoxious little brother, making her the only Sailor Soldiers with any known siblings. His influence in her life is alternately helpful and mocking; he considers her well-meaning, but a crybaby and a klutz.
Shingo first appears in the first installment of every version of the series, but is not heavily featured in any adaptations and little is known about him. Though unaware of his sister's true identity, he is impressed by the media-hyped urban legends of Sailor Moon and Sailor V. He is a particularly enthusiastic fan of Sailor Moon, because she rescued him from Dark Kingdom forces fairly early on in her career. He enjoys video games, and makes good grades. Shingo appears in several episodes of the first series, but only occasionally appears in later series. Episode #144 in Sailor Moon SuperS is one of his most memorable later episodes, in which he has a crush on Ami Mizuno.
In the live-action series, Shingo is an extremely cynical character. He hates much of what his crazy sister and mother do, and seems to not care about much of life in general. In fact, he even discovers Luna's true identity and reacts to it just like he does to everything: ignores it and goes back to playing his video games.
In the video game Another Story, Shingo is temporarily granted a large role, as he is kidnapped by the villains as ransom in an attempt to force his big sister Usagi (a.k.a. Sailor Moon) to hand over the Silver Crystal. In a conversation with one of the villains, the Opposito Senshi Sin, Shingo confesses that sometimes Usagi can be irritating, stealing his food and using his games, but also worries about him when he's sick or hurt. When Sin calls Usagi a bad sister, Shingo angrily tells her not to badmouth his sister, and is subsequently put to sleep through a spell. He is still asleep when the Sailor Soldiers arrive and successfully rescue him.
His favorite book is listed as Shonen J*mp (a reference to Weekly Shōnen Jump), and he likes to play Famicom. At the beginning of the series, he is in Grade 5, meaning that he is between 10 and 11 years old or 3 to 4 years younger than his big sister, Usagi.
In the original Japanese series, he is voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, his name is changed to Sammy Tsukino and he is voiced by Julie Lemieux. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Nicolas Roye. In the live action series Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he is portrayed by Naoki Takeshi. In the 2014 anime, he is voiced by Seria Ryū.
Naru Osaka (大阪 なる Ōsaka Naru?) is Usagi's best friend and schoolmate at the start of the series. Her birthday is listed as January 1. She has been described as "self-sacrificing" and "compassionate".
In every incarnation of the series, Naru and her mother are the very first victims of a youma attack, and Naru hero-worships Sailor Moon for saving them. Throughout the early series she continues to be a frequent target of youma and other monsters, which has become something of a joke both within the series and among its fans. In an anime "memorable subplot", Naru falls in love with the evil Nephrite, who eventually returns her feelings and attempts to atone. His death while protecting Naru leads to a long period of depression for her, which lasts throughout the remainder of the first series. This plot is one which Kotono Mitsuishi was particularly touched by.
As the story progresses, Naru's role becomes smaller, as she is not one of the Sailor Soldiers and Usagi no longer has as much free time to spend with her old friend. It is strongly hinted in the Black Moon arc that Naru has figured out Sailor Moon's identity on her own, though this is not explicitly stated; she meets up with Usagi before she runs to face the Black Moon Clan, but stays behind and only makes Usagi promise to come back safely to school.
Naru plays a much more important role in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, even learning most of the truth about the Sailor Guardians. She is also more confident and outgoing than her anime counterpart, which seems to be why she gets along with the equally outgoing Usagi. For a short while, she and Ami share a conflicted relationship as both seem to be jealous of the other's closeness with Usagi. However, they later resolve their differences and become good friends themselves.
In the anime, Naru ends up dating Gurio Umino. In episode 95 of the anime the two teenagers won a "Love Contest", fighting against other couples, including Haruka and Michiru (who were on course to win themselves, but withdrew), to see who was most in love. Naru's final appearance in the anime is in the Ami's First Love Special, and in the manga she makes a brief cameo in act 45 of the Stars act, having lunch with Usagi right after the deaths of Sailor Mercury and Sailor Jupiter.
Naru's little sister, Naruru, features in a short side story in the Stars manga, although it is stated in the anime that she is an only child. Naruru at first makes an official cameo with Haruka, Michiru, and Usagi at the high school and is shown getting along with them. She only has lines in the Stars manga short side story.
In the original Japanese series, her voice actress is Shino Kakinuma, in which she speaks in the Kansai dialect. In Crystal, she is voiced by Satomi Satō. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name is changed to Molly Baker and is voiced Mary Long, in which she speaks in the New York City English dialect as part of the adaptation to Western markets. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Danielle Judovits. In the live-action adaptation of the series, she is portrayed by Chieko Kawabe.
Gurio Umino (海野 ぐりお Umino Gurio?) is a student in Usagi's class at school. He is given a rather nerdy voice in the dub. He is usually called simply Umino, and begins with a severe infatuation with Usagi.
His defining characteristic is his glasses, which have odd swirls in them, denoting their thickness. He is a know-it-all, and he keeps Usagi informed on current events, new students, gossip, and any other information she might appreciate. In the anime, he eventually ends up dating Naru, and like her, his importance gradually decreases after the first anime series. He made his final appearance in the SuperS anime special Ami's First Love.
