List of mnemonics

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This article contains lists of some common mnemonics.

Art[edit]

To remember the Elements of Art: Space, Form, Texture, Shape, Line, Value, Color.

  • Spaceships Fly Through Space Looking Very Cool
  • The Fat Cat Sings Songs Very Loudly

Astronomy[edit]

  • Main sequence of stellar classification: Oh Be A Fine Girl [or Guy], Kiss Me Right Now — Smack): (O B A F G K M R N S)
Mean Very Evil Men Just Shortened Up Nature[1]
Mary's "Virgin" Explanation Made Joseph Suspect Upstairs Neighbour[2]
Many Very Educated Men Justify Stealing Unique Ninth
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos
obsolete:
My Very Educated Mother Just Said Uh-oh! No Pluto (Stephen Colbert's tongue-in-cheek mnemonic[3])
My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets[4]
My Very Easy Memory Jingle Seems Useful Naming Planets
My Very Earnest Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pies
My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas
Mary Visits Every Monday Just Stays Until Noon Period

Biology[edit]

  • To remember the order of taxa in biology (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species):
    • "Dear King Philip Come Over For Good Spaghetti/Soup" is often cited as a (clean) method for teaching students to memorize the taxonomic classification system.[5][6] Other variations tend to start with the mythical king, with one author noting "The nonsense about King Philip, or some ribald version of it, has been memorized by generations of biology students." [7]
    • Do Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk?
    • Dumb Kids Prefer Candy Over Fancy Green Salad
    • Dumb Kids Playing Catch On Freeway Get Squashed
    • Dirty, Kinky People Can Often Find Great Sex
    • Do Kids Pass Chemistry Or Flunk General Science?
  • To remember the lifecycle of cells (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis):
    • Idiotic Penguins Make Antarctica Too Cold
    • I Pee More After Tea Consumption
  • To remember the common functional groups (Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amine, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, Methyl):
    • Hair Care Can Always Save People Money
  • To remember the processes that define living things:[8]
    • MRS GREN: Movement; Respiration; Sensation; Growth; Reproduction; Excretion; Nutrition
    • Metabolism; Response; Homeostasis; Growth; Reproduction; Nutrition:
      • My Really Hungry Grasshopper Refuses Neglect
  • To remember the roles of reproductive organs in flowers:
    • Stamen are male; stigma (as in mother) are female

Business and Economics[edit]

To remember the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) "Principles of Professional Conduct" from the "Code of Professional Conduct" (Responsibility, The Public Interest, Integrity, Objectivity and Independence, Due Care, Scope and Nature of Services):

  • "Rude penguins irritate old dying seals."
  • "Real pyros ignite objects during sex."
  • "Risqué people invite others down stairs."
  • "Really petite insects often do squats."
  • "I S N O R T D." (T = The Public interest")
  • "Rhinos play in other dinosaurs’ streets

Chemistry[edit]

  • "My Enormous Penguin Bounces Pretty High" to remember the series of alkanes : Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane
  • "Please Send Cats, Monkeys And Zebras In Large Cages Make Sure Padlocked" to remember the reactivity of metals : Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Iron Lead Copper Mercury Silver Platinum.
  • Harry He Likes Beer Bottle Cold, Not Over Frothy. Nelly's Nanny Might, Although Silly Person, She Climbs Around Kinky Caves; for the first 20 Elements of the Periodic Table. (Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Chlorine, Argon, Potassium, Calcium.)
  • He Has Light Brain But Can Not Offer Full Nine Subjects, May All Senior Professional Scientists Come And Protect Chemistry; also for the first 20 Elements of the Periodic Table.
  • "All Altruists Gladly Make Gum In Gallon Tanks" To remember which form (D or L) the 8 aldohexoses are in for Organic Chemistry; Allose, Altrose, Glucose, Mannose, Gulose, Idose, Galactose, Talose).
  • "H.HeLi, B.BCNOF and NeNa MgAl SiPS ClArKCa" Another for the first 20 Elements of the Periodic Table
  • "Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer" diatomic elements- H, N, F, O, I, Cl, Br (Beer(liquid), Ice (solid))
  • "Really Great (and Noble) Kings Don't Forget (Ladies') Birthdays" - how to remember the products of fractional distillation of crude oil (refinery gases, gasoline, naphtha, kerosine, diesel oil, fuel oil, lubricating fraction and bitumen)
  • "LEO said GER" - Losing Electrons is Oxidation, Gaining Electrons is Reduction
  • "OILRiG" - Oxidation is losing electrons, Reduction is gaining electrons. 'I' in Oil stands for increase in Electronegativity Value.

