Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century

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Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century refers to mumps outbreaks occurring from 2000 through the present day. The viral disease continues to cause outbreaks across the world.

Canada (April 2007, August 2008)[edit]

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University was struck with an outbreak of the mumps confirmed in many students with suspected cases in dozens of others. The main causes of the large outbreak include students being unaware of being infected, and other students who knowingly ignored quarantine restrictions. The outbreak began after St. Patrick's Day, and has spread beyond the university community, with confirmed cases reaching 350 cases of mumps since February, including about 24 new cases that have surfaced during the week ending June 9, 2007. The end of the university year in May meant that many students travelled to their homes across the country carrying the infection, leading to a large scale spread, the extent of which is still not clear, although the prevalence of the disease lay in people aged 17 to 24. Roughly 50 personnel of the Halifax-based navy ship HMCS Glace Bay were sent home as a precaution. Reported outbreaks have begun in New Brunswick (Approximately 100 cases), Prince Edward Island (2 cases), Ontario (3 cases confirmed, 5 suspected), West Coast of Newfoundland (2 cases),[1] and Toronto (3 cases). On October 3, 2007, a new case was reported at Nipissing University/Canadore College, in North Bay, Ontario. On October 26, four additional cases were reported in Alberta at the University of Lethbridge and Lethbridge College;[2] By October 30, this had expanded to 5 confirmed.[3] As of Nov. 16 there have been a total of 54 cases in Alberta.[4] As of Nov. 29 there have been 57 confirmed cases in Calgary Alberta, six at the University of Calgary as well as outbreaks at SAIT Polytechnic and Mount Royal College. A vaccination program is currently being undertaken to re-immunize all students in post-secondary by the Calgary Health Region. Vaccinations are also occurring at universities in Edmonton.[5] As of December 11, 2007 the Alberta government has suspended its inoculation program after several people suffered severe allergic reactions.[6]

In late August, 2008, a mumps outbreak was reported in Agassiz, spreading westward into Vancouver.[7]

In September 2008, a single confirmed case of the mumps occurred in London, Ontario.[citation needed] The individual was a student of Fanshawe College.

In June 2010, a single confirmed case of the mumps occurred in Vancouver, BC.[citation needed] In March 2011, a few cases of mumps in Whistler, BC.[citation needed]

United Kingdom (2004–2014)[edit]

In the United Kingdom, between the years of 2004–2006, a mumps outbreak[8] has involved more than 70,000 patients.[10][9] The cause of the outbreak is low immunity in those too old to have received MMR, but young enough to have not developed natural immunity through exposure. A catch-up programme of immunisation of under twenty-five-year-olds, particularly in university towns such as Exeter was implemented.

United States (2005–2014)[edit]

Although there may not be a direct link with the mumps outbreak in Ireland, United States CDC Director Dr. Julie Gerberding has been quoted stating that the genotype from the U.S. outbreak, "in the early cases of this outbreak, was the same genotype of virus that was associated with the United Kingdom outbreak."[13] Entrez Gene contains a placeholder database record for a new Mumps gene; the record is dated 23 February 2006.[14]

Vermont 2008[edit]

  • September 17, 2008: Health Department Responds to Case of Mumps at Middlebury College.[15]

2007[edit]

  • 31 January 2007: 6404 cases of mumps in 2006 compared to 314 in 2005. As of today, YTD 15 deaths in the United States were reported.[16]

Iowa (2005–2006)[edit]

In early 2006, for reasons still not fully understood, the state of Iowa experienced a large surge in the number of reported mumps infections.[17] [11] According to the New York Times, college students accounted for about a quarter of the 245 cases [12], while about half of the cases are people aged seventeen to twenty five. Doctors are attributing the rise in mumps case frequency to low vaccination rates in Iowa's youth, coupled with the close quarters in dormitories, classrooms and cafeterias.

When you expect five and you get 245, this is pretty serious... We're trying to get ahead of it and get it stopped... It could be that on some of these college campuses, they were not as well vaccinated as we'd like them to be, [but] our law does not allow us to identify entities associated with outbreaks.

According to Canadian media reports,[18] there may be something novel about this mumps strain which indicates a standard MMR-series vaccination is not 95% effective, as was thought.

