List of monarchs of Java

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Below is a list of the hereditary rulers on the Indonesian island Java, together with those of the adjacent island Madura. Included are princely states from the beginnings of recorded history. Some of these have continued as titular entities after the achievement of Indonesian independence in 1945.

Ruler of Jawadwipa[edit]

  • Diao bian (Dewawarman?) (fl. 132)

Rulers of Tarumanagara[edit]

  • Pinabahu (4th/5th century)
  • Purnawarman (early 5th century) [grandson?]
  • Po tuo jia (fl. 424)
  • Dwarawarman (?) (fl. 435)

Rulers of Sunda[edit]

  • Jayabhupati (fl. 1030)
  • Prabu Maharaja Wangsa (?-1357)
  • Hyang Bunisora (regent 1357-?)
  • Prabu Niskalawastu Kancana [son of Prabu Maharaja Wangsa]
  • Rahyang Dewa Niskala [son]
  • Sang Ratu Jayadewata (fl. 1433?) [son]
  • Prabu Surawisesa
  • Prabu Ratudewata
  • Sang Ratu Saksi
  • Tohaan di Majaya
  • Nusiya Mulya (c. 1559/67-1579)
  • The Sunda Kingdom is conquered by Banten

Rulers of ancient Java[edit]

  • Xi Mo (queen, fl. 674)
  • Sanna (c. 700)
  • Sanjaya (Rahyangta i Hara?) (fl. 732) [nephew, Queen Xi Mo's great-grandson]
  • Rakai Panangkaran (746-784)
  • Rakai Panunggalan (784-803)
  • Rakai Warak Dyah Manara (803-827)
  • Dyah Gula (827-828)
  • Rakai Patapan (828-847)
  • Rakai Pikatan (847-855)
  • Kayuwangi Dyah Lokapala (855-885)
  • Dyah Tagwas (885)
  • Rake Panumwangan Dyah Dewendra (885-887)
  • Rake Gurunwangi Dyah Bhadra ( 887)
  • Rake Wungkal Humalang Dyah Jbang (894-898)
  • Rake Watukara, Balitung (898-c. 910) [son?]
  • Rake Hino, Daksa (fl. 913-915) [brother-in-law?]
  • Rakai Layang, Tulodong (fl. 919-921) [son of Balitung]
  • Rake Pangkaya, Wawa (fl. 927-928)
  • Rake Hino, Sindok (fl. 929-947) [grandson of Daksa?]
  • Śri Iśanatunggawijaya (10th century) [son]
  • Makutawamśa Anantawikrama (?-c. 991) [son]
  • Dharmawamśa Anantawikrama (c. 991-1006) [son?]
  • Airlangga 1019-1042; died 1049 [son-in-law]
  • The Javanese kingdom is split into Janggala and Kediri

Śailendra rulers[edit]

  • Bhanu (fl. 732)
  • Wishnu, Dharmatungga (before 775-782) [son?]
  • Indra, Sangramadhanamjaya (782?-812?) [son?]
  • Samaratungga (812?-832?) [son]
  • Balaputradewa (c. 832-855) [son]
  • The dynasty continues to rule Śriwijaya on Sumatra

Rulers in ancient East Java[edit]

  • Dewasimha (7th or 8th century)
  • Gajayana (8th century) [son]
  • A[...]nana (fl. 760) [grandson]

Rulers of Janggala[edit]

  • Mapanji Garasakan (1042–1052) [son of Airlangga]
  • Mapanji Alanjung Ahyes (1052-c. 1059) [brother]
  • Samarotsaha (fl. 1059) [brother]

Rulers of Kediri[edit]

  • Samarawijaya (1042-?) [son of Airlangga]
  • Jayawarsa (fl. 1104)
  • Bameśwara (fl. 1117-1130)
  • Jayabhaya (fl. 1135-1157)
  • Sarwweśwara (fl. 1159-1161)
  • Aryyeśwara (fl. 1171-1174?)
  • Kroncaryyadipa, Gandra (fl. 1181)
  • Kameśwara (fl. 1182?-1185)
  • Kertajaya, Dangdang Gendis (before 1194-1222)
  • Kediri is taken over by Singasari 1222-1292
  • Jayakatwang (1292–1293)

Rulers of Singasari[edit]

Rulers of Majapahit[edit]