Group 17 in periodic table : Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine (Friends Care Bestfriends Iove Always)

  • "Hi Helen, Listen B.B.C. News On Friday N(e)ight. Naughty Maggie Always Sings Pop Songs. Clever Archie Kissed Cathy." For the first 20 elements of the periodic table; usually the first one or two letters represents the element's symbol.

Chronology[edit]

  • How to set your clock to accommodate the shift to and from daylight saving time: "Spring forward. Fall back" or "Spring ahead, Fall behind."
Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,
Save February, with twenty-eight days clear,
And twenty-nine each leap year.

Computing[edit]

There are many mnemonics for the seven layers of the OSI Model in computing. Physical / Data Link / Network / Transport / Session / Presentation / Application

Because the layers are numbered from the bottom-up, many mnemonics have been developed in both directions, from the top down and from the bottom up:

  • People Desperately Need To See Pamela Anderson.
  • Please Do Not Throw Sausage/Salami Pizza Away - starts at layer 1 (the bottom),
  • Programmers Like Networks That Seldom Postpone Anything.
  • Another commonly used mnemonic starts with layer 7; All People Seem To Need Data Processing.

The protocol data units (PDUs) for the OSI model can be remembered using:

  • Do Some People Fear Binary? (Data, Segment, Packet, Frame, Bit)
  • Don't Stop Pouring Free Beer (Data, Segment, Packet, Frame, Bit)

The hard-to-remember PCMCIA standard was ironically encoded as "People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms"

In the Linux kernel, a mnemonic to remember the Magic SysRq key sequence for safe reboot. unRaw / tErminate / kIll / Sync / Unmount / reBoot

  • Raising Elephants Is So Utterly Boring.
  • Reboot Even If System Utterly Broken.

In CSS, a mnemonic for remembering the order of the shorthand versions of some selectors like border, padding, and margin is TRouBLe (Top, Right, Bottom, Left; {margin: Tpx Rpx Bpx Lpx;} ).

Education[edit]

  • Bloom's Taxonomy: Keep calm at all sporting events: (Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation).

Engineering[edit]

  • For EIA electronic color code, Black(0), Brown(1), Red(2), Orange(3), Yellow(4), Green(5), Blue(6), Violet(7), Gray(8), White(9), Gold(5%), Silver(10%), None(20%)
Big brown rabbits often yield great big vocal groans when gingerly slapped [10]
Bad boys run our young girls behind victory garden walls[11]
Bad Beer Rots Our Young Guts But Vodka Goes Well – Get Some Now
B.B.ROY (of) Great Britain (has a) Very Good Wife (wearing) Gold and Silver Necklace
  • A mnemonic to remember which way to turn common (right-handed) screws and nuts, including light bulbs, is "Righty tighty, Lefty loosey"; another is "Right on, Left off"

Film[edit]

  • To remember all of the actors who have played the Doctor in the BBC show "Doctor Who" in chronological order. (Hartnell, Troughton, Pertwee, Baker, Davison, Baker, McCoy, McGann, Eccleston, Tennant, Smith, Capaldi.)
How to punish bad Daleks before many million earthlings truly see clearly.