  • 14 April 2006: Iowa has experienced more than 600 suspected cases since December. Other states reporting cases are California, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agency has not yet released the name of the ninth Midwestern state, however there have been confirmed cases in Michigan.[19] The mumps outbreak is the nation's largest in twenty years.
  • 18 April 2006: 815 cases have been reported [13] in Iowa alone, representing a caseload reporting increase of 200 in the last week.
  • 25 April 2006: There are over 1,120 confirmed,[20] probable and suspected cases of mumps. Over 1000 of the cases are confirmed.
  • 2 May 2006: Iowa reports 1,487 cases.[21]
  • 11 May 2006: Iowa reports 1,184 confirmed, 253 probable, and 237 suspect cases, or 1674 total.[22]

Georgia (2006)[edit]

Illinois (2006, 2014)[edit]

There have been three confirmed cases of the mumps at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Two cases at Loyola University Chicago, and has spread to three other neighboring counties in the Southern Illinois area. There has also been one confirmed case at Knox College, in Galesburg (Western Illinois). Wheaton College has also been affected by 93 cases since early September (as of Jan 9).[24]

  • 9 May 2006: Illinois reports 279 total cases.[25]
  • September 28, 2006: The Illinois Department of Public Health has reported 636 cases of mumps in Illinois between January 1, 2006 and September 28, 2006.[25]
  • April 11, 2014: A male student with shady background contracts the Mumps. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign confirms a case.

Indiana (2006)[edit]

Kansas (2006)[edit]

  • 2 May 2006: With 340 mumps cases now reported in Kansas, state health officials have asked the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to help.[27]
  • 10 May 2006: Kansas reports 546 cases.[28]

Kentucky (2006)[edit]

  • 4 May 2006: Two cases diagnosed by Doctor Roach in Paducah,KY, a border town to Southern Illinois.[29]

Massachusetts (2009)[edit]

Michigan (2006)[edit]

  • 4 May 2006: A case of the mumps is reported in Plymouth-Canton High School, Canton. The three high schools in Canton are requiring students to provide documentation of vaccination.[32]

Minnesota (2006)[edit]

  • May 2006: The Minnesota Department of Health has confirmed eleven mumps cases in Minnesota in 2006. Four of the eleven cases may be linked to Iowa.[33]

Missouri (2006)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: Missouri reports twenty one confirmed, eighty eight probable, for a total of 109 cases [34]

Nebraska (2006, 2010)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: Nebraska reports sixty four confirmed, 193 probable, twenty two suspect, for a total of 279 cases in forty three counties.[35] Officials say many people with mumps in Nebraska had connections to Iowa.
  • 10 April 2010: Nebraska reports 9 confirmed cases, with further suspected cases currently undergoing testing. The affected persons all attended or participated in an alumni basketball tournament at Columbus Scotus High School in Columbus, Nebraska on March 26–27, 2010.[36]

New Jersey (2010)[edit]

  • 11 February 2010: There have been consistent reports of a mumps outbreak among Orthodox Jews in New York and New Jersey. The outbreak has now surpassed 1,500 cases, and has shown no sign of coming to an end soon. From those affected in the outbreak, (1,100 in the new outbreak) the CDC says 88 percent have gotten at least one vaccine dose, while 75% have had two doses. Health officials in January were offering a third dose in schools where the outbreak has persisted. So far, the mumps epidemic is continuing.[citation needed]

New York (2009)[edit]

North Carolina (2006)[edit]

In May 2004, an 8-year-old in Orange County is diagnosed with the mumps.

  • 4 May 2006: An 8-year-old in Mecklenburg County is diagnosed with the mumps, the first case in the county since 2002.[38]

Ohio (2008)[edit]

  • 14 February 2008: The University of Toledo was hit by a sudden outbreak of the mumps on February 14, 2008. Most of the pregnant students were moved into quarantined buildings, and all the students in the Ottawa House buildings were required to provide medical record of previous mumps vaccinations.

Oregon (2006)[edit]

South Dakota (2006)[edit]

  • 12 May 2006: SD Department of Health reports thirty three confirmed cases, fifty three probable cases, and six suspect cases for a total of ninety two cases.[41]

Virginia (2006, 2008)[edit]

  • Fall 2006: In the fall of 2006, University of Virginia had an outbreak of mumps with 55 cases.[42]
  • 13 March 2008: University of Virginia reports two suspected cases.[42]

Wisconsin (2006)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: 185 confirmed cases, at least one case in one out of three counties.[43]

University of California, Berkeley (2011)[edit]

  • October 2011, an outbreak of mumps was reported on the University of California, Berkeley campus. The California Department of Public Health authorized the free vaccination of the entire student and staff population of the campus (more than 35,000 people).

