List of monarchs of the Netherlands

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This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koningen der Nederlanden). The list includes the stadtholders of the House of Orange Nassau since 1556, who were voted into office by the semi-independent provinces of the Dutch Republic and the States-General, but acted de facto (and later also de jure) as hereditary heads of state. They are the direct male line ancestors of the later monarchs when the monarchy was established in 1815.

Dutch Republic (1581–1795)[edit]

The origin of the Dutch monarchy can be traced back to the appointment of William I, Prince of Orange as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht in 1559 by Philip II of Spain. However, he was removed from office and became the leader of the Dutch Revolt. Consequently, the States-General appointed him as stadtholder of both rebelling provinces, Holland and Zeeland, in 1572. During the Dutch Revolt, most of the Dutch provinces declared their independence with the Act of Abjuration, signed on 26 July 1581 in The Hague conform the decision made by the States-General. The representative function of the stadtholder became obsolete in the rebellious northern Netherlands – the feudal Lord himself having been abolished – but the office nevertheless continued in these provinces who now united themselves into the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

All stadtholders after William I were drawn from his descendants or the descendants of his brother. William VI, Prince of Orange was the son of the last stadtholder. After the defeat of Napoleon I in 1813, he was inaugurated as 'Sovereign Monarch' of the United Netherlands, and came to be known as William I.

Stadtholderate under the House of Orange-Nassau[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
William I
  • the Silent
  • Willem I
(1533-04-24)24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584(1584-07-10) (aged 51) 26 July 1581 10 July 1584 Stadtholder[1] Orange-Nassau William, Prince of Orange
Maurice
  • Maurits
(1567-11-14)14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625(1625-04-23) (aged 57) 1585 23 April 1625 Stadtholder,[2] son of William I Orange-Nassau
Frederick Henry
  • Frederik Hendrik
(1584-01-29)29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647(1647-03-14) (aged 63) 23 April 1625 14 March 1647 Stadtholder,[3] son of William I Orange-Nassau
William II
  • Willem II
(1626-05-27)27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650(1650-11-06) (aged 24) 14 March 1647 6 November 1650 Stadtholder,[4] son of Frederick Henry Orange-Nassau
William III
  • Willem III
(1650-11-04)4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702(1702-03-08) (aged 51) 4 July 1672 8 March 1702 Stadtholder,[5] son of William II also King of England, Scotland and Ireland Orange-Nassau
William IV
  • Willem IV
(1711-09-01)1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751(1751-10-22) (aged 40) 1 September 1711 22 October 1751 First formally hereditary Stadtholder of the United Netherlands,[6] son of John William Friso Orange-Nassau
William V
  • Willem V
(1748-03-08)8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806(1806-04-09) (aged 58) 22 October 1751 19 January 1795 Hereditary Stadtholder of the United Netherlands, son of William IV, deposed by the Batavian Revolution Orange-Nassau

When William III died childless, the patrilineal ancestry of Orange-Nassau became extinct. In contrast to other provinces of the Dutch Republic, Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe had mostly drawn its stadtholders from the House of Nassau, that starting with John VI, the brother of William of Orange, and comprises in addition a matrilineal ancestry with the house of Orange-Nassau.

Stadtholderate under the House of Nassau[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
John VI
  • the Elder
  • Jan VI
(1536-11-22)22 November 1536 – 8 October 1606(1606-10-08) (aged 69) 1578 1581 Stadtholder,[7] brother of William I Nassau
William Louis
  • Our Father
  • Willem Lodewijk
(1560-03-13)13 March 1560 – 31 May 1620(1620-05-31) (aged 60) 1584 1620 Stadtholder,[8] son of John VI Nassau
Ernest Casimir I
  • Ernst Casimir I
(1573-12-22)22 December 1573 – 2 June 1632(1632-06-02) (aged 58) 1620 1632 Stadtholder,[9] son of John VI Nassau
Henry Casimir I
  • Hendrik Casimir I
(1612-01-21)21 January 1612 – 13 July 1640(1640-07-13) (aged 28) 1632 1640 Stadtholder,[10] son of Ernest Casimir I Nassau
William Frederick
  • Willem Frederik
(1613-08-07)7 August 1613 – 31 October 1664(1664-10-31) (aged 51) 1640 1664 Stadtholder,[11] son of Ernest Casimir I Nassau
Henry Casimir II
  • Hendrik Casimir II
(1657-01-18)18 January 1657 – 25 March 1696(1696-03-25) (aged 39) 18 January 1664 25 March 1696 Hereditary Stadtholder,[12] son of William Frederick Nassau
John William Friso
  • Johan Willem Friso
(1687-08-04)4 August 1687 – 14 July 1711(1711-07-14) (aged 23) 25 March 1696 14 July 1711 Hereditary Stadtholder,[13] son of Henry Casimir II, succeeded by his son William IV of Orange-Nassau, Hereditary Stadtholder of the United Netherlands Nassau

Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Louis I
  • the Good
  • Lodewijk I
(1778-09-02)2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846(1846-07-25) (aged 67) 5 June 1806 1 July 1810 Bonaparte Louis I of Holland
Louis II
  • Lodewijk II
(1804-10-11)11 October 1804 – 17 March 1831(1831-03-17) (aged 26) 1 July 1810 9 July 1810 Son of Louis I Bonaparte Louis II of Holland

Principality of the Netherlands (1813–1815)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
William Frederick
  • Willem Frederik
(1772-08-24)24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843(1843-12-12) (aged 71) 6 December 1813 16 March 1815 Son of the last Stadtholder William V, raised Netherlands to status of kingdom in 1815 Orange-Nassau William Frederick of the Netherlands

Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–present)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
William I
  • Willem I
(1772-08-24)24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843(1843-12-12) (aged 71) 16 March 1815 7 October 1840 Son of the last Stadtholder William V Orange-Nassau William I of the Netherlands
William II
  • Willem II
(1792-12-06)6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849(1849-03-17) (aged 56) 7 October 1840 17 March 1849 Son of William I Orange-Nassau William II of the Netherlands
William III
  • Willem III
(1817-02-19)19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890(1890-11-23) (aged 73) 17 March 1849 23 November 1890 Son of William II Orange-Nassau William III of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina
(1880-08-31)31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962(1962-11-28) (aged 82) 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 Daughter of William III Orange-Nassau Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Juliana
(1909-04-30)30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004(2004-03-20) (aged 94) 4 September 1948 30 April 1980 Daughter of Wilhelmina Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) Juliana of the Netherlands
Beatrix
(1938-01-31) 31 January 1938 (age 76) 30 April 1980 30 April 2013 Daughter of Juliana Orange-Nassau (Lippe) Beatrix of the Netherlands
Willem-Alexander
(1967-04-27) 27 April 1967 (age 46) 30 April 2013 Incumbent Son of Beatrix Orange-Nassau (Amsberg) William-Alexander of the Netherlands

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1559–1584), Stadtholder of Friesland and Overijssel (1580–1584)
  2. ^ Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland (1585–1625), Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel (1590–1625), Groningen (1620–1625)
  3. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel (1620–1625), Groningen and Drenthe (1640–1647)
  4. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel
  5. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel (1672–1702), Guelders (1675–1702), Drenthe (1696–1702)
  6. ^ Hereditary Stadtholder of Friesland (1711–1747), Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel (April/May 1747 – November 1747), Stadtholder of Groningen (1718–1747), Guelders and Drenthe (1722–1747), was formally voted the first Hereditary Stadtholder of the United Provinces (1747–1751)
  7. ^ Stadtholder of Guelders (under Philip II), architect of the Union of Utrecht
  8. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1584–1620), Groningen (1594–1620) and Drenthe (1596–1620)
  9. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1620–1632), Groningen and Drenthe (1625–1632)
  10. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1632–1640), Groningen and Drenthe (1632–1640)
  11. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1640–1664), Groningen and Drenthe (1650–1664)
  12. ^ In 1675 the State of Friesland voted to make the Stadtholdership hereditary in the house of Nassau-Dietz
  13. ^ Hereditary Stadtholder of Friesland (1707–1711) and Groningen (1708–1711)