Geography[edit]

  • Latitude and Longitude
Latus is Latin for "side" (latitude lines go from side to side, East-West). Longitude lines seem "longer" (top to bottom, North-South)
"Lat is Fat" (latitude goes around the equatorial belt).
"Latitude is FLATitude".
The "n" in longitude may stand for North (and South), the direction that Longitude lines cover on a map.
Arbitrary ordering: "HOMES" (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior)
Ordered by decreasing surface area: "Super Heroes Must Eat Oats". (Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario)
From west to east: Super Man Helps Every One (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario)
  • Street sequence running east and west in downtown Seattle, running south to north: "Jesus Christ Made Seattle Under Pressure" (Jefferson/James, Cherry/Columbia, Marion/Madison, Spring/Seneca, University/Union, Pike/Pine)
  • Compass directions, starting at the top and going clockwise (NESW, North, East, South, West): Never Eat Soggy Waffles (or Weetbix), Never Eat Shredded Wheat, Naughty Elephants Squirt Water, Never Eat Slimy Worms, Never Eat Soggy Wheat, Newt Eyes Swing Wobble, etc.
  • Northern European countries, from West to East: "No Soup For Russia" (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia)
  • Countries located around the Adriatic Sea (in clockwise direction): "Incredibly Slimy Cockroach Bit My Aunt" (Italia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania)
  • Seven hills of Rome: "Can Queen Victoria Eat Cold Apple Pie?" (Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, and Palatine)
  • Seven continents (Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa, South America, Antarctica, North America):
Always Eat An Apple, Says A Nurse!

Geology[edit]

  • The geological periods of the Paleozoic to Cenozoic eras[12] are Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous:
  • Pregnant Camels Ordinarily Sit Down Carefully, Perhaps Their Joints Creak
For Talc(=1) Gypsum(=2) Calcite(=3) Fluorite(=4) Apatite(=5) Orthoclase(=6) Quartz(=7) Topaz(=8) Corundum(=9) Diamond(=10)
  • Toronto Girls Can Flirt And Only Quit To Chase Dwarves .
  • Terrible Giants Can Find Alligators Or Quaint Trolls Conveniently Digestible
  • Tall Girls Can Fight And Other Queer Things Can Do!
  • Differentiating stalactites from stalagmites.[14]
    • The 'mites go up and the 'tites come down. When one has ants in one's pants, the mites go up and the tights come down. (Note: In a strict scientific sense, a mite is not an ant, although "mite" in common speech can refer to any small creature.)
    • Stalactites hang tight, hang down like tights on a line; stalagmites might bite (if you sit on them), might reach the roof.
    • Tights hang from the Ceiling, and Mites crawling around on the Ground
    • You need might to do push-ups (from the floor). You must hold tight doing chin-ups (off the ceiling).
    • Stalactites are on the ceiling. Stalagmites are on the ground.
    • Stalactites cling tight to the ceiling; stalagmites might reach the ceiling.

History[edit]

  • 543210 is a mnemonic for the date when prohibition was lifted in Finland: 5th April (4th month) 1932 at 10 in the morning (local time).
  • Kings of England: Willie, Willie, Harry, Stee (etc.)
  • Wives of Henry VIII: divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived.

All Barons Should Carry Heavy Parcels. Aragon, Boleyn, Seymour, Cleves, Howard, Parr.

  • The first eight U.S. presidents: Will a jolly man make a jolly visitor? (George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren)
  • The Royal Houses of England and Great Britain: No plan like yours to study history wisely. (Norman, Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, Windsor)
  • Thirteen Chinese Dynasties: She Shamefully Chose Chinese Hand Jingles and Sinfully Sweet Tango Songs: "You and Me, Chickadee!" (Xia (Hsia), Shang, Zhou (Chou), Qin (Ch'in), Han, Jin, Southern & Northern, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing (Ching))

The major Roman numerals: 50, 100, 500, 1000:

  • Lovely Cadbury Dairy Milk (L, C, D, M).
  • Lazy Cats Don't Move (L, C, D, M).
  • To help recall when European explorer Christopher Columbus reached America, remember this rhyme: "In fourteen ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue"
  • To remember the sequential order (Left to Right) of the Presidents as found on Mount Rushmore, remember this sentence: [We Just Love Rushmore!] (Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Roosevelt)
  • To recall the colors of the Olympic Rings, remember the following: Bring Your Record Breaking Guy/Girl! (Blue, Yellow, Red, Black, Green)

