List of missions to Venus

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As of 2013, the Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency and Japan have conducted missions to Venus.

Spacecraft Launch Date[1] Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket[2]
Tyazhely Sputnik
(1VA No.1)
4 February 1961 Impactor[3] 0Launch failure Power transformer failure, upper stage failed to ignite, never left LEO[3] Molniya
Venera 1
(1VA No.2)
12 February 1961 Impactor[3] 1Spacecraft failure Communications failure. Flyby on 19 May 1961 at less than 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi); no data returned Molniya
Mariner 1
(P-37)
22 July 1962 Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit; destroyed by range safety following guidance failure[4] Atlas-Agena BAtlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.1 25 August 1962 Lander 0Launch failure Premature upper stage cutoff due to ullage motor malfunction; never left LEO[4] Molniya
Mariner 2
(P-38)
27 August 1962 Flyby 4Successful Flyby on 14 December 1962 Atlas-Agena BAtlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.2 1 September 1962 Lander 0Launch failure Upper stage fuel valve failed to open, resulting in failure to ignite; never left LEO[4] Molniya
2MV-2 No.1 12 September 1962 Flyby 0Launch failure Anomalous third stage cutoff resulted in air bubbles forming in fourth stage fuel; fourth stage shut down less than a second after ignition; failed to leave LEO[4] Molniya
3MV-1 No.2 19 February 1964 Flyby 0Launch failure Third stage oxidiser leak caused propellant to freeze in feed lines, which subsequently cracked; failed to orbit[5] Molniya-M
Kosmos 27
(3MV-1 No.3)
27 March 1964 Flyby/Lander 0Launch failure Upper stage attitude control failure, never left LEO[5] Molniya-M
Zond 1
(3MV-1 No.4)
2 April 1964 Flyby/Lander 1Spacecraft failure Electronics shorted out, communications lost before flyby.[5] Flew past Venus on 14 July 1964. Molniya-M
Venera 2
(3MV-4 No.4)
12 November 1965 Flyby 1Spacecraft failure Flew past Venus on 27 February 1966, closest approach at 02:52 UTC. Communications lost after flyby, before any data could be returned.[6] Molniya-M
Venera 3
(3MV-3 No.1)
16 November 1965 Lander 1Spacecraft failure Communications lost as soon as spacecraft entered atmosphere on 1 March 1966, no data returned. Molniya-M
Kosmos 96
(3MV-4 No.6)
23 November 1965 Flyby 0Launch failure Third stage combustion chamber exploded, resulting in loss of control, upper stage failed to ignite; Never left LEO[6] Molniya-M
Venera 4
(4V-1 No.310)
12 June 1967 Lander 2Partial failure Returned atmospheric data during entry on 18 October 1967 but failed to reach surface intact[7] Molniya-M
Mariner 5 14 June 1967 Flyby 4Successful Flyby on 19 October 1967, closest approach at 17:34:56 UTC[7] Atlas-Agena DAtlas SLV-3 Agena-D
Kosmos 167
(4V-1 No.311)
17 June 1967 Lander 0Launch failure Upper stage failed to ignite; turbopump cooling malfunction. Never left LEO[7] Molniya-M
Venera 5
(4V-1 No.330)
5 January 1969 Atmospheric 4Successful Entered atmosphere on 16 May 1969, operated for 53 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 6
(4V-1 No.331)
10 January 1969 Atmospheric 4Successful Entered atmosphere on 17 May 1969, operated for 51 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 7
(4V-1 No.630)
17 August 1970 Lander 2Partial failure Landed at 05:37:10 UTC on 15 December 1970, rolled upon landing and returned severely limited data Molniya-M
Kosmos 359
(4V-1 No.631)
22 August 1970 Lander 0Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Venera 8
(4V-1 No.670)
27 March 1972 Lander 4Successful Landed at 09:32 UTC on 22 July 1972 Molniya-M
Kosmos 482
(4V-1 No.671)
31 March 1972 Lander 0Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Mariner 10 3 November 1973 Flyby 4Successful Flyby on 4 February 1974; closest approach at 17:01 UTC; observed Venus and performed gravity assist to reach Mercury Atlas-Centaur D1AAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Venera 9
(4V-1 No.660)
8 June 1975 Lander/OOrbiter/Lander 4Successful Entered orbit on 20 October 1975; lander landed at 05:13 UTC on 22 October Proton-K/D
Venera 10
(4V-1 No.661)
14 June 1975 Lander/OOrbiter/Lander 4Successful Entered orbit on 23 October 1975; lander landed at 05:17 UTC on 25 October Proton-K/D
Venera 11
(4V-1 No.360)
9 September 1978 Lander/FFlyby/Lander 3Mostly successful Flyby on 25 December; Lander landed at 03:24 UTC the same day. Multiple instrument failures on lander Proton-K/D-1
Venera 12
(4V-1 No.361)
14 September 1975 Lander/FFlyby/Lander 3Mostly successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 21 December 1975. Both cameras on lander failed Proton-K/D-1
Pioneer Venus 1
(PV Orbiter)
20 May 1978 Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit on 4 December 1978, decayed on 22 October 1992 Atlas-Centaur D1ARAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Pioneer Venus 2
(PV Multiprobe)
8 August 1978 Atmospheric 4Successful Entered the atmosphere on 4 December 1978; consisted of five spacecraft, one of which briefly continued transmitting after reaching the surface Atlas-Centaur D1ARAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Venera 13
(4V-1M No.760)
30 October 1981 Lander/FFlyby/Lander 4Successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 1 March 1982. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 14
(4V-1M No.761)
4 November 1981 Lander/FFlyby/Lander 4Successful Lander landed on 5 March 1982. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 15
(4V-2 No.860)
2 June 1983 Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Venera 16
(4V-2 No.861)
7 June 1983 Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit 11 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Vega 1
(5VK No.901)
15 December 1984 Lander/FAFlyby/Atmospheric/Lander 4Successful Landed 11 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Vega 2
(5VK No.902)
21 December 1984 Lander/FAFlyby/Atmospheric/Lander 4Successful Landed 15 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Magellan 4 May 1989 Orbiter 4Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1990, deorbited 13 October 1994 Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-30 / IUS
Galileo 18 October 1989 Gravity assist N/A Flyby on 10 February 1990 en route to Jupiter Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-34 / IUS
Cassini–Huygens 15 October 1997 Gravity assist N/A Flybys on 26 April 1998 and 24 June 1999 en route to Saturn Titan IV(401)B
MESSENGER 3 August 2004 Gravity assist N/A Flybys on 24 October 2006 and 5 June 2007 en route to Mercury Delta II 7925H
Venus Express 9 November 2005 Orbiter 5Operational Entered orbit 11 April 2006 Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Akatsuki 20 May 2010 Orbiter 5Operational Flew past Venus on 6 December 2010 after failing to enter orbit. Insertion to be reattempted in 2015 if spacecraft is still operational H-IIA 202
IKAROS 20 May 2010 Flyby 4Successful Experimental solar sail. Flew past Venus on 8 December 2010 H-IIA 202
Shin'en 20 May 2010 Flyby 1Spacecraft failure Communications never established after launch. Flew past Venus in December 2010 H-IIA 202

References[edit]

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1961". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 29–32. 
  4. ^ a b c d Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37. 
  5. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45. 
  6. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. 
  7. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967". Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 61–68.