List of missions to Venus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Spacecraft||Launch Date||Mission||Outcome||Remarks||Carrier rocket|
|4 February 1961||Impactor||0Launch failure||Power transformer failure, upper stage failed to ignite, never left LEO||Molniya|
|12 February 1961||Impactor||1Spacecraft failure||Communications failure. Flyby on 19 May 1961 at less than 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi); no data returned||Molniya|
|22 July 1962||Flyby||0Launch failure||Failed to orbit; destroyed by range safety following guidance failure||Atlas-Agena BAtlas-LV3 Agena-B|
|2MV-1 No.1||25 August 1962||Lander||0Launch failure||Premature upper stage cutoff due to ullage motor malfunction; never left LEO||Molniya|
|27 August 1962||Flyby||4Successful||Flyby on 14 December 1962||Atlas-Agena BAtlas-LV3 Agena-B|
|2MV-1 No.2||1 September 1962||Lander||0Launch failure||Upper stage fuel valve failed to open, resulting in failure to ignite; never left LEO||Molniya|
|2MV-2 No.1||12 September 1962||Flyby||0Launch failure||Anomalous third stage cutoff resulted in air bubbles forming in fourth stage fuel; fourth stage shut down less than a second after ignition; failed to leave LEO||Molniya|
|3MV-1 No.2||19 February 1964||Flyby||0Launch failure||Third stage oxidiser leak caused propellant to freeze in feed lines, which subsequently cracked; failed to orbit||Molniya-M|
|27 March 1964||Flyby/Lander||0Launch failure||Upper stage attitude control failure, never left LEO||Molniya-M|
|2 April 1964||Flyby/Lander||1Spacecraft failure||Electronics shorted out, communications lost before flyby. Flew past Venus on 14 July 1964.||Molniya-M|
|12 November 1965||Flyby||1Spacecraft failure||Flew past Venus on 27 February 1966, closest approach at 02:52 UTC. Communications lost after flyby, before any data could be returned.||Molniya-M|
|16 November 1965||Lander||1Spacecraft failure||Communications lost as soon as spacecraft entered atmosphere on 1 March 1966, no data returned.||Molniya-M|
|23 November 1965||Flyby||0Launch failure||Third stage combustion chamber exploded, resulting in loss of control, upper stage failed to ignite; Never left LEO||Molniya-M|
|12 June 1967||Lander||2Partial failure||Returned atmospheric data during entry on 18 October 1967 but failed to reach surface intact||Molniya-M|
|Mariner 5||14 June 1967||Flyby||4Successful||Flyby on 19 October 1967, closest approach at 17:34:56 UTC||Atlas-Agena DAtlas SLV-3 Agena-D|
|17 June 1967||Lander||0Launch failure||Upper stage failed to ignite; turbopump cooling malfunction. Never left LEO||Molniya-M|
|5 January 1969||Atmospheric||4Successful||Entered atmosphere on 16 May 1969, operated for 53 minutes||Molniya-M|
|10 January 1969||Atmospheric||4Successful||Entered atmosphere on 17 May 1969, operated for 51 minutes||Molniya-M|
|17 August 1970||Lander||2Partial failure||Landed at 05:37:10 UTC on 15 December 1970, rolled upon landing and returned severely limited data||Molniya-M|
|22 August 1970||Lander||0Launch failure||Never left LEO||Molniya-M|
|27 March 1972||Lander||4Successful||Landed at 09:32 UTC on 22 July 1972||Molniya-M|
|31 March 1972||Lander||0Launch failure||Never left LEO||Molniya-M|
|Mariner 10||3 November 1973||Flyby||4Successful||Flyby on 4 February 1974; closest approach at 17:01 UTC; observed Venus and performed gravity assist to reach Mercury||Atlas-Centaur D1AAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A|
|8 June 1975||Lander/OOrbiter/Lander||4Successful||Entered orbit on 20 October 1975; lander landed at 05:13 UTC on 22 October||Proton-K/D|
|14 June 1975||Lander/OOrbiter/Lander||4Successful||Entered orbit on 23 October 1975; lander landed at 05:17 UTC on 25 October||Proton-K/D|
|9 September 1978||Lander/FFlyby/Lander||3Mostly successful||Flyby on 25 December; Lander landed at 03:24 UTC the same day. Multiple instrument failures on lander||Proton-K/D-1|
|14 September 1978||Lander/FFlyby/Lander||3Mostly successful||Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 21 December 1975. Both cameras on lander failed||Proton-K/D-1|
|Pioneer Venus 1
|20 May 1978||Orbiter||4Successful||Entered orbit on 4 December 1978, decayed on 22 October 1992||Atlas-Centaur D1ARAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR|
|Pioneer Venus 2
|8 August 1978||Atmospheric||4Successful||Entered the atmosphere on 4 December 1978; consisted of five spacecraft, one of which briefly continued transmitting after reaching the surface||Atlas-Centaur D1ARAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR|
|30 October 1981||Lander/FFlyby/Lander||4Successful||Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 1 March 1982.||Proton-K/D-1|
|4 November 1981||Lander/FFlyby/Lander||4Successful||Lander landed on 5 March 1982.||Proton-K/D-1|
|2 June 1983||Orbiter||4Successful||Entered orbit 10 October 1983, operated until July 1984||Proton-K/D-1|
|7 June 1983||Orbiter||4Successful||Entered orbit 11 October 1983, operated until July 1984||Proton-K/D-1|
|15 December 1984||Lander/FAFlyby/Atmospheric/Lander||4Successful||Landed 11 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley||Proton-K/D-1|
|21 December 1984||Lander/FAFlyby/Atmospheric/Lander||4Successful||Landed 15 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley||Proton-K/D-1|
|Magellan||4 May 1989||Orbiter||4Successful||Entered orbit 10 October 1990, deorbited 13 October 1994||Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-30 / IUS
|Galileo||18 October 1989||Gravity assist||N/A||Flyby on 10 February 1990 en route to Jupiter||Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-34 / IUS
|Cassini–Huygens||15 October 1997||Gravity assist||N/A||Flybys on 26 April 1998 and 24 June 1999 en route to Saturn||Titan IV(401)B|
|MESSENGER||3 August 2004||Gravity assist||N/A||Flybys on 24 October 2006 and 5 June 2007 en route to Mercury||Delta II 7925H|
|Venus Express||9 November 2005||Orbiter||5Operational||Entered orbit 11 April 2006||Soyuz-FG/Fregat|
|Akatsuki||20 May 2010||Orbiter||5Operational||Flew past Venus on 6 December 2010 after failing to enter orbit. Insertion to be reattempted in 2015 if spacecraft is still operational||H-IIA 202|
|IKAROS||20 May 2010||Flyby||4Successful||Experimental solar sail. Flew past Venus on 8 December 2010||H-IIA 202|
|Shin'en||20 May 2010||Flyby||1Spacecraft failure||Communications never established after launch. Flew past Venus in December 2010||H-IIA 202|
- McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1961". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 29–32.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 61–68.