List of monarchs of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

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The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and the surrounding area

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees, who were fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.[1] It was initially founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. While the Rubenian rulers were initially regional princes, their close ties with the Western world after the First Crusade saw the principality recognised as a kingdom under Leo I by the Holy Roman Empire in 1198.[2] The Rubenid dynasty fell in 1252 after the death of the last Rubenid monarch Queen Isabella, and her husband Hethum I became sole ruler, beginning the Hethumid dynasty. After the death of Leo IV in 1341 his cousin Guy du Lusignan was elected to replace him as Constantine II, the first king of the Lusignan dynasty. The kingdom fell at the beginning of Leo V's reign to the Mamluks,[3] and henceforth rulers were only claimants to the throne. After Charlotte of Cyprus ceded the throne to the House of Savoy in 1485,[4] the title fell out of use until after 1861.

Lords/Princes[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ruben I
1080 1095 Rubenids
Constantine I
1095 1102 Rubenids
Thoros I
1102 1129 Rubenids
Constantine II
1129 1129 Rubenids
Leo I
1129 1140 Rubenids
Thoros II
1144 1169 Rubenids
Ruben II
1169 1170 Rubenids
Mleh
1170 1175 Rubenids
Ruben III
1175 1187 Rubenids
Leo II
1187 1198/1199 Became first king as Leo I Rubenids

Kings and Queens[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Leo I (II)
1198/1199 1219 Rubenids
Isabella
1219 1252 Queen and co-ruler Rubenids Isabella with King Hethum on a coin
Hethum I
1226 1270 Co-ruler Hethumids Hethoum at the court of the Mongols
Leo II (III)
1270 1289 Hethumids
Hethum II
1289 1293 Abdicated in favour of Thoros III Hethumids Hethoum II in Franciscan garb
Thoros III
1293 1298 Recalled Hethoum II, with whom he became co-ruler Hethumids
Hethum II
1295 1296 Co-ruler with Thoros III Hethumids Hethoum II in Franciscan garb
Sempad
1296 1298 Usurper Hethumids
Constantine I (III)
1298 1299 Hethumids
Hethum II
1299 1303 Reclaimed throne. Abdicated and became regent for Leo III Hethumids Hethoum II in Franciscan garb
Leo III (IV)
1303 1307 Under regency of Hethum II Hethumids
Oshin
1307 1320 Hethumids
Leo IV (V)
1320 1341 Under regency of Oshin of Korikos until 1329 Hethumids Leo IV dispensing justice
Constantine II (IV)
1342 1344 Elected by nobles Lusignan
Constantine III (V)
1344 1362 House of Neghir
Constantine IV (VI)
1362 1373 House of Neghir or Lusignan
Leo V (VI)
1374 1375 Lusignan

Claimants[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Leo V
1375 1396 Lusignan
James I
1396 1398 Lusignan
Janus
1398 1432 Lusignan
John
1432 1458 Lusignan
Charlotte
1458 1467 Lusignan

The title passed to the branch of the Lusignans in Constantinople and eventually Russia. The title is contested by the House of Savoy.

References[edit]

General
  • Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9. 
  • Mutafian, Claude (2001). Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie. Paris: CNRS Editions. ISBN 2-271-05105-3. 
  • Histoire Des Princes de Lusignan, Anciens Rois de Jérusalem, de la Petite Arménie et de Chypre, St.Petersbourg, Soikine, Stremiannaya 12, 1903
Specific
  1. ^ (Armenian) Poghosyan, S.; Katvalyan, M.; Grigoryan, G. et al. Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. v. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1979, pp. 406–428
  2. ^ (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti. pp. 29–56. 
  3. ^ Mutafian, p.90
  4. ^ Lang, Robert Hamilton (1878), Cyprus, London: Macmillan and Co., p. 179, retrieved 2008-01-15