Umino is commonly portrayed as "nerdy" and "weird," although to be fair, this is usually because the viewers are seeing him as Usagi does, and Usagi sometimes considers him an annoyance (although at other times she considers him a good friend; she is willing and eager, for instance, to help him out when he tells her he loves Naru; this results in a "Tuxedo Umino Mask" spectacle that embarrasses Naru). He is characterized by over-enthusiasm (he once attempted to defeat one of Zoisite's youmas using only fried shrimp in order to ensure the monster wouldn't hurt Naru), an eager devotion to his studies, and sincerity and honesty sometimes to the point of bluntness. It is this sincerity, however, that enables both him and Naru to win a "Love Contest" in the Sailor Moon S season due to Umino's passionate, honest and genuine love confession. He enjoys drinking milkshakes, and in an episode where he believed Naru had fallen in love with Tiger's Eye, he drowned his sorrows with them.
In the manga, Umino is implied (and later confirmed by Naoko Takeuchi) to be incredibly handsome when he takes his glasses off, a joke riffing on his ordinarily nerdy appearance. This trait is shared with the one-off character Princess D.
The kanji in Umino's surname represent a pun meaning either "ocean field" or "of ocean"; as such, it is constructed in the same way as Usagi's and those of all four Guardian Senshi. His first name, Gurio, is given in hiragana and so its meaning is unclear.
In the original series, his voice actor is Keiichi Nanba. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, his name is changed to Melvin Taylor and is voiced by Roland Parliament. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Ben Diskin. In the Crystal anime, he is voiced by Daiki Yamasita.
She acts very young for her age in all versions of the series, however her personality does change slightly. In the anime and manga, she has long, brown hair, and can be quite strict, especially when it comes to Usagi mucking things up with her laziness. However, she is also lovesick and obsessed with finding a husband, which makes her an easy target for the Dark Kingdom during the first series. She'll often engage in seemingly childish things in this regard, such as sending love letter to a radio program or chasing after Usagi and Naru to read the love letter Usagi had written. Like most of the other minor characters, she fades into the background as the anime series progresses (and, vanishes entirely when the Sailor Soldiers are promoted to the ninth grade).
In the live-action series, she is not strict at all, though she will assign pop quizzes and clean-up duty when needed. She has an extremely eccentric personality, and is very friendly and motherly towards her students, even Usagi.
The kanji in her name mean "cherry blossom" (sakura), "rice field" (da), "spring" (haru), and "vegetables" (na). The "spring" part of her name becomes a pun in the context of other works by Takeuchi: Haruna appears very briefly in one earlier series, The Cherry Project, which features her sister Fuyuna in one of its side stories. Two other characters with similar names appear in Takeuchi works: Natsuna in Codename: Sailor V and Akina in PQ Angels. The Japanese words fuyu, natsu, and aki mean "winter," "summer," and "autumn" respectively.
She is voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name is changed to Patricia Haruna and is voiced by Nadine Rabinovitch. In the Crystal anime, she is voiced by Akemi Kanda. She is played by Tomoko Otakara in the live action version. She even appears in the musical and has been played by two actresses: Kasumi Hyuuga and Kiho Seishi.
Motoki Furuhata (古幡 元基 Furuhata Motoki?, called Andrew in the English dub) works at the Crown Game Center, a video arcade Usagi frequently visits. In A Scout is Born, an adaptation of the first anime three episodes by Stuart J. Levy, he is called Andrew Foreman.
In the anime, Usagi calls him "Big Brother" Motoki (元基お兄さん Motoki-oniisan?) and has a crush on him in the beginning of the series. He is also friends with Mamoru Chiba, who attends the same college he does, Azabu Institute of Technology. Motoki and Mamoru are contrasting characters; while Mamoru is cynical and sarcastic, Motoki is supportive and kind, always with something nice to say to the girls. He is pretty naive, and says that he views the girls as younger sisters, oblivious to the fact that they have crushes on him. His girlfriend is Reika Nishimura, a wonderful science student. He has a little sister, Unazuki Furuhata, who is also friends with Usagi and the others.
In the manga, Motoki holds part-time jobs at both the Crown Game Center and the Crown Fruit Parlor. He attends KO University with Mamoru Chiba. In the first arc of the manga, he recognizes the Sailor Soldiers and learns their true identities, but promises not to tell anyone. Later throughout the series, it is revealed that he & Reika knew Setsuna while she was studying at their university.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Motoki first appears in Act 2, but his name is not given until Act 7. Crown Center is a karaoke parlor rather than a video arcade, and he spends much of his time obsessing (sometimes rather awkwardly) over his pet turtle, Kamekichi. He initially goes on a triple-date with Usagi, Rei, Makoto, and his two friends from college, one of which is Mamoru. He and Usagi become separated in a maze, but he suffers from a claustrophobic faint and is rescued by Makoto Kino. After Makoto gives him a scarf that she had knitted for a school project, there is a recurring flirtatious relationship between the two.
Makoto and Motoki's relationship eventually becomes a bit more serious. They eventually go out on a date, but Makoto pushes him away from her, stating that she must always be alone because it is her destiny. Eventually there is a situation where youma are attacking the city and Makoto has to transform into Sailor Jupiter in front of Motoki, revealing her secret identity to him. Their connection grows stronger from this, and he buys her a small turtle, a good luck charm to protect her while she's fighting.
