List of model checking tools

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This article lists model checking tools classified by some interesting properties. Some articles about: history[1] and introduction[2] to Model Checking. There are some books[3] that deal with model checking techniques. For more general tools see List of Modeling Tools.

Comparison of some model checking tools[edit]

Name Model Checking Equivalence checking GUI Availability
Plain, Probabilistic, Stochastic, ... Modelling language Properties language Supported equivalences Counter example generation   GUI   Graphical Specification Counter example visualization Software license Programming language used Platform / OS
APMC Approximate Probabilistic Reactive modules PCTL, PLTL No Yes No No FUSC C Unix & related
ARC Plain AltaRica μ-calculus, CTL* Yes Yes No No FUSC ANSI C Unix & related
BANDERA Code analysis Java CTL, LTL Yes Yes Yes Yes Free Java Windows and Unix related
BLAST Code analysis C Monitor automata Yes No No No Free OCaml Windows and Unix related
CADENCE SMV Plain Cadence SMV, SMV, Verilog CTL, LTL Yes Yes No No FUSC ? Windows and Unix related
CADP Probabilistic LOTOS, FSP, LOTOS NT AFMC SB, WB, BB, OE, STE, WTE, SE, tau*E Yes Yes Yes Yes FUSC ? Mac OS, Linux, Solaris, Windows
CBMC Code analysis C, C++ Assertions Yes Yes No No Free C++ Windows and Unix related
CPAchecker Code analysis C Monitor automata Yes Yes No Yes Free Java Any
CWB-NC Plain and Timed CCS, CSP, LOTOS, TCCS AFMC, CTL, GCTL SB, WB, me, ME Yes Yes No No FUSC SML Windows and Unix related, Mac OS
DBRover Timed Ada, C, C++, Java, VHDL, Verilog LTL, MTL No Yes Yes Yes Non-freeCommercial use only ? Windows and Unix related
DiVinE Tool Plain DVE input language, C/C++ (via LLVM bitcode), Timed automata LTL Yes Yes No Yes Free C/C++ Unix, Windows
DREAM Real-time C++, Timed automata Monitor automata Yes No No No Free C++ Windows and Unix related
Edinburgh CWB Plain CCS, TCCS, SCCS μ-calculus SB, WB, BB, me, ME, OE Yes No No No FUSC SML Windows and Unix related
EmbeddedValidator Hybrid Simulink/Stateflow/TargetLink/C Monitor automata Yes Yes Yes Yes Non-freeCommercial use only ? Windows
Expander2 Hybrid AFMC, CTL SB, OE No Yes No No Free O'Haskell Unix related
Fc2Tools Plain FC2 ? SB, WB, BB Yes No Yes Yes Free ? Unix related
GEAR Plain ? AFMC, CTL, μ-calculus Yes Yes Yes Yes Free Java Windows and Unix related
ImProve Plain Haskell Assertions Yes No No No Free Haskell Linux, Windows, Mac-OS
Java Pathfinder Plain and timed Java unknown No Yes No No NOSA Java Mac OS, Windows, Linux
LLBMC Code analysis C (, C++, all languages supported by LLVM) Assertions Yes No No No FUSC C++ Windows and Unix related
LTSA Plain FSP LTL Yes Yes No Yes Free Java Windows and Unix related
LTSmin Plain, Real-time Promela, μCRL, mCRL2, DVE Input Language μ-calculus, LTL, CTL* SB, BB Yes No No No Free C, C++ Unix, Mac OS X, Windows
MCMAS Plain, Epistemic ISPL CTL, CTLK Yes Yes No Yes Free C++ Unix, Windows, Mac-OS
mCRL2 Plain, Real-time mCRL2 μ-calculus SB, BB, t*E, STE, WTE Yes Yes No Yes Free C++ Mac OS, Linux, Solaris, Windows
MRMC Real-time, Probabilistic Plain MC CSL, CSRL, PCTL, PRCTL SB No No No No Free C Windows, Linux, Mac OS
NuSMV Plain SMV CTL, LTL, PSL Yes No No No Free C Unix, Windows, Mac OS X
ompca, OpenMP C Analysis software symbolic simulation with API control C/C++ programs with OpenMP directives logic predicates or flexible procedures through API Yes Yes No Yes Free C, C++ Ubuntu Linux, Windows version available soon
PAT Plain,Real-time,Probabilistic CSP#, Timed CSP, Probabilistic CSP LTL, Assertions Yes Yes Yes Yes Free C# Windows, other OS with Mono
PRISM Probabilistic PEPA, PRISM language, Plain MC CSL, PLTL, PCTL No Yes No No Free C++, Java Windows, Linux, Mac OS
Reactis Tester Hybrid Simulink/Stateflow ? No Yes Yes No Non-freeCommercial use only SML Windows, Linux
RED dense-time, linear hybrid, fully symbolic communicating timed automata (CTA), linear-hybrid automata (LHA) TCTL with fairness assumptions, CTA with fairness assumptions timed simuilation, fair simulation Yes Yes Yes Yes Free C/C++ Ubuntu Linux
SATABS Code analysis C, C++ Assertions Yes Yes No No Free C++ Windows and Unix related
SLMC Plain pi-calculus CCL Yes No No No Free OCaml Windows and Unix related
SPIN Plain Promela LTL Yes Yes No Yes FUSC C, C++ Windows and Unix related
Spot Plain Petri nets, DVE Input Language LTL, PSL subset Yes No No No Free C, C++ Unix & related
TAPAAL Real-time Timed-Arc Petri Nets, age invariants, inhibitor arcs, transport arcs TCTL subset No Yes Yes Yes Free C++, Java Mac OS, Windows, Linux
TAPAs Plain CCSP CTL, μ-calculus SB, WB, BB, STE, WTE, me, ME, OE Yes Yes Yes Yes Free Java Windows, Mac OS and Unix related
TuLiP Linear hybrid Python GR(1) No No No BSD Python Mac OS, Windows, Linux
UPPAAL Real-time Timed automata, C subset TCTL subset Yes Yes Yes Yes FUSC C++, Java Mac OS, Windows, Linux
ROMEO Real-time Time Petri Nets, stopwatch parametric Petri nets TCTL subset Yes Yes Yes No Free C++, tcl/tk Mac OS, Windows, Linux
TLC Plain TLA+, PlusCal TLA Yes Yes Yes No Free Java Windows, Linux