Rulers of Blambangan[edit]

  • Mas Sembar or Minak Sembar
  • Bima Koncar/Minak Sumedhe [son]
  • Menak Pentor (fl. 1513) [son]
  • Santaguna (fl. c. 1575)
  • N.N. (fl. 1588)
  • N.N. (?-1597) [son]
  • Mas Karian (?-1632; died 1633)
  • Sunan Tawangalun I (Pangeran Singasari) (1633-1639) [son of Sunan Rebut Payung or Minak Lumpat]
  • Prabhu Tawangalun II (Mas Senepo) (1645–1691) [son]
  • Pangeran Pati (1691) [stepson of Mas Senepo]
  • Mancanagara and Sasranegara (brief rule because of war between Pangeran Pati, Mancanegara and Sasranegara (1691–1692) [brothers]
  • Mancanapura (Dalem Agung) (1692–1697) [brother]
  • Pangeran Putra (Danureja) (1697–1736) [son of Senapati]
  • Danuningrat (1736–1763; died 1766) [son]
  • Pangeran Wilis (1767–1768) [brother]
  • Blambangan is conquered by the Dutch East India Company

Rulers of Demak[edit]

  • Pate Rodim I (Arya Sumangsang) (late 15th century-1504?)
  • Pate Rodim II (Arya Trenggana) (c. 1504-1518) [son]
  • Pate Unus (c. 1518-1521) [brother-in-law]
  • Pate Rodim II (Arya Trenggana) (second time, c. 1521-1546)
  • Sunan Prawata (c. 1546-1549) [son]
  • Pangeran Kediri (c. 1549-?) [nephew]
  • Pangeran Mas Juruh (?-1588; died 1604) [son]

Rulers of Pajang[edit]

  • Jaka Tingkir (c. 1549-1587)
  • Pangeran Benawa I (1588–1589) [son]
  • Pangeran Benawa II (1591–1618) [son]
  • Pajang is merged into Mataram

Rulers of Giri (Gresik)[edit]

  • Prabhu Satmata (1485–1506)
  • Sunan Dalem (1506-1545/46) [son]
  • Sunan Seda Margi (1545/46-1548) [son]
  • Sunan Prapen (1548–1605) [brother]
  • Panembahan Kawis Gua (1605–1621) [son]
  • Panembahan Agung (1621–1626) [son]
  • Panembahan Mas Witana (1626–1680) [son]
  • Giri is taken by Mataram and the Dutch East India Company

Rulers of Surabaya[edit]

  • Kyai Sinuhun Ngampeldenta (Pangeran Rakhman) (c. 1500)
  • Pecat Tanda Terung (Pate Bubat?) (fl. 1513?)
  • Pangeran Tundungmusuh [son]
  • Pangeran Lena [son]
  • Pangeran Jebuk [son]
  • Pangeran Wanakrama (Wiryakrama?) (late16 th century) [son]
  • Panembahan Rama [son]
  • Pangeran Surabaya [son]
  • Pangeran Sunjaya [brother]
  • Raden Jayalengkara (?-1625; died 1630)
  • Surabaya conquered by Mataram

Rulers of Pasuruan[edit]

  • Menak Sepetak (fl. 1513) [son of Patih Udara of Majapahit]
  • Adipati Dengkol [son]
  • Adipati Pekik (?-1614) [son of Surabaya ruler]
  • Ki Gede Kapulungan (regent 1614?-1616/17)
  • Pasuruan conquered by Mataram in 1616 or 1617
  • Surapati, Wiranegara I (1686–1706)
  • Wiranegara II (1706–1707) [son]
  • Pasuruan is conquered by the Dutch East India Company

Rulers of Tuban[edit]

  • Kyai Arya Papringan
  • Raden Arya Rangga Lawe (c. 1300) [grandson]
  • Sira Lawe [son]
  • Raden Arya Sira Weneng [son]
  • Sira Lena [son]
  • Raden Arya Dikara [son]
  • Arya Teja [son-in-law]
  • Raden Arya Wilatikta (Pate Vira) (fl. 1513) [son]
  • Kyai Arya Ngrasena [grandson-in-law]
  • Kyai Arya Gegelang [son]
  • Kyai Arya Batubang [son]
  • Pangeran Arya Balewot [son]
  • Pangeran Sekar Tanjung [son]
  • Pangeran Ngangsar [brother]
  • Pangeran Arya Pamalad (fl. c. 1587) [son of Pangeran Sekar Tanjung]
  • Arya Salempe [brother]
  • Pangeran Dalem (?-1619) [son of Pangeran Arya Pamalad]
  • Tuban is conquered by Mataram