New York (2014)[edit]

  • February 2014, An outbreak of mumps was reported at Fordham University's Rose Hill Campus in Bronx, NY as well as the Lincoln Center campus. The university's health services department said thirteen students were diagnosed with mumps all together, 12 of the cases being at Rose Hill and one case at Lincoln Center.[44]

Ohio (2014)[edit]

  • March, 2014, an outbreak of the mumps was reported at The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. As of March 31, 2014 there were 111 cased reported associated with the university. [45]

Republic of Moldova (2007–2008)[edit]

  • 24 January 2008: more than 2000 confirmed cases. Most affected are the regions of Chişinău, Orhei, Străşeni, Nisporeni, Ialoveni, Cahul, Comrat, Ungheni, Teleneşti, Hânceşti, Anenii Noi, Rezina, Floreşti.[46]

The Netherlands (2008–2010)[edit]

  • 19 April 2008, the areas of Zeeland and Veluwe, inhabited by a large number of conservative Protestants who oppose vaccination, has confirmed 60 cases by blood test.[47]
  • March 2010, at least 100 vaccinated students were confirmed having the mumps. Especially in Zuid-Holland and Utrecht.[48]

Ireland (2009)[edit]

  • April 2009, there have been more than 2,000 cases of mumps reported in the Irish outbreak and it is having the biggest effect on 18- to 21-year-olds. It has spread throughout secondary schools,colleges and Universities in Ireland and demand for vaccinations has increased considerably. The outbreak has been blamed on failure to take the MMR vaccine due to media sensationalist claims linking the vaccine to autism and delays in rolling it out due to budgetary problems.[49][50][51] High profile people to fall victim to the mumps outbreak include Leinster Rugby player Rob Kearney.[52][53]

Belgium (2012)[edit]

  • April 2012, over 200 cases of mumps were reported. The mild epidemic probably started at the Ghent University.[54][55]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Chinook Health identifies mumps cases in Lethbridge". "uleth.ca". "26 Oct 2007". 
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  4. ^ "Chinook Health Expands Mumps Immunizations". "16 Nov 2007". 
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  6. ^ "Alberta mumps clinics halted after allergic reactions". CBC News. "11 Dec 2007". 
  7. ^ "Mumps outbreak spreads in Metro Vancouver". CBC News. "26 Aug 2008". 
  8. ^ BMJ Mumps epidemic in UK 2005
  9. ^ CDC (2006). "Mumps epidemic—United kingdom, 2004–2005". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55 (7): 173–5. PMID 16498380. 
  10. ^ "University of Bath Internal News". "University of Bath Public Relations". "26 November 2004". 
  11. ^ Mumps Information. Bristol University
  12. ^ Glasgow students warned of mumps outbreak. BBC News. 22 February 2012
  13. ^ Mike Cooper. US Mumps Outbreak Grows. Voice of America (2006-04-19)
  14. ^ NEWENTRY Record to support submission of GeneRIFs for a gene not in Gene. (Mumps virus) – Gene – NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
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  16. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wonder.cdc.gov. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
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  21. ^ CDC Invited to Conduct Research on Mumps Outbreak; Kansas Cases Total 382 – Kansas City, Missouri News. Infozine.com (2006-05-03). Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  22. ^ Iowa Mumps Update. Through Wednesday May 10, 2006. Iowa Department of Public Health, Center for Acute Disease Epidemiology
  23. ^ [3][dead link]
  24. ^ Mumps no longer considered “outbreak status” on campus. wheaton.edu. February 28, 2007
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  28. ^ KANSAS MUMPS UPDATE. Cases reported as of October 31, 2006. kdheks.gov
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  35. ^ URL Change. Hhs.state.ne.us. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  36. ^ RE: Physician Advisory for Mumps. Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services. April 20, 2010
  37. ^ Mogul, Fred. (2009-10-23) Mumps Outbreak in Brooklyn. WNYC. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  38. ^ HEALTH DEPARTMENT: FIRST CASE OF MUMPS IS DIAGNOSED IN SCHOOL AGED CHILD, Mecklenburg County Health Department, May 4, 2006
  39. ^ Goodwin, Susan. Student contracts the mumps, The Oregon Daily Emerald, May 18, 2006
  40. ^ Mumps, Oregon Acute and Communicable Disease Prevention
  41. ^ Welcome to the website of the South Dakota Department of Health. State.sd.us. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  42. ^ a b "Mumps Cases Suspected at the University of Virginia", UVA Today. March 13, 2008
  43. ^ [8] Wisconsin Immunization Program – Laboratory Confirmed Mumps Cases
  44. ^ http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/Fordham-University-Mumps-Outbreak-Students-Affected-246236101.html
  45. ^ Liz Young, "New Ohio State Group to Look at University's Handling of Mumps Outbreak," Lantern, March 31, 2014
  46. ^ [9]
  47. ^ "Mumps epidemic hits Dutch Bible belt". DutchNews.nl. 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
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  49. ^ Long delay in decision to begin more mumps jabs. Irishtimes.com (2009-04-04). Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
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See also[edit]