Languages[edit]

Grammar[edit]

  • Adjective order in English: OSASCOMP (Opinion, Size, Age, Shape, Color, Origin, Material, Purpose)[15]
  • Coordinating conjunctions in English: FANBOY (for, and, nor, but, or, yet).
  • The distinction between the Spanish verbs ser and estar, both meaning "to be"
"If it's how you are, or where you are, always use estar."
  • The vowels used in Latin subjunctives can be remembered with "wE fEAr A frIAr", or "hEr brEAsts Are gIAnt".
  • German word order: TeKaMoLo (Temporal (time), Kausal (reason), Modal (manner), Lokal (place)).
  • French consonants that sometimes are pronounced at the end of a word are: CaReFuL (c, r, f, and l).

Onomasty[edit]

  • Given names (masculine and feminine):
Francis (him) and Frances (her)
Don (son) and Dawn (daughter)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • The pronunciation and lexical ordering of the Japanese vowels:
Ah we soon get old (AIUEO)
  • Common vowel sounds for several languages including Spanish and Esperanto (one sound per letter):
Pa let me go too (AEIOU)

Law[edit]

  • Common law felonies: Mrs. Baker: Murder, Rape, Sodomy, Burglary, Arson, Kidnapping, Escape, Robbery
  • Contracts which need to be in writing: My Legs: Marriage, Year (anything which can't be completed in a year), Land, Estates, Goods (sale of goods or services over $500), Surety
  • Seven articles of the United States Constitution: Large Elephants Jump Slowly and Sink Rapidly: Legislative, Executive, Judicial, Statehood, Amendment, Supremacy, Ratification

Mathematics[edit]

Order of operations[edit]

PEMDAS- Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication & Division, Addition & Subtraction can be remembered by the phrase: "Please excuse my dear Aunt Sally". In order from left to right. Multiplication then division which ever one comes first then, addition and subtraction which ever one comes first.

BEDMAS - Brackets (parenthesis), Exponents, Division & Multiplication, Addition & Subtraction

Trigonometry[edit]

ASTC stands for All Students Take Calculus, which represents the trigonometric functions that are positive in each quadrant, beginning with the top right and continuing counterclockwise: All, sine, cosine, tangent.

Remembering the definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent can be done by memorizing SOHCAHTOA, which helps to encode Sine = Opposite over Hypotenuse, Cosine = Adjacent over Hypotenuse, and Tangent = Opposite over Adjacent. These mnemonics are more useful if they can be recited in three groups of three words.

Other ways to remember SOHCAHTOA are:

  • Some Old Horses Can Always Hear Their Owner Approaching
  • Some Old Horse Came A-Hoppin' Through Our Alley
  • Silly Old Henry Can't Add Hundreds, Tens Or Anything
  • Some Old Hags Can't Always Hide Their Old Age
  • Some Old Hippie Caught Another Hippie Tripping On Acid

SOH-CAH-TOA can also be memorized directly, as the name of a fictitious Native American tribal chief or princess.

Other techniques group the abbreviations differently: SCT,O/H,A/H,O/A, which stands for Sine Cosine Tangent, Opposite/Hypotenuse, Adjacent/Hypotenuse, Opposite/Adjacent. This mnemonic, "SCTOHAHOA", can be committed to memory as "Sally Can Tell, Oscar Has A Hat On Always". Some students use "Hard On" as opposed to "Hat On", finding that sexual and humorous mnemonics are often easier to recall.

SPH-CBH-TPB (sine = perpendicular/hypotenuse, cosine = base/hypotenuse, tangent = perpendicular/base)

  • Some People Have Curly Brown Hair Through Proper Brushing
  • Some People Have Curly Brown Hair Turned Permanently Black

Another odd permutation:

  • Oranges Have Segments, Apples Have Cores, Oranges Are Tangy

Calculus[edit]

  • For remembering the order of taking the derivative of a quotient in calculus, the phrase "lo-di-hi minus hi-di-lo all over lo squared" can be useful, where lo means the bottom, hi means the top, and di means the derivative.

