List of monarchs of Kush

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This is an incomplete list for rulers with the title of Qore (king) or Kandake (queen) of the Kingdom of Kush. Some of the dates are only rough estimates. While the chronological list is well known only a few monarchs have definite dates. These include those leaders who also ruled Ancient Egypt and those who ruled during famous invasions or famous trade expeditions. The others are based on estimates made by Fritz Hintze. The estimates are based on the average length of the reigns, which were then shortened or lengthened based on the size and splendour of the monarch's tomb. The assumption being that monarchs who reigned longer had more time and resources to build their burial sites. An added complication is that in recent years there have been disputes as to which monarch belongs to which tomb.

Dates are definite and accurate for the Kushite rulers of the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, when Egypt was invaded and absorbed by the Kushite Empire. The dates also are certain for kings Aspelta, Arakamani, Nastasen, and for the Kandakes Shanakdakhete, Amanirenas, Amanishakheto, Amanitore, and Amanikhatashan.

The early part of the chronology is incomplete. The graves and pyramid burials in Sudan consist of remains of at least fourteen [1] monarchs of the Kushite Empire preceding Piankhi, the earliest tomb of which dates from about 1020 BCE. Two of these are known: Alara and Kashta, who immediately preceded Piankhi. It also is possible that another of the burials may have been of Aserkamani, who was living in 950 BCE and who carried out expeditions in Egypt and along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa.[citation needed]

Kushite kings of Kerma[edit]

Capital moves to Napata

Napatan Period[edit]

The period starting with Kashta and ending with Malonaqen is sometimes called the Napatan Period. The Kings ruled over Napata and Meroe. The seat of government and the royal palace are in Napata during this period. Meroe is a provincial city during this period. The kings and queens are buried in Nuri and El-Kurru.[2]

The numbering of the kings is based on László Török's The kingdom of Kush: handbook..
King of Kush
Direct ancestors of the 25th dynasty
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
// King Alara c. 795 to 752 BCE Kurru 9? Queen Kasaqa (Kurru 23)
1 King Kashta c. 765–752 BCE Kurru 8 Queen Pebatjma (Kurru 7?)

Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt[edit]

King Piye invades Egypt and for seven decades the Nubians rule Egypt.

King of Kush and Pharaoh of Egypt
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
2 Pharaoh Piye (Piankhi) 752–721 BCE Kurru 17 Queen Tabiry (Kurru 53)
Queen Abar (Nuri 53?)
Queen Khensa (Kurru 4)
Queen Peksater (Kurru 54)
Nefrukekashta (Kurru 52)
3 Pharaoh Shabaka 721–707/706 BCE Kurru 15 Queen Qalhata (Kurru 5)
Queen Mesbat
Queen Tabekenamun?
4 Pharaoh Shebitku 707/706–690 BCE Kurru 18 Queen Arty (Kurru 6)
5 Pharaoh Taharqa 690–664 BCE Nuri 1 Queen Takahatenamun (Nuri 21?)
Queen Atakhebasken (Nuri 36)
Queen Naparaye (Kurru 3)
Queen Tabekenamun?
6 Pharaoh Tantamani 664–653 BCE Kurru 16 Queen Piankharty
Queen [..]salka
Queen Malaqaye? (Nuri 59)

Second Phase[edit]

The Nubians no longer control Egypt. The Kings rule over Napata and Meroe as before the conquest of Egypt.

King of Kush (Napata)
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
7 King Atlanersa 653–640 BCE Nuri 20? Queen Khaliset
Queen Malotaral (Nuri 41)
Queen Yeturow (Nuri 53)
Queen Peltasen
Queen Taba[..]
8 King Senkamanisken 640–620 BCE Nuri 3 Queen Nasalsa (Nuri 24)
Queen Amanimalel? (Nuri 22?)
9 King Anlamani 620–600 BCE Nuri 6 Queen Mediken ? (Nuri 27)
10 King Aspelta 600–580 BCE Nuri 8 Queen Mediken? (Nuri 27)
Queen Henuttakhebit (Nuri 28)
Queen Asata (Nuri 42)
Queen Artaha (Nuri 58)
11 King Aramatle-qo 568–555 BCE Nuri 9 Queen Atmataka (Nuri 55)
Queen Piankh-her
Queen Maletasen (Nuri 39)
Queen Amanitakaye (Nuri 26)
Queen Akhe(qa)? (Nuri 38)
12 King Malonaqen 555–542 BCE Nuri 5 Queen Tagtal (nuri 45)

Meroitic Period[edit]

First Phase[edit]

The Kings ruled over Napata and Meroe. The seat of government and the royal palace are in Meroe. The Main temple of Amun is located in Napata, but the temple at Meroe is under construction. Kings and many queens are buried in Nuri, some queens are buried in Meroe, in the West Cemetery.[2]

King of Kush (Meroe)
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
13 King Analmaye 542–538 BCE Nuri 18
14 King Amaninatakilebte 538–519 BCE Nuri 10
15 King Karkamani 519–510 BCE Nuri 7
16 King Amaniastabarqa 510–487 BCE Nuri 2
17 King Siaspiqa 487–468 BCE) Nuri 4 Queen Piankhqew-qa? (Nuri 28)
18 King Nasakhma 468–463 BCE Nuri 8 Queen Saka'aye? (Nuri 31)
19 King Malewiebamani 463–435 BCE Nuri 11
20 King Talakhamani 435–431 BCE Nuri 16
21 King Amanineteyerike 431–405 BCE Nuri 12 Queen Atasamale?
22 King Baskakeren 405–404 BCE Nuri 17
23 King Harsiotef 404–369 BCE Nuri 13 Queen Batahaliye
Queen Pelkha?
24 King (unknown Qore) 369–350 BCE Kurru 1
25 King Akhraten 350–335 BCE Nuri 14
26 King Amanibakhi 2nd half 4th century BCE  ??
27 King Nastasen 335–315 BCE Nuri 15 Queen Sakhmakh (Nuri 56?)

