List of monarchs of Malta

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The Royal Standard of Malta
Cross of the Knights Hospitaller, called the Maltese Cross

The Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo have been ruled by Phoenician, Byzantine and Roman aristocrats, before passing to various European monarchies. Foreign monarchical rule over Malta lasted a total of 874 years. The Crown of Malta was "patriated" for the first time in 1964, with the achievement of Independence.

The history, languages and culture of Malta and Sicily share many key events, including occupation by the Fatimids and liberation by Roger I of Sicily in 1090. The islands parted ways in a decisive and permanent manner in 1799, when Malta became a British Crown colony. British rule over Malta lasted 165 years and for a further 10 years, Malta remained a Commonwealth realm. Malta adopted a Republican constitution in 1974 and joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.[1]

Kingdom of Sicily[edit]

Flag of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta

From the years 1090 and 1530, the Maltese Islands were a non-autonomous part of the Kingdom of Sicily and thus had the same sovereign. At this time the Nobility of Malta resided in or around Mdina. A strong cultural (and, to a lesser extent, political) connection to Sicily survived from 1530 to 1798 throughout the 268-year rule over Malta by the Knights Hospitaller.

In terms of the regional divisions of the islands, Malta Island was part the Valle di Mazzara province, Gozo was part of the Valle di Demona province and Comino was part of the Valle di Noto province.

Knights Hospitaller (1530–1798)[edit]

Although the Knights of St. John ruled Malta as sovereign princes, they held that privilege as a fiefdom, paying a tribute of one falcon per year to the Viceroys of Sicily, payable on the feast of All Souls' Day.

France[edit]

British Crown (1799–1964)[edit]

House of Hanover[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George III
1799–1820
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81
George IV
29 January
1820–1830
George IV van het Verenigd Koninkrijk.jpg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(2)[2] Caroline of Brunswick
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor
aged 67
William IV
26 June
1830–1837
William IV.jpg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 children
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
aged 71
Victoria
20 June
1837–1901
Queen Victoria 1887.jpg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
daughter of Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert, Prince Consort
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osbourne House
aged 81

House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward VII
22 January
1901–1910[3]
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
son of Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort[4]
Alexandra of Denmark
Windsor Castle
10 March 1863
6 children[4]
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68[4]

House of Windsor[edit]

The house name Windsor was adopted in 1917, during the First World War. It was changed from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha because of wartime anti-German sentiment. The heirs of Elizabeth II, by royal proclamation, will remain part of the House of Windsor (even though their legal surname is Mountbatten-Windsor).

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George V
6 May
1910–1936[5]
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark[6]
Mary of Teck
6 July 1893
St James's Palace
6 children[7]
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70[6]
Edward VIII
20 January –
11 December 1936[8]
Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919.jpg 23 June 1894
Richmond
son of George V and Mary of Teck[8]
Wallis, The Duchess of Windsor
France
3 June 1937
no children[8]
28 May 1972
Paris
aged 77[9]
George VI
11 December
1936–6 February
1952[10]
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946.jpg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
son of George V and Mary of Teck[10]
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 children[11]
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56[12]
Elizabeth II
6 February
1952–1964[13]
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon[14]
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children[15]

Crown of Malta (1964–1974)[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Elizabeth II, Queen of Malta (Reġina ta' Malta)
1964–1974[13]
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon[14]
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children[15]

Malta acquired independence from Great Britain on 21 September 1964, but remained a Commonwealth realm. On 13 December 1974, Malta became a republic, and since that date, its head of state has been the President of Malta.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The History of the European Union – 2000-today". Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  2. ^ George IV first married Maria Anne Fitzherbert on 15 September 1785, but the marriage was void.
  3. ^ NNDB Profile of Edward VII. URL last accessed on 21 January 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Royal Genealogies. URL last accessed on 21 January 2007.
  5. ^ King George V. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  6. ^ a b House of Windsor – George V. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  7. ^ Mary of Teck. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  8. ^ a b c House of Windsor – Edward VIII. URL last accessed 23 March 2008.
  9. ^ Royal Government's The House of Windsor – Edward VIII. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  10. ^ a b House of Windsor – George VI. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  11. ^ Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon: The Indomitable Queen Mum. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  12. ^ King George VI dies in his sleep. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  13. ^ a b BBC Historic Figures – Elizabeth II. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  14. ^ a b House of Windsor – Elizabeth II. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  15. ^ a b BBC Historic Encyclopaedia Britannica Guide to Women's History – Elizabeth II. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.