Rulers of Cirebon[edit]

  • Sunan Gunung Jati (Faletehan) (1527–1570)
  • Panembahan Ratu (c. 1570-1650) [great-grandson]
  • Pangeran Giri Laya (c. 1650-1662) [grandson]
  • Cirebon is split into the Kraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman and Panembahan Cirebon lines

Rulers of Cirebon, Kraton Kasepuhan[edit]

  • Sultan Sepuh I Syamsuddin (1662–1697) [son of Pangeran Giri Laya]
  • Sultan Sepuh II Jamaluddin (1697–1723) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh III Muhammad Zainuddin (1723–1753) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh IV Muhammad Zainuddin (1753–1773) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh V Sapiuddin (1773–1786) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh VI (1786–1791) [brother]
  • Sultan Sepuh VII Joharuddin (1791–1816) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh VIII Syamsuddin (1816–1819; titular sultan 1819-1843) (brother)
  • Titular sultans of Kraton Kasepuhan since 1819
  • Sultan Sepuh IX Raja Syamsuddin (1843–1853) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh Raja Dipati Satria (1853–1875) [son]
  • Pangeran Jayawikarta (regent-sultan 1875-1880) [brother]
  • Sultan Sepuh X Raja Atmaja (1880–1885) [brother]
  • Sultan Sepuh XI Raja Aluda Tajularifin (1885–1942) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh XII Raja Rajaningrat (1942–1969) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh XIII Pangeran Raja Adipati Maulana Pakuningrat (1969–2010) [son]
  • Sultan Sepuh XIV Arif Natiningrat (2010-) [son]

Rulers of Cirebon, Kraton Kanoman[edit]

  • Sultan Anom I Badruddin (1662–1703) [son of Pangeran Giri Laya]
  • Sultan Anom II (1703–1706) [son]
  • Sultan Anom III Muhammad Alimuddin (1719–1732) [son]
  • Sultan Anom IV Khairuddin (1744–1797) [son]
  • Sultan Anom V Imanuddin (1797–1807) [son]
  • Sultan Anom VI Muhammad Kamaruddin (1807–1819; titular sultan 1819-1851) [son]
  • Titular sultans of Kraton Kanoman since 1819
  • Sultan Anom VII Muhammad Kamaruddin (1851–1871) [son]
  • Pangeran Raja Kaprabon (regent-sultan 1871-1879) [brother]
  • Sultan Anom VIII Raja Dulkarnain (1879–1934) [son of Sultan Anom VII]
  • Sultan Anom IX Nurbuat (1934–1935) [son]
  • Sultan Anom X Muhammad Nurus (1935–1989) [son]
  • Sultan Anom XI Muhammad Jalaluddin (1989–2002) [son]
  • Muhammad Saladin (2002) [son]
  • Raja Muhammad Emiruddin (2003-) [brother]

Rulers of Cirebon, Panembahan line[edit]

  • Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad Nasruddin (1662–1714) [son of Pangeran Giri Laya]
  • Panembahan Cirebon II Muhammad Muhyiddin (1725–1731) [son]
  • Panembahan Cirebon III Muhammad Tair Yarini Sabirin (1752–1773) [son]

Rulers of Cirebon, Kraton Kacirebonan[edit]

  • Pangeran Arya Cirebon, Kamaruddin (1697–1723) [son of Sultan Sepuh I]
  • Sultan Cirebon I Muhammad Akbaruddin (1723–1734) [son]
  • Sultan Cirebon II Muhammad Salihuddin (1734–1758) [brother]
  • Sultan Cirebon III Muhammad Harruddin (1758–1768) [nephew]
  • Sultan Cirebon IV (1808–1810; died 1814) [son of Sultan Anom III]

Rulers of Banten[edit]