During the special act, which takes place four years after the series finale, Makoto owns a floral shop and Motoki is shown helping her out. The two seem to be dating, and at the end, Motoki catches the bouquet at Usagi and Mamoru's wedding and proposes to Makoto, who accepts.
In the original Japanese series, his voice actor is Hiroyuki Satō. In Crystal, he is voiced by Hiroshi Okamoto. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptations, his name is changed to Andrew and is voiced by Colin O'Meara, then Joel Feeney. He is played by Masaya Kikawada in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
Unazuki Furuhata (古幡 宇奈月 Furuhata Unazuki?) is the younger sister of Motoki Furuhata. She first appears in episode 69 of the anime and is mistaken as a rival love interest for Mamoru Chiba.
She works as a waitress at the Crown Fruit Parlor, where the Sailor Soldiers spend much of their free time in the latter parts of the anime. During the SuperS arc of the anime, this restaurant replaces the arcade and Rei's shrine as the usual location of gatherings between the main characters. The parlor is in the same building as the arcade, ablit on the upper floor. Both are owned by her and Motoki's family. Unazuki attends T*A Private Girls School with Rei Hino.
Unazuki appears for the second time in episode 94 of Sailor Moon S, dreaming of her first kiss (which results in being targeted by the Death Busters), and again in Sailor Moon SuperS. where she reappears as a major supporting character and is usually among Usagi's group. She becomes a target of the Amazon Trio in one episode.
She is voiced by Miyako Endou, with Eriko Hara as a stand in. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name is changed to Elizabeth is first voiced by Sabrina Grdevich and later by Catherine Disher.
In the second Sailor Moon popularity poll, she was ranked the twenty-ninth most popular character, out of fifty choices.
Reika Nishimura (西村 レイカ Nishimura Reika?) is Motoki Furuhata's girlfriend. She appears only three times in the anime series, and is the reincarnation of the Great Youma Rikokeidā. In the anime, she leaves Japan twice in order to study abroad, resulting in a long-distance relationship between herself and Motoki. The second time, she leaves the country for 10 years, but Motoki is still willing to wait for her. In the manga, Reika does not leave the country and simply attends KO university with Motoki. She also meets Setsuna Meioh there and becomes friends with her. She is voiced by Rika Fukami. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name was changed to Rita Blake and was voiced by Katherine Trowell, Wendy Lyon, and Daniela Olivieri in her three appearances in that order respectively.
Rei's grandfather (レイのおじいさん Rei no ojiisan?) never reveals his real name. In the anime, "Grandpa" appears frequently as a short, good-humored, unrepentantly lecherous man who will hit on anyone regardless of gender  (in the English dub, he is merely senile); in the manga he scarcely appears at all, and when he does, he is younger than his anime counterpart, taller, thinner, and boasts a full head of hair and even a mustache. He is never mentioned in the live-action series. His most prominent appearances are in the anime, where he earns a bad reputation for trying to win over young girls and often drags Yūichirō into it. In the first season it is revealed that he is one of the holders of the Rainbow Crystals that make up the Silver Crystal.
Yūichirō Kumada (熊田 雄一郎 Kumada Yūichirō?) is a ragged-looking young man who appears only in the anime, helping out at the Hikawa Shrine. In the English adaptation, he talks like a surfer dude and calls himself a struggling musician.
His family is very rich and even has a lodge in the mountains. In episode 38, he takes Rei Hino and her friends to his parents' lodge, where they go skiing. He falls in love with Rei at first sight, and decides to stay at the Hikawa Shrine so he could always be near her. Even though she doesn't reciprocate his love, he remains faithful and tries to protect her. She warms up to his personality considerably over time.
Kyūsuke Sarashina (更科 九助 Sarashina Kyūsuke?, called Kelly in the English dub) attends elementary school with Chibiusa. He is targeted by the Amazoness Quartet in Episode 155. He is a friend of Chibiusa and known to be very athletic, but also sarcastic. In the episode he is targeted by Amazoness JunJun, he is attempting to overcome his fear of the vault, the only portion of the athletic relay he has trouble with. JunJun, in order to see his dream mirror, scares him into leaping over the vault, effectively giving Kyūsuke the confidence to continue in the athletic competition (after Sailor Moon and Sailor Chibi Moon save him from JunJun).
He also plays a significant role in a later episode, when Chibiusa befriends a boy named Hiroki, who is trying to build a flying machine. While Kyūsuke initially seems resentful of Hiroki and how impressed Chibiusa is with Hiroki's dream, Kyūsuke ends up being the one to encourage Hiroki continue building the flying machine after multiple failed attempts. He tells Hiroki that some dreams must be achieved with the help of another person and that a dream is no less beautiful as a result. With Kyūsuke's help, Hiroki completes the flying machine when he realizes that alone he lacked the power and endurance to keep the machine in the air, but with Kyūsuke helping him pedal, it would take flight.
Kyūsuke has an older sister, Kotono Sarashina, who attends T*A Private Girls School with Rei Hino.
He is voiced by Daisuke Sakaguchi.