 \frac{d}{d} \frac{high}{low} =\frac{ low\cdot high' -hi\cdot low' }{low^2 }

Another phrase that one may use is: "Bottom d Top, Top d bottom", where "d" stands for derivative (but this mnemonic does not include a reminder of the crucial dividing by the bottom squared).

A phrase memorable for sounding like a square dance call is "Low d high, Less high d low, Draw the line, O'er squared be low."

Pi (π)[edit]

Main article: Piphilology

The infinitude of digits in an expansion of the mathematical constant pi has inspired numerous literary and mnemonic writings. See the above referred article for many examples.

Medicine[edit]

Main article: List of medical mnemonics; See also Category: Medical mnemonics

  • Intrinsic muscles of hand[16]

'A OF A OF A'

Thenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

Abductor pollicis brevis
    Opponens pollicis
    Flexor pollicis brevis
    Adductor pollicis

Hypothenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

Opponens digiti minimi
    Flexor digiti minimi
    Abductor digiti minimi
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her
So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
Simplly Learn The Positions That The Carpus Has
Send Louis To Paris To Tame Carnal Hungers
  • Differential Diagnosis
VINDICATE
List of mnemonics for the cranial nerves, their respective type and foramen
NERVE: Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Pathic (Trochlear) nerve Trigeminal (dentist) nerve Abducens nerve Facial nerve Vestibulo-cochlear (Auditory) nerve Glosso-pharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve Spinal Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve
Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular
Mnemonic:
(for nerve)[17]
OLd OPen OCeans TROuble TRIbesmen ABout Fish VEnom Giving VArious ACute / SPlitting Headaches
TYPE: Sensory Sensory Motor Motor Both (sensory + motor) Motor Both Sensory Both Both Motor Motor
Mnemonic:
(for type)[18]
Some Say Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Business Makes Money
FORAMINA: Cribriform plate Optic canal Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Foramen Rotundum Foramen Ovale Superior Orbital Fissure Internal Acoustic Meatus Internal Acoustic Meatus Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Hypoglossal Canal
Mnemonics:
(for foramina)
Cleaners Only Spray Smelly Stuff Right On Smelly Idiots In Jumbled Junkyards Juggled High
Carl Only Swims South. Silly Roger Only Swims In Infiniti Jacuzzis. Jane Just Hitchhikes.

Music[edit]

Guitar[edit]

  • Mnemonics are also used in remembering guitar string names in standard tuning.[19]
  • Every Average Dude Gets Better Eventually
  • Eggs Are Deliciously Good Breakfast Energy
  • Eddy Ate Dynamite Good Bye Eddy
  • Every Adult Dog Growls Barks Eats.
  • Every Acid Dealer Gets Busted Eventually
  • Even After Dinner Giant Boys Eat
  • Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big Ears
  • Every American Dog Gets Bones Easily

Thus we get the names of the strings from 6th string to the 1st string in that order.

Conversely, a mnemonic listing the strings in the reverse order is:

  • Every Beginning Guitarist Does All Exercises!
  • Elvis' Big Great Dane Ate Everything
  • Every Big Girl Deserves An Elephant
  • Easter Bunny Gets Drunk At Easter

Reading music[edit]

  • Musicians can remember the notes associated with the five lines of the treble clef using any of the following mnemonics, EGBDF: (from the bottom line to the top)
  • Every Good Boy Does Fine.[20]
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (or Footie, Friendship, Fun, Fruit, etc.)
  • Every Green Bogey Deserves Flicking
  • Empty Garbage Before Dad Flips
  • Ernie Gave Bert Dead Fish
  • The four spaces of the treble clef spell out (from the bottom to the top) FACE
  • The five lines of the bass clef from the bottom to the top
  • Good Boys Do Fine Always
  • Grizzly Bears Don't Fly Airplanes
  • Great Basses Dig Fine Altos
  • The four spaces of the bass clef from the bottom to the top
  • All Cows Eat Grass
  • All Cars Eat Gas
Key signatures of C♯ major or A♯ minor (left) and C♭ major or A♭ minor (right)
  • The order of sharps in key signature notation is F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯, E♯, B♯, which can be remembered using the phrase
  • Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle.[21]
  • Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Birds.
  • The order of flats is B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, C♭, and F♭ (reverse order of sharps), which can be remembered using the phrase:
  • Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father.[21]
  • Before Eating A Doughnut Get Coffee First.