Second Phase[edit]

The seat of government and the royal palace are in Meroe. Kings and many queens are buried in Meroe, in the South Cemetery. Napata's only importance is the Amun Temple.[2]

King of Kush (Meroe)
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
28 King Aktisanes Early 3rd century BCE Barkal 11 or 14 Kandake Alakhebasken
29 King Aryamani first half 3rd century BCE Barkal 11 or 14
30 King Kash(...) first half 3rd century BCE Barkal 15?
31 King Piankhi-yerike-qa first half 3rd century BCE  ??
32 King Sabrakamani first half 3rd century BCE Barkal 7

Third Phase[edit]

The seat of government and the royal palace are in Meroe. Kings are buried in Meroe, in the North Cemetery, and Queens in West Cemetery. Napata's only importance is the Amun Temple. Meroe flourishes and many building projects are undertaken.[2]

King of Kush (Meroe)
nr name of King date Burial Queen(s)
33 King Arakamani (Arkamani-qo, Ergamenês) 270–260 BCE Beg. S 6
34 King Amanislo 260–250 BCE Beg. S 6
35 King Aman-tekha mid-3rd century BCE Beg. S 4
36 King Sheshep-ankh-en-Amun Setepenre mid/late 3rd century BCE  ??
37 King Arnekhamani mid/late 3rd century BCE Beg. N 53
38 King Arqamani 3rd/2nd century BCE Beg. N 7
39 King Adikhalamani 2nd century BCE Beg. N 9
40 King [...]mr[...]t 2nd century BCE Beg. N 8
41 King (unknown Qore) 2nd century BCE Beg. N 10
42 Queen Shanakdakhete late 2nd century BCE Beg. N 11
43 King Tanyidamani late 2nd century BCE
/early 1st century BCE
Beg. N 12?
44 King Naqyrinsan early 1st century BCE Beg. N 13
45 King (unknown Qore) early 1st century BCE Beg. N 20
46 King (unknown Qore) middle 1st century BCE Barkal 1 ?
47 King Aqrakamani c. 29–25 BCE  ??
48 King Teriteqas c. 29–25 BCE Barkal 2
49 Queen Amanirenas late 1st century BCE Barkal 4
50 Queen Amanishakheto late 1st century BCE Beg. N 6
51 Queen Nawidemak early 1st century CE Barkal 6?
52 King Amanikhabale middle 1st century CE Beg. N 2?
53a King Natakamani mid/late 1st century CE Beg. N 22 Queen Amanitore (coregent)
53b Queen Furude Rika mid/late 1st century CE Beg. N 1

Crown princes from the time of Natakamani and Amanitore

Fourth Phase[edit]

Twilight of the Meroitic Culture. Kings are buried in Meroe, in the North Cemetery, and Queens in West Cemetery. In 350 CE Meroe is destroyed by Axum.[2]

List and dates from The Cambridge history of Africa, by J.D. Fage, and R.A. Oliver and from The kingdom of Kush: the Napatan and Meroitic empires, by Derek A. Welsby. The order in which the kings and queens ruled and dates are not consistent between authors. Approximate dates have been given.
King of Kush (Meroe)
name of King date Burial
King Shorkaror 1st century CE Beg. N 10
King Pisakar 1st century CE Beg. N 15
King Amanitaraqide 1st century CE Beg. N 16
King Amanitenmemide 1st century CE Beg. N 17
Queen Amanikhatashan 1st century CE Beg. N 18
King Teritnide 1st century CE Beg. N 40
King Teqerideamani I 1st/2nd century Beg. N 28
King Tamelerdeamani 2nd century Beg. N 34 or 27
King Adeqatali 2nd century Beg. N 41
King Takideamani 2nd century Beg. N 29
King Tarekeniwal 2nd century Beg. N 19
King Amanikhalika 2nd century Beg. N 32
King Aritenyesbokhe 2nd century Beg. N 30
King Amanikhareqerem 2nd century Beg. N 37
King Teritedakhatey early 3rd century Beg. N 38
King Aryesbokhe early 3rd century Beg. N 36
King Teqerideamani II 3rd century  ??
Queen Maleqorobar? 3rd century Beg. N 27
King Yesbokheamani? 3rd century Beg. N 24
Queen Lakhideamani? 4th century Beg. N 26

(Unknown sequence thereafter)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kushite Kingdom by Brian Yare (14)
  2. ^ a b c d e Dows Dunham, Notes on the History of Kush 850 B. C.-A. D. 350, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 50, No. 3 (July - September , 1946), pp. 378-388

Sources[edit]

  • Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers: An Encyclopedia of Native, Colonial, and Independent States and Rulers Past and Present. Jefferson: McFarland & Company. p. 395 Pages. ISBN 0-89950-390-X. 

External links[edit]