Momoko Momohara (桃原 桃子 Momohara Momoko?) attends elementary school with Chibiusa. She first appears in Sailor Moon R, but her character design is modified in the fourth series to be older and have purple hair. The jump in age was probably to match Chibiusa's new age when she comes back in Sailor Moon S, however Momoko's character is not redesigned until the following season. These changes occur with no explanation.
Her first appearance in the series (in R) had her caught up in a fight with Chiral and Achiral, two Black Moon Droids, and badly injured as a result causing Chibiusa to go into a fit and unleash her latent powers at the monsters.
Momoko is the first target of the Amazoness Quartet in the anime. When she goes to see the first performance of the Dead Moon Circus with Chibiusa and Kyūsuke, she falls victim to a spell cast by Flower Magician CereCere. In a hypnotic trance, she leaves her seat and is attacked by the Amazoness Quartet. Once her dream mirror is revealed and not the Golden Dream Mirror sought by Queen Nehellennia, the quartet summon a Lemures to devour Momoko's mirror. She is saved by Sailor Chibi Moon and Sailor Moon.
Momoko primarily appears as a classmate and friend of Chibiusa's. In the second Sailor Moon popularity poll, she was ranked the twenty-fifth most popular character, out of fifty choices.
Queen Serenity † (クィーン・セレニティ Kuīn Sereniti?) is the mother of Princess Serenity (Sailor Moon), and was the Queen of the Moon, who reigned during the Silver Millennium. Queen Serenity occasionally appears as a guide to help the Sailor Soldiers remember who they are through Luna. She states in the manga that the ancients knew her as the goddess Selene, and because of this her name is sometimes romanized as "Queen Selenity". She has the same hairstyle as her daughter does. In the original anime, her voice is provided by Mika Doi. In the English dub, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki and Wendy Lyon. She is portrayed as having been a "good ruler".
In the anime, Queen Serenity makes her first appearance as a silhouette in episode 35. A more formal introduction comes in episode 44, when the Sailor Soldiers travel to the moon. (In the English dub, some footage of her talking with Artemis is shown at the beginning of the first episode.) Having sacrificed her own life long ago, she appears only in spirit, as a sort of hologram. It is she who tells the Soldiers about their past lives, and about the history of Silver Millennium. In a flashback, she is shown speaking the name of the Crystal (or, in the dub, "Cosmic Moon Power") to send her daughter and the others to be reborn in the future; she also uses Moon Healing Escalation, a power inherited by Sailor Moon. After this encounter, she appears just once more to give Sailor Moon a new transformation brooch and rod.
In the manga, Queen Serenity first appears in Act 10. As in the anime, she appears as a hologram, and specifically mentions having saved her spirit within the computer in order to preserve her will. She tells the Sailor Soldiers of their past lives, which they begin to remember as she describes them, and tells them that they must find Metaria, who has escaped the seal placed on her and gone into hiding on Earth. Early on, Queen Serenity's spirit appears in the reconstructed Silver Millennium, telling her daughter to find happiness with the one she loves. She appears four times more, all in flashbacks: once in Sailor Pluto's memories; after the birth of Princess Serenity, confronted by Queen Nehelenia; comforting her daughter after the defeat of Nehelenia; and finally in the Galaxy Cauldron, described as a "shining star" that arrived to the Cauldron carrying a small star's shell long ago.
Queen Serenity does not appear in the live-action series, but does appear in its "Special Act". Miyuu Sawai plays the Queen as well as her daughter, though Youko Soumi (who narrated a book in Act 9) provides her voice.
Phobos and Deimos
Phobos (フォボス Fobosu?) and Deimos (ディモス Dimosu?) are Rei's pet crows that live at the shrine, which she named after the two moons of Mars. They have the ability to sense evil, and sometimes even attack enemies. It is revealed in the manga that when Rei was a child, they "told" her their names.
While they appear in all versions of the series, the two are most important in the manga series, where they reveal themselves in Act 36 as Power Guardians—small, humanoid sprites, in charge of guarding Sailor Mars. They save Sailor Mars from being killed by Tiger's Eye and give her new Sailor Crystal to her. They are later revealed to be from the planet Coronis when they encounter Sailor Lead Crow, who also happens to be from Coronis. Sailor Lead Crow comes to steal Phobos and Deimos' starseeds, which she succeeds in doing. The two of them have star-seeds on a level near or equal to a Sailor Crystal.
In the live-action series, Rei's crows appear only briefly (in Act 3) and are never called by name. In the Another Story, they go with her on the search for Jadeite's stone. A fake Deimos and Phobos appear in crow form in the musical Sailor Moon S - Usagi - Ai no Senshi e no Michi. They were played by male actors. Like Luna and Artemis before them, they are portrayed as adult actors in animal costumes.
Pegasus (ペガサス Pegasasu?) is an alicorn and a close friend of Small Lady. His name kanji combine the words for "unicorn" (ikkakujū) and "pegasus" (tenba), but are given the furigana pronunciation of Pegasus only. As a human, he is Priest Helios (祭司エリオス Saiji Eriosu?), the priest of Elysion. Helios and Elios are both correct spellings of this name; the "H" in "Helios" is aspirated in Greek. Helios refers to the Greek mythological personification of the sun.