Philosophy[edit]

  • THE LAD ZAPPA is a mnemonic for the first 11 (and most important) Ionian philosophers: Thales, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus, Anaximander, Democritus, Zeno, Anaximenes, Protagoras, Parmenides, Anaxagoras .
  • THE PLAZA PAD is another mnemonic for the first 11 (and most important) Ionian philosophers: Thales, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Protagoras, Leucippus, Anaximander, Zeno, Anaximenes, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Democritus.

Physics[edit]

Main article: List of physics mnemonics

  • Sequence of colors in a rainbow or visible spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet):
"Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain"
Roy G. Biv is also used as a fictitious name
  • Microwave frequency bands
Mnemonic for microwave frequency bands in the increasing wavelengths (decreasing frequencies), which are Ku band, X band, C band, S band, L band, respectively is given by, King Xerxes Can Seduce Lovely princesses"[22]
  • "We guarantee certainty, clearly referring to this light mnemonic" represents the speed of light in meters per second through the number of letters in each word: 299,792,458.[23]

Religion[edit]

Bartholomew, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, James, John, James, Jude, Judas, Simon Peter, Simon, and Matthew
Pride, Avarice (greed), Lust, Envy, Gluttony, Anger (wrath), Sloth
  • The phrase SLAP EGG may also be used to remember the seven deadly sins:
Sloth, Lust, Anger (wrath), Pride, Envy, Greed (avarice), Gluttony
  • The position of the hands when making the Christian sign of the cross can be remembered by the phrase:
Spectacles (forehead), testicles (stomach), wallet (left shoulder - as when a man's wallet would be carried in the left breast pocket of his jacket), and watch (right shoulder - as when a pocket watch was carried in the right vest pocket)
  • To remember how many books are in both the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible, remember the following equation: (Old Testament = 39 books, New Testament = 3 x 9 = 27 books)
  • To recall the Five Pillars of Islam, remember the following sentence: Fast People Can't Feed Porcupines!

Spelling[edit]

Characteristic sequence of letters[edit]

  • I always comes before E (but after C, E comes before I)[26][27]

In most words like friend, field, piece,pierce, mischief, thief, tier, it is "i" which comes before "e". But on some words with c just before the pair of e and i, like receive, perceive, "e" comes before "i". This can be remembered by the following mnemonic,

I before E, except after C

But this is not always obeyed as in case of weird and weigh,weight,height,neighbor etc. and can be remembered by extending that mnemonic as given below

I before E, except after C
Or when sounded "A" as in neighbor, weigh and weight
Or when sounded like "eye" as in height
And "weird" is just weird

Another variant, which avoids confusion when the two letters represent different sounds instead of a single sound, as in atheist or being, runs

When it says ee
Put i before e
But not after c
  • Where ever there is a Q there is a U too

Most frequently u follows q. e.g.: Que, queen, question, quack, quark, quartz, quarry, quit, Pique, torque, macaque, exchequer. Hence the mnemonic:

Where ever there is a Q there is a U too[27](But this is violated by some words; see:List of English words containing Q not followed by U)
  • When two vowels go walking the first does the talking[23]

For words like "oat" or "eat", here the second letter a is silent and first letter o and e respectively are pronounced in the examples

Letters of specific syllables in a word[edit]

Do not believe a lie.
  • SECRETARY
A secretary must keep a secret[27]
  • PRINCIPAL
The principal is your pal.
  • TEACHER
There is an ache in every teacher.[27]
  • MEASUREMENT
Be sure of your measurements before you start work.[27]
  • FRIEND
A friend is always there when the end comes.
Fri the end of your friend[27]
When Friday ends, you go out with your friends.
  • SPECIAL
The CIA have special agents[27]
  • BEAUTIFUL
Big Elephants Are Ugly[28]
  • SLAUGHTER
Slaughter is laughter with an S at the beginning.
  • PIECES
Pieces of a pie
  • ASSUME
As the sum of e = 2.718..., e is an irrational number.
  • SEPARATE
Always smell a rat when you spell separate[27]
There was a farmer named Sep and one day his wife saw a rat. She yelled, “Sep! A rat – E!!!”[29]

Distinguishing between similar words[edit]

  • Difference between Advice & Advise, Practice & Practise, Licence & License etc.