  • Hasanuddin (c. 1552-1570) [son of Sunan Gunungjati]
  • Maulana Yusup (c. 1570-1580) [son]
  • Maulana Muhammad (c. 1580-1596) [son]
  • Sultan Abdul Qadir (1596–1651) [son]
  • Sultan Abu’lma’ali Ahmad (1638-c. 1650) [son]
  • Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Abu’l Fatah (1651–1680; died 1692) [son]
  • Sultan Haji, Abdulkahar (1680–1687) [son]
  • Abu’lfadhl Muhammad Yahya (1687–1690) [son]
  • Abu’l Mahasin Muhammad Zainulabidin (1690–1733) [brother]
  • Abu’l Fatah Muhammad Syafei (1733–1748; died 1758) [son]
  • Ratu Sarifah Fatima (regent 1748-1750; died 1751) [wife]
  • Abu’lma’ali Muhammad Wasi al-Halimin (1750–1753; died 1760) [brother of Abu’l Fatah]
  • Abu Nazar Muhammad Arif Zainal Asyekin (1753–1777) [son of Abu’l Fatah]
  • Abu’l Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin I (1777–1802) [son]
  • Abu’l Fath Muhammad Muhyuddin (1802–1805) [brother]
  • Abu Nazar Muhammad Isyak (1805–1808; died 1842) [son of Abu’l Mofakhir]
  • Abu’l Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin II (1808–1810; died 1849) [brother]
  • Muhammad Tsafiuddin (1810–1811) [son of Abu’l Fath]
  • Pangeran Ahmad (regent 1811-1813)
  • Muhammad Muhyuddin (regent 1813-1816)
  • Muhammad Rafiuddin (1816–1832; died 1900) [son of Muhammad Tsafiuddin]
  • Banten is incorporated into direct Dutch rule

Rulers of Mataram[edit]

Rulers of Surakarta[edit]

Rulers of Yogyakarta[edit]

Rulers of Mangkunegaran[edit]

  • Mangkunegara I (1757–1795) [grandson of Amangkurat IV of Mataram]
  • Mangkunegara II (1795–1835) [grandson]
  • Mangkunegara III (1835–1853) [grandson]
  • Mangkunegara IV (1853–1881) [first cousin]
  • Mangkunegara V (1881–1896) [son]
  • Mangkunegara VI (1896–1916; died 1928) [brother]
  • Mangkunegara VII (1916–1944) [son of Mangkunegara V]
  • Mangkunegara VIII (1944–1987) [son]
  • Mangkunegara IX (1987-) [son]

Rulers of Pakualaman[edit]

  • Pakualam I (1812–1829) [son of Hamengkubuwono I of Yogyakarta]
  • Pakualam II (1829–1858) [son]
  • Pakualam III (1858–1864) [son]
  • Pakualam IV (1864–1878) [nephew]
  • Pakualam V (1878–1900) [uncle]
  • Pakualam VI (1901–1902) [son]
  • Pakualam VII (1906–1937) [son]
  • Pakualam VIII (1937–1998) [son]
  • Pakualam IX (1999-) [son]

Rulers of Kalibawang[edit]

  • Mangkudiningrat (1831) [grandson of Hamengkubuwono II of Yogyakarta]
  • Pangeran Adipati Natapraja (1831–1853) [brother]
  • Incorporated into Yogyakarta

Ruler of Nangulan[edit]

  • Pangeran Prabu Adiningrat (1831–1833)
  • Brought under Dutch direct rule

Rulers of Madura[edit]

  • Raden Lembu Peteng
  • Arya Menger [son]
  • Arya Pratikel [son]
  • Arya Pojok [son-in-law]
  • Ki Demung [son]
  • Ki Pragalba (?-1531) [son]
  • Raden Pratanu (1531-1592/96) [son]
  • Raden Kara (1592/6-1621) [son]
  • Pangeran Mas (1621–1624) [brother]
  • Cakraningrat I (1624–1648) [son]
  • Raden Demang Malaya Kusuma (regent (?) 1648-1656) [brother]
  • Cakraningrat II (1648–1707) [son of Cakraningrat I]
  • Cakraningrat III (1707–1718) [son]
  • Cakraningrat IV (1718–1745) [brother]
  • Cakraningrat V (1745–1770) [son]
  • Cakraningrat VI (1770–1780) [son]
  • Cakraningrat VII (1780–1815) [brother]
  • Cakraningrat VIII (1815–1847) [son]
  • Cakraningrat IX (1847–1862) [son of Cakraningrat VI]
  • Cakraningrat X (1862–1882) [son]
  • Cakraningrat XI (1882–1885, of Bangkalan 1885-1905) [son of Cakraningrat VIII]
  • Regents of Bangkalan 1885-1957
  • Suryanegara (1905–1918) [son]
  • Cakraningrat XII (1918–1945) [brother]
  • Muhammad Aziz Cakraningrat XIII (1948–1956) [son]
  • R. A. Muhammad Ruslan (1956–1957) [brother]