In the manga, Helios is the guardian of Elysion, which is the sacred land that protects the planet Earth from within and the place where the Golden Kingdom used to be in the times of the Silver Millennium. The Golden Kingdom was also the place where Mamoru Chiba lived in his past life as the Prince of Earth, Endymion. Helios and Endymion never met, though they were aware of each other and the fact that they shared the same wish of protecting Earth. When Elysion is invaded by the Dead Moon Circus, Helios is sealed in the body of a horse, Pegasus, and placed inside a cage. Remembering a woman he had seen in a vision, he sends out his spirit in the form of Pegasus to seek her help. He asks Sailor Moon and Sailor Chibi Moon for aid, giving them information and new weapons and, once, calling upon Elysion itself to protect the city. He and Chibiusa become close, and he eventually discovers that her adult version is the woman he had seen. In the end, when the enemy is defeated and he has departed on the back of the "real" Pegasus, Chibiusa thinks to herself that when she has grown up, he will become her "prince."
In the anime, Helios's role is somewhat different: He guards the Golden Crystal that protects the dreams of Earth's people, whereas, in the manga, that crystal belongs solely to Endymion as the source of his power. He is directly attacked by the Dead Moon Circus for this reason, and leaves his own body to flee with the crystal. Taking the form of Pegasus, he places the crystal on his forehead as a horn and goes into hiding in the dreams of Chibiusa. There, he not only asks for her help but also grants power to her and to her allies using several special items. Though he does not trust Chibiusa at first, they gradually develop a connection, and in the end he tells her his secrets.
Takeuchi has written that she is not happy with the way Helios' clothing design came out, having created his outfit in a hurry because it was easy to draw and she was pressed for time. She describes the result as "ugly" and "a disaster," also commenting that the character inherited his "irresponsible ways" from herself.
In the Japanese anime, Helios is voiced by Taiki Matsuno. In the English version, he is voiced by Robert Bockstael. In the musicals, Pegasus is seen through special lighting effects and is voiced by Yuuta Enomoto, who also performs as Tuxedo Mask in a subsequent musical, Shin Densetsu Kourin.
The Sailor Starlights are a team of three Sailor Soldiers: Sailor Star Fighter, Sailor Star Maker, and Sailor Star Healer. They come from Kinmoku, a fictional planet outside of the solar system, after it has been wiped out in an attack by Sailor Galaxia. On Earth, they take on the guise of a male pop band, the Three Lights, and use their music as a signal beacon for their leader, Princess Kakyuu. In this form they take on the names Kou Seiya, Kou Taiki, and Kou Yaten. In the manga, they are always female and merely dress as males; in the anime, they physically transform into young men and are much more major characters. In both cases, Seiya develops romantic feelings for Usagi.
Princess Kakyuu (火球皇女（プリンセス） Kakyū Purinsesu?), commonly subtitled as Fireball Princess (プリンセス火球 Princess Kakkyū?) is the princess of Kinmoku, a fictional planet outside of the solar system. She is said to smell like the flowers of the sweet osmanthus, which are a recurring motif in her character design. The name of her planet is a pun on the name of these fragrant blossoms, which are called kinmokusei in Japanese—the suffix sei, when added to Kinmoku, means "planet" or "star." When Kakyuu first introduces herself, she calls her specific kingdom Tankei, a homonym of another word which also means the Sweet Osmanthus shrub. Kinmoku is also the home of the Sailor Starlights, who are Kakyuu's protectors and spend much of the story searching for her. The details of their collective story vary between the manga and the anime.
In the manga, Kinmoku is attacked and destroyed by Sailor Galaxia, leaving almost no survivors. Kakyuu herself travels to Earth and hides within a censer protected by a small child, ChibiChibi. Having lost contact with her, the Sailor Starlights follow behind, searching desperately. Kakyuu is injured in the battle with Galaxia, and cannot reveal herself until her wounds are healed. She travels to Earth because she senses the birth of the Silver Moon Crystal (which is an evolution of the original Silver Crystal). She is shown to have her own Soldier form, called Sailor Kakyuu, and reveals to Sailor Moon that her own lover had died in the war against Sailor Galaxia. Her uniform appears as a cross between her normal dress and the outfits worn by the Starlights, making it unique among all the Sailor Soldiers. She eventually accompanies Sailor Moon to Zero Star Sagittarius to confront Galaxia, but is brutally killed by Sailor Chi. She dies in Sailor Moon's arms, saying that she wants to be reborn, maybe in a world without war, but at the very least to be with everyone again. She uses 2 attacks when in her Soldier form, Starlights Royal Flush and Kinmoku Fusion Tempest.
In the anime, no mention of battle-wounds is made, and her purpose in going to Earth is to find the "Light of Hope" and hide from Galaxia. During her time under Chibichibi's care, she is aware of the Sailor Starlights searching for her, but cannot reveal herself too soon. She finally emerges to save Sailor Moon and the others from a black hole and resumes leadership of the Starlights. The Starlights imply many times that, like Sailor Moon, Kakyuu has the power to restore a Phage to its original form. They claim that they have to kill them as that is all they can do with without her. This power is never shown. Not long after Kakyuu is found, Galaxia appears in battle and personally takes Princess Kakyuu's star seed. (Unlike the manga, Kakyuu never transforms into a Soldier form, although she is shown to have a "true star seed.") Kakyuu sets up a forcefield that is able to block Galaxia's attacks for a short time, but it does not save her. Before dying, Kakyuu sees in a vision that ChibiChibi herself is the Light of Hope. After Sailor Moon defeats Chaos, Princess Kakyuu is revived. She and her Starlights return to their home to rebuild and start over.