Modelling languages[edit]

  • AltaRica: a language designed to model both functional and dysfunctional behaviours of critical systems.
  • Cadence SMV: Cadence SMV Input Language; synchronous modeling language that has features supporting SMV's style of compositional refinement verification and abstract interpretation.
  • CCS: Calculus of communicating systems; process calculus introduced by Robin Milner around 1980 and the title of a book describing the calculus.
  • CCSP: A process calculus obtained from CCS by incorporating some operators of CSP. It is defined by Olderog[4] and by van Glabbeek/Vaandrager.[5]
  • CSP: Communicating sequential processes; formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems. FDR2 is a refinement checking tool for CSP, comparing two models for compatibility.
  • DVE input language: a system is described as Network of Extended Finite State Machines communicating via shared variables and unbuffered channels. Does not contain support for buffered channels and for checking the type of message to be received without performing the receive proper.
  • FC2: Machine-level ASCII representation for synchronized (hierarchical) networks of automata. Defined by the Esprit Basic Research Action CONCUR, 1992. Used as an input and exchange format by a number of verification tools, mainly in the area of process algebras.
  • Fiacre: Format Intermédiaire pour les Architectures de Composants Répartis Embarqués.
  • FSP: Finite State Processes.
  • Java: Object-oriented programming language.
  • LOTOS: Language Of Temporal Ordering Specification (ISO standard 8807); formal specification language based on temporal ordering used for protocol specification in ISO OSI standards.
  • PEPA: Performance Evaluation Process Algebra; it is a stochastic process algebra designed for modelling computer and communication systems.
  • Plain MC: these are simple text-file formats used in MRMC and PRISM.
  • PRISM language: PRISM model description language.
  • Promela: Process or Protocol Meta Language; it is a verification modeling language. The language allows for the dynamic creation of concurrent processes to model, for example, distributed systems.
  • Reactive modules: a component-based modeling language for synchronous and asynchronous hardware and software systems
  • REDLIB: Timed CTL.
  • Simulink/Stateflow: an interactive design and simulation tool for event-driven systems.
  • SCCS: synchronous calculus of communicating systems.
  • SMV: SMV input language.
  • TCCS: Timed CCS.
  • TLA+: General-purpose specification language based on the Temporal Logic of Actions, originally used for distributed and concurrent systems. The language for the specifications and their properties is the same.
  • Verilog: a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
  • SystemVerilog: a hardware description and verification language (HDVL) used to model and verify digital electronic systems.
  • VHDL: commonly used as a design-entry language for field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits.

Properties language[edit]

  • AFMC: Alternation Free Modal mu-Calculus.
  • Assertions: Imperative assertion statements.
  • CSL: Continuous Stochastic Logic, characterizes bisimulation of continuous-time Markov processes.
  • CSRL: Continuous Stochastic Reward Logic; a logic to specify measures over CTMCs extended with a reward structure (so-called Markov reward models).
  • CTL: Computation Tree Logic; a branching-time logic, meaning that its model of time is a tree-like structure in which the future is not determined; there are different paths in the future, any one of which might be an actual path that is realized.
  • GCTL: Generalized Computation Tree Logic, it's both state based and action based.
  • LTL: Linear temporal logic; a modal temporal logic with modalities referring to time.
  • Monitor automata: ???.
  • mCRL2 mu-calculus: Kozen's propositional modal mu-calculus (excluding atomic propositions), extended with: - data-depended processes - quantification over data types - multi actions - time - regular formulas.
  • mu-calculus: temporal logics with a least fix-point operator μ.
  • PCTL: Probabilistic CTL; an extension of CTL which allows for probabilistic quantification of described properties.
  • PLTL: Probabilistic Linear Temporal Logic.
  • PRCTL: Probabilistic Reward Computation Tree Logic; it extends PCTL with reward-bounded properties.
  • PSL: Property specification language
  • SVA: A subset of the SystemVerilog hardware description and verification language similar to PSL.

Abbreviations[edit]

Equivalences:

  • SB: Strong Bisimulation
  • WB: Weak Bisimulation
  • BB: Branching Bisimulation
  • STE: Strong Trace Equivalence
  • WTE: Weak Trace Equivalence
  • me: May Equivalence
  • ME: Must Equivalence
  • OE: Observational Equivalence
  • SE: Safety Equivalence
  • t*E: tau*.a Equivalence

Software license:

  • FUSC: Free Under Specific Condition

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Tools: a database for verification tools
  • [1]: list of verification and synthesis tools (public domain repository on GitHub)