Rulers of Sumenep[edit]

  • Raden Tumenggung Kanduruwan (?-1579)
  • Pangeran Ellor I (c. 1579-?) [son]
  • Pangeran Wetan (c. 1600) [brother]
  • Pangeran Ellor II (?-1624) [son]
  • Kyai Mas Anggadipa (1624-?)
  • Arya Yang Pati (?-1671)
  • Yudanegara (1671–1684) [grandson of Pangeran Ellor II]
  • Pulang Jiwa (1684–1702) [son-in-law]
  • Cakranegara I (1702–1705) [son-in-law]
  • Suderma (1705–1707) [grandson of Yudanegara]
  • Cakranegara II (1707–1737) [son of Cakranegara I]
  • Cakranegara III (1737–1750) [nephew]
  • Bendara Saud (1750–1767) [son-in-law of Cakranegara I]
  • Tirtanegara (1767–1811) [son]
  • Natadiningrat (regent 1804-1810) [son]
  • Sultan Paku Nataningrat (1811–1854) [brother]
  • Natakusuma (1854–1879) [son]
  • Pangeran Pakunataningrat (regent 1883-1901) [brother]
  • Pangeran Arya Prataming Kusuma (regent 1901-1926) [son]
  • Tumenggung Arya Prabuwinata (regent 1926-1929) [son]

Rulers of Pamekasan[edit]

  • Adikara I (1685–1708) [son-in-law of Yudanegara of Sumanep]
  • Adikara II (1708–1737) [son]
  • Adikara III (1737–1743) [brother]
  • Panembahan Mangku Adiningrat (1804–1842) [son of Cakraningrat VII of Madura]
  • Pangeran Aria Suriokusumo (1842–1853) [grandson]
  • Dutch direct rule is imposed

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Atja & Saleh Danasasmita, Carita Parahiyangan (transkripsi, terjemahan dan catatan), Bandung: Proyek Pengembangan Permuseuman Jawa Barat 1981.
  • Coedès, Georges, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawaii 1968.
  • De Graaf, H.J. & Pigeaud, Th., De eerste moslimse vorstendomen op Java: studien over de staatkundige geschiedenis van de 15de en 16de eeuw (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 69), 's-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff 1974. ISBN 90-247-1636-5.
  • Hall, D.G.E., A History of Southeast Asia. Houndmills: Macmillan 1981. ISBN 0-333-24164-9.
  • Jordaan, Roy, Imagine Buddha in Prambanan, Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden 1993. ISBN 90-73084-08-3.
  • Krom, N.J., Hindoe-javaansche geschiedenis, 's-Gravenhage, M. Nijhoff 1931.
  • Nagtegaal, Luc, 'The legitimacy of rule in early modern Madura', in Dijk, Kees van, et al. [eds.], Across Madura Strait, Leiden: KITLV Press 1995. ISBN 90-6718-091-2.
  • Noorduyn, J., 'Majapahit in the fifteenth century', Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 134 1978.
  • Stokvis, A.M.H.J., Manuel d’histoire, de généalogie et de chronologie de tous les états du globe, Tome I: Asie, Afrique, Amerique, Polynésie, Leiden 1888.
  • Sulendraningrat, P.S., Sejarah Cirebon, Jakarta: Balai Pustaka 1985.
  • Sutherland, Heather, 'Notes on Java’s regent families', Indonesia 17 1973 and 19 1974.
  • Truhart, Peter, Regents of Nations. Systematic Chronology of States and Their Political Representatives in Past and Present. A Biographical Reference Book, Part 3: Asia & Pacific Oceania, München: Saur 2003, pp. 1227–1238, 1318–1319, ISBN 3-598-21545-2.
  • Werdisastra, Raden, Babad Sumanep, Pasuruan: Garoeda Buana Inda 1996.

External links[edit]