In the original Japanese anime series, Princess Kakyuu is voiced by Sakiko Tamagawa, who had previously voiced Elsa Grey in Sailor Moon S. In the musical version, Princess Kakyuu has been played by 2 actresses: Sakoto Yoshioka and Ai Toyama. Kakyuu is given an operatic singing style for her solo song, "Toki Michite Kourin." She also joins in the group song "Kakyuu to Three Lights."
Chibichibi (ちびちび?) first appears in Act 44 of the manga and Episode 182 of the anime. She appears to be about two years old, and cannot really talk yet: she imitates the ends of others' sentences, and mostly says "chibi". Her red-pink hair is always up in two heart shaped odango with little ringlets sticking out the sides, echoing Usagi's hairstyle. Chibichibi's name is a doubling of the Japanese term meaning "small person" or "small child" and is used both for that reason and because of Chibichibi's similarity to Chibiusa. It is also a pun, as the word Chibichibi also means "making something last".
Chibichibi's first appearance echoes that of Chibiusa. In the manga, she is shown floating down to Earth with an umbrella in her hand, and then simply shows up at the door of the Tsukino house. When Usagi's mother expresses surprise, asking "Chibiusa?" the little girl repeats "Chibi chibi?" and receives her nickname. In the anime, she meets Usagi in the park one afternoon and starts to follow her around, saying only "chibi chibi" (without having been prompted). In each series, Chibichibi immediately attaches herself to Usagi's family, whose memories are modified so that they believe her to be the youngest child—almost exactly what Chibiusa had done on her first appearance. The Sailor Soldiers theorize that she might in fact be Usagi's sister, or perhaps a second daughter, or even Chibiusa's daughter. In the anime, Setsuna states that Usagi herself only has one child, and in the manga, any Queen of the Moon Kingdom line will have only one daughter. When Chibiusa meets Chibichibi (in the manga only), she feels very strongly that Chibichibi is not hers.
In each series, Chibichibi is the caretaker of a small, ornate censer that releases a scent of osmanthus, which the Sailor Starlights gradually recognize as a symbol of Princess Kakyuu. They threaten Chibichibi and try to take it away from her, and Kakyuu herself is revealed to have been resting inside it, hidden from the evil Sailor Galaxia.
Chibichibi eventually transforms, under her own power, into a Sailor Soldier. In the manga she is simply named Sailor Chibichibi, while in the anime she is called Sailor Chibichibi Moon. Although the reprint of the manga continues to omit the word 'moon', it is added to her name on a sticker included with Volume 12. In the manga, Chibichibi transforms into a Sailor Soldier by shouting the words "Chibichibi Crystal Power! Make Up!" This transition is never shown on screen in the anime. In this Sailor Soldier form, she carries a heart scepter with what looks like a planetary ring and uses it to defend herself and Sailor Moon. She is not shown using any attacks of her own, but she does increase Sailor Moon's power.
The truth of Chibichibi's identity is very different in the manga from what it is in the anime, largely because the two series were being produced at roughly the same time. In the manga, Chibichibi's childlike form is really a disguise for Sailor Cosmos, an ultimately-powerful Sailor Soldier from the future. In the anime, Chibichibi is the starseed of Sailor Galaxia, who had once been a great force for good. When Galaxia fought Chaos, she could see no way to defeat it except to seal it away inside her own body. In order to protect her starseed from being corrupted, she sent it away to Earth, where it finally becomes Chibichibi. Chibichibi is also referred to as the "light of hope" (kibō no hikari) by the Starlights; their one chance for defeating Galaxia. She is able to transport herself and the Sailors around Galaxia's domain freely, and in the end, transforms herself into a Sword of Sealing (fuuin no ken). This is the weapon Galaxia had used to seal away Chaos, and Chibichibi begs Sailor Moon to use it to defeat them. During the battle, Galaxia shatters the sword, killing Chibichibi. However, Chibichibi is revived along with all the other fallen Sailor Soldiers after Sailor Moon cleanses Galaxia of Chaos.
In the original anime production of Sailor Moon, Chibichibi is voiced by Kotono Mitsuishi, who also provides Usagi's voice. In the stage musicals, Chibichibi has been played by 4 actresses: Mao Kawasaki, Mikiko Asuke, Yuka Gouchou, and Mina Horita. Takeuchi praised Kawasaki's cuteness as Chibichibi. When she appears in the stage musicals, Chibichibi's backstory always follows the anime version. She is given her own song, "Mou ii no" (It's All Right), which she sings to announce that she has come to rejoin Galaxia.
Sailor Cosmos (セーラーコスモス Sērā Kosumosu?) reveals herself in the final Act of the manga. She comes from a future which has been all but decimated by the battle with Sailor Chaos; after ages of fighting, she despairs and flees to the past as the infant Chibichibi, to encourage Eternal Sailor Moon to defeat Chaos in the final battle of the series. At first, she wants Sailor Moon to destroy the Galaxy Cauldron altogether, ensuring Chaos' destruction, but Sailor Moon protests, realizing that if the Cauldron is destroyed no more stars will be born, leaving the Galaxy without a future. She chooses to sacrifice herself to the Cauldron and seal Chaos away, which Cosmos finally realizes to have been the right decision. Reminded of the strength and courage she herself needs to have, she returns to the future with new hope.