Advice, Practice, Licence etc. (those with c) are nouns and Advise, Practise, License etc. are verbs.

One way of remembering this is that the word ‘noun’ comes before the word ‘verb’ in the dictionary; likewise ‘c’ comes before ‘s’, so the nouns are ‘practice,licence,advice’ and the verbs are ‘practise,license,advise’.[30]
  • Here or Hear
We hear with our ear.
  • Complement and Compliment
complement adds something to make it enough
compliment puts you in the limelight[27]
  • Principle and Principal
Your principal is your pal
A rule can be called a principle[29]
  • Sculpture and Sculptor
A sculpture is a kind of picture[29]
  • Stationary and stationery
Stationery contains er and so does paper; stationary (not moving) contains ar and so does car[27]
A for "at rest", e for envelope

First letter mnemonics of spelling[edit]

  • DIARRHEA
Dashing In A Rush, Running Harder (or) Else Accident!
Dining In A Rough Restaurant: Hurry, (otherwise)Expect Accidents!
Diarrhea Is A Really Runny Heap (of) Endless Amounts[28]
  • ARITHMETIC
A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream[31]
A Red Indian Thought He Might Eat Tulips In Class
  • NECESSARY
Not Every Cat Eats Sardines (Some Are Really Yummy)[31]
Never Eat Crisps, Eat Salad Sandwiches, And Remain Young![29]
  • BECAUSE
Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants
Big Elephants Cause Accidents Under Small Elephants
Big Elephants Can't Always Use Small Exits
Big Elephants Can’t Always Use Small Entrances[31]
Because e Cannot Always (get) Under Smaller es
  • MNEMONICS
Mnemonics Now Erase Man's Oldest Nemesis, Insufficient Cerebral Storage[29]
  • GEOGRAPHY
George's Elderly Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday.[29]
  • TOMORROW
Trails Of My Old Red Rose Over Window[28]
  • RHYTHM
Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move[31]

Transportation[edit]

  • "Red, Right, Return" reminds the skipper entering ("returning to") an IALA region B port to keep red markers to the starboard of the vessel.
  • The phrase "there's always some red port (wine) left" is used to remember the basics in seafaring. "Red" refers to the color of navigation lights on the port (left) side of a vessel (as opposed to green on the starboard side).[32]
  • "Nuclear Restrictions Constrain Fishing and Sailing, People Say" is used to encode the "order of priority" for which vessels have right of way (earlier in the list has priority over later): Not under command; Restricted; Constrained by draft; Fishing vessel; Sailboat; Powerboat; Seaplane.[32]

  • pre-landing: GUMPS - Gas, Undercarriage, Mixture, Propeller, Speed.
  • pre-final: MARTHA - Missed (procedure), Altitude (limit), Radios (set), Time (limit), Heading (final), Airspeed (descent)
  • pre-high-altitude - FLOWER - Flow (enabled), Lights (test), Oxygen (charged), Water (humidity), Electricity (on), Radio (check)
  • pre-flight-paperwork - ARROW - Airworthiness (certificate), Registration, Required (charts), Operating (checklists), Weight and balance
  • night collision avoidance: Red, Right, Returning - Red nav light on Right implies target is Returning (closing)
  • radio loss Instrument course - CDEF - as Cleared, else Direct to last fix, else as directed to Expect, else as flight plan Filed
  • spin recovery - POKER - Power (off), Opposite (full rudder), Klean (flaps, ...), Elevator (briskly forward), Recover (from dive)

Units of measure[edit]