The manga implies that Sailor Cosmos is the ultimate form of Sailor Moon; this fact is confirmed in a magazine interview with Takeuchi. What this means exactly is heavily debated among fans. None of Sailor Cosmos's powers are directly shown. Nevertheless, it is implied in the final chapter of the manga that the ability to lose everything or gain everything is a defining characteristic of being Sailor Cosmos.
Sailor Cosmos never makes an appearance in the anime series, although the silhouette of Chibichibi's adult form (the "Light of Hope") bears a strong resemblance to her. Takeuchi commented that she wished Sailor Cosmos had been in the anime.
Differences in character between the Sailor Soldiers mirror differences in their hairstyles, fashion, and magical items, which has translated well into doll lines. Sales of the Sailor Soldiers fashion dolls overtook those of Licca-chan in the 1990s. Mattel attributed this to the "fashion-action" blend of the Sailor Moon storyline; doll accessories included both fashion items and the Soldier's weapons. The first line of dolls included Queen Beryl, the first major antagonist of the series, a decision that was described as a "radical idea". The first dolls based on Chibiusa surprised Takeuchi because, at that time, the author had not even finalized the character's hairstyle, and explains that a watching the doll's head from various angles in a three-dimensional space was wonderful. Bandai introduced a line of little dolls that included the Amazoness Quartet and, according to Takeuchi, these were their favorite because "with their costumes and faithfulness to the originals, the dolls really excelled." When Takeuchi originally designed the Sailor Starlights, she did so without their ponytails, but Bandai explained to her that short-haired dolls were difficult to make. Describing herself as having a "soft spot for dolls", Takeuchi eventually added the ponytails.
Sailor Moon is described largely in terms of its characters—a sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines who are simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious. The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.
The function of the Sailor Soldiers themselves has been analyzed by critics, often in terms of feminist theory. Susan J. Napier describes the Sailor Soldiers as "powerful, yet childlike," suggesting that this is because Sailor Moon is aimed towards an audience of young girls. She states that the Sailor Soldiers readily accept their powers and destinies and do not agonize over them, which can be read as an expression of power and success. The Sailor Soldiers have also been described as merging male and female traits, being both desirable and powerful. As sexualized teen heroines, they are significantly different from the sexless representation of 1980s teen heroines such as Nausicaä. Anne Allison notes that the use of the sailor fuku as a costume makes it easy for girls to identify with the Sailor Soldiers, but also for older males to see them as sex symbols.
Mary Grigsby considers that the Sailor Soldiers blend ancient characteristics and symbols of femininity with modern ideas, reminding the audience of a pre-modern time when females were equal to males, but other critics draw parallels with the modern character type of the aggressive cyborg woman, pointing out that the Sailor Soldiers are augmented by their magical equipment.
Kazuko Minomiya has described the daily lives of the girls within the series as risoukyou, or "utopic". They are shown as enjoying many leisure activities such as shopping, visiting amusement parks, and hanging out at the Crown Arcade. According to Allison, Minomiya points out that the depiction of life is harder and more serious for male superheroes. The characters "double" as ordinary girls and as "celestially-empowered superheroes". The "highly stylized" transformation that the Sailor Soldiers go through has been said to "symbolically separate" the negative aspects of the characters (laziness, for example) and the positive aspects of the superheroine, and gives each girl her unique uniform and "a set of individual powers". Some commentators have read the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers as symbolic of puberty, as cosmetics appear on the Soldiers and their uniforms highlight cleavages, slim waists, and long legs, which "outright force the pun on heavenly bodies".
Much of the Sailor Soldiers' strength stems from their reliance and friendship with other girls rather than from men.
Jason Thompson sees the Sailor Moon anime as reinvigorating the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. After its success, many 'magical girl' series, like Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka SOS, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Fushigi Yuugi and Pretty Cure, emerged.
Sailor Moon manga
- Takeuchi, Naoko. 美少女戦士セーラームーン [Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon] (in Japanese). 18 vols. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1992–1997.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. 12 vols. New York City: Kodansha Comics USA, 2011–2013.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies (Routledge) 20 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3. "All of the sailor soldiers have Sailor Crystals, with the power of their planets hidden inside themselves."
- McCarter, Charles. "Public Interview with Takeuchi Naoko" (Q & A Interview). EX: CLUSIVE. www.ex.org. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- "BLACK MOON - Sailor Moon, created by Naoko Takeuchi". Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 2003). Sailor Moon Shinzoubon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334777-X.
- Materials Collection - First Series
- "Sailor Moon GN 1 - Review". Anime News Network. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- 1996 Nakayosi December front matter.
- Supplement to the September 1992 Nakayoshi.
- Allison, Anne; Gary Cross (2006). Millennial Monsters: Japanese Toys and the Global Imagination. University of California Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-520-24565-5.
- Act 45.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 283–284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. New York: Ballantine Books & Del Rey Books. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8.
- Sailor Moon R: The Movie
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1993, March 5, 1995). "Act 14". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 4. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178753-5.