Stands for: kilo-, hecto-, deca-, unit, deci-, centi-, milli-, in descending order of magnitude. As in centigram, deciliter, meter, etc. Mnemonic's acronym is KHDUdcm.
King Henry Died Unusually Drinking Chocolate Milk[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brown, Micheal. How I killed Pluto and Why it Had it Coming. 
  2. ^ xkcd: Mnemonics
  3. ^ All You Need to Know - Proper Condom Use - The Colbert Report - Video Clip | Comedy Central
  4. ^ http://www.feltonfleet.co.uk/departments/science/Resources/mnemonics.pdf
  5. ^ E.D. Hirsch, Jr., The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Houghton Mifflin, 1993); E.D. Hirsch, Jr., "What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know: Fundamentals of a Good Fifth-grade Education" (Doubleday, 2005) p308
  6. ^ Scott Hagwood, Memory Power: You Can Develop a Great Memory--America's Grand Master Shows You How (Simon and Schuster, 2007)
  7. ^ Robert A. Wallace, et al., Biology, the Science of Life (Scott, Foresman, 1986) p398
  8. ^ "Life processes - MRS GREN". KS3 Bitesize. BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  9. ^ http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/documents/1158_01.pdf
  10. ^ ^ Jack G. Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Fred Eady, Lewin Edwards, David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Ken Arnold, Kamal Hyder, and Bob Perrin (2008). Embedded Hardware: Know It All. Newnes. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7506-8584-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=HLpTtLjEXqcC&pg=PA17&dq=resistor+color-code+mnemonic+%22big+brown%22&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=tzaiSZigOZvgkASsy6GNAg
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ApXSoagqrxcC&pg=PA297&dq=resistor+color-code+mnemonic+"big+brown"&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=tzaiSZigOZvgkASsy6GNAg
  12. ^ Mnemonic: Eras of Life
  13. ^ Mnemonic: Mineral Hardness
  14. ^ Mnemonic: Stalactites and Stalagmites
  15. ^ Mnemonics‏ in English Language Teaching
  16. ^ [1] Mnemonic- Intrinsic muscles of hand
  17. ^ Textbook of Basic Nursing by Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194; Medical Terminology for Dummies by Beverley Henderson and Jennifer Dorsey (For Dummies, 2008) p327
  18. ^ Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski, Textbook of Basic Nursing (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194
  19. ^ Welcome englishguitarschool.com - Justhost.com
  20. ^ Every Good Boy Does Fine - What does EGBDF stand for?
  21. ^ a b Schonbrun, Marc (2005). The Everything Music Theory Book, p.68. ISBN 1-59337-652-9.
  22. ^ http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Mnemonic_device
  23. ^ a b http://s3.amazonaws.com/spacenookie/MentatHandbook.pdf Page No 40
  24. ^ Duodecim Apostoli
  25. ^ PALE GAS | The Stationary Missionary
  26. ^ "Great Mnemonics". Fun-with-words.com. Retrieved 29 Aug 2011. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k http://www.kidsandlearning.com/mnemonics.html
  28. ^ a b c http://www.skillsworkshop.org/sites/skillsworkshop.org/files/resources/word/e1l2mnemonic.pdf
  29. ^ a b c d e f http://www.audiblox2000.com/spelling-mnemonics.htm
  30. ^ Is it practise or practice? - Future Perfect
  31. ^ a b c d Mnemonics > Useful mnemonics
  32. ^ a b c Kuenning, Geoff. "Definitions and Mnemonics for Sailors and Powerboaters". Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  33. ^ http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/imarine/19240.asp in the section "The coming in going out rule"
  34. ^ Useful Aviation Mnemonics (published by Dauntless Software, Inc.)
  35. ^ Schaeffer, Randy S. (April 16, 2007). "Math Mnemonics". Faculty pages for R.S. Schaeffer. Kutztown PA: Kutztown University. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Evans, Rod L. (2007). Every good boy deserves fudge : the book of mnemonic devices (1st ed.). New York, N.Y.: Perigee. ISBN 9780399533518. 

External links[edit]