- "Huge Shock for Usagi! Mamoru Declares a Break Up". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 61. July 3, 1993. Toei. Asahi.
- Grigsby, Mary. Missing or empty
|title=(help) “Sailormoon: Manga (Comics) and Anime (Cartoon) Superheroine Meets Barbie: Global Entertainment Commodity Comes to the United States.” The Journal of Popular Culture, 32 (1998): 59–80. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_59.x Web. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992 — September 5, 1996). "Act 2". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1995). "Act 36". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. p. 12. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 37". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (December 18, 1993). Codename wa Sailor V Book 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322801-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 1". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- "Crazy for Celebrities! Mimet, in Doubt". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 114. November 19, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Mays, Jonathon (April 6, 2004). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 211–123. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995-09-06). "Act 35". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 212. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). "Back of volume". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 10. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- "The Bond of Destiny! The Distant Days of Uranus". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 106. September 3, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1992). "Act 9". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1993-04-06). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1994-07-06). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 27.
- DVD Extra: Pretty Guardian Sailormoon Oshiokiyo 25-28
- Episode 37
- As when he spies on her in the shower, with "a lover's eyes." Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Act 38". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1993). "Volume 2". Codename wa Sailor V Book 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322801-0.
- "Sailor Moon Crystal Cast Adds Misa Watabane, Daisuke Kisho, Kousuke Toriumi and More". Anime News Network. 2014-06-30.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 4". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7. and anime episode 22.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (February 6, 1995). "Act 29". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 9. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178797-7.
- Episode 5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- In anime Episode 47, Artemis expresses shock at how often Naru is attacked by the forces of darkness.
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. ~05.08.1993. Toei.
- Levy, Stuart J. A Scout is Born. ISBN 1-892213-11-7.
- Stated by Rei in episode 10
- Naoko Takeuchi. Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon manga, Act 10. "The Manga of Takeuchi Naoko". Retrieved 2006-09-09.
- Emily Ravenwood, More About Gender Dynamics, Etc. she does not have a husband seeing as her daughter was for from the silver crystal.
- Wheeler, Robert; Bednarski, Dan; Wood, Tiffany. "Sailor Moon Uncensored". Retrieved 2006-10-27. Full list of changes made for English dub
- Episode 44.
- Episode 51.
- Act 12.
- Act 22.
- Act 41.
- Act 52.
- Episode 30.
- Sailor Moon S musical
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume IV Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324519-5. ISBN.
- 1996 Sailor Moon Musical Sailor Moon Supers (Kaiteiban) Yume Senshi - Ai - Eien ni... Saturn Fukkatsu Hen!
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Episode 173 and various other episodes.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- ""Chibichibi" translates to "making something last"". Jeffrey's Japanese - English Dictionary Server. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
- The only difference is that Chibiusa made them think she was Usagi's cousin instead of her younger sister.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1996-09-06). "Act 44". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- "The Oracle". Retrieved 2007-01-23.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1997-04-04, December 10, 1998). "Act 49". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 18. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178858-2. - A translation is available at The Manga of Takeuchi Naoko
- Sailor Stars. Episode 193.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1996-09-06). "Act 45". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- Act 46.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- "eternal.legend". Retrieved 2007-02-08.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1997-04-04; December 10, 1998). "Act 52". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 18. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178858-2.
- "Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic Con!". Smile magazine. December 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-31. "In the very last manga, the last book, she [ChibiChibi] is the future Sailor Moon."
- Takeuchi, Naoko. BSSM Original Picture Collection Vol. V. "Manga Style!". Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez, Dolores P. The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 91–109. ISBN 0-521-63128-9.
- Klugman, Karen (1999) "A Bad Hair Day for G.I. Joe" in Beverly Lyon Clark, Margaret R. Higonnet ed. Girls, Boys, Books, Toys: Gender in Children's Literature and Culture page 173
- The April issue of Nakayoshi 1993, cover.
- Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection Vol. IV
- Picture Collection 5
- "Project MUSE - Costuming the Imagination: Origins of Anime and Manga Cosplay". Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/mec.0.0084. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Allison, Anne 2000. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 259-278. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0.
- Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. page 92 ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Browning, Sheila Rose.; Takeuchi, Naoko (2004) Pretty little girl warriors : a study of images of femininity in Japanese Sailor Moon comics Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Missouri-Columbia. page 2
- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime. Western Washington University. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- A. Allison. "Playing with Power: Morphing Toys and Transforming Heroes in Kids' Mass Culture." Power and the Self. Edited by Jeannette Marie Mageo. (2002.): 71-92.
- A. Allison. "Cyborg Violence: Bursting and Borders with Queer Machines." Cultural Anthropology vol. 16 no. 2 ( 2001.): 237-265.
- Koenigsburg, David (2006). Mainon, Dominique; Ursini, James, ed. The Modern Amazons: Warrior Women On-Screen. Hal Leonard/Limelight Editions. pp. 291–297. ISBN 0-87910-327-2.
- Milutis, Joe (2006). Ether: the nothing that connects everything. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-8166-4644-9.
- FEMALE PROTAGONISTS IN SHŌJO MANGA – FROM THE RESCUERS TO THE RESCUED
- Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide. p. 199.