List of natural satellites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of moons by diameter)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the moons of planets and dwarf planets. For other asteroid or minor-planet moons, see Minor-planet moon.

The Solar System's planets and officially recognised dwarf planets are known to be orbited by 180 natural satellites, or moons. 19 moons in the Solar System are large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, and thus would be considered planets or dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun.

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primary[edit]

Selected moons, with the Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
The number of moons discovered in each year

Mercury, the innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi).[1] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus has no moons,[2] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has at least two co-orbitals: the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29;[3] however, since they do not orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known satellites, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd).[4]

Jupiter has 67 known moons with confirmed orbits. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 59 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and two others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups, as well as some isolated moons.

Saturn has 62 moons with confirmed orbits, 53 of which have names, most of which are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Twenty-four of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining thirty-eight, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 named moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are another 13 inner moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock.

Neptune has 14 named moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was captured. Neptune also has six known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Among the dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[5]

Pluto has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.

Haumea has two moons, Namaka and Hi'iaka, of radii ~85 and ~155 km, respectively.

Makemake has no known moons. A satellite having 1% Makemake's brightness would have been detected if it had been located at an angular distance from Makemake farther than 0.4 arcseconds (0.0001 degrees).[6]

Eris has one known moon, Dysnomia. Its radius is currently not known, but is expected to be around 100 km.[7]

As of October 2009, 190 asteroid moons[8] and 63 trans-Neptunian moons had been discovered.[8]

List[edit]

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest dwarf planets of the Solar System. The 19 moons that are large enough to approximate hydrostatic equilibrium are listed in bold. The seven largest moons are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because it depends on the mass of the primary as well as the satellite's distance from it.

Satellite of Earth Satellites of Mars
Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Saturn
Satellites of Uranus Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of Pluto Satellites of Haumea
Satellite of Eris
Image Numeral Name Mean radius (km) Semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery year Discovered by Notes Ref(s) Planet
FullMoon2010.jpg
I Moon 1737.10 384,399 27.321582 Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [9] Earth
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
I Phobos 11.1 ± 0.15 9,380 0.319 1877 Hall [10][11][12] Mars
Deimos-MRO.jpg
II Deimos 6.2 ± 0.18 23,460 1.262 1877 Hall [10][11][12] Mars
Io highest resolution true color.jpg
I Io 1818.1 ± 0.1 421,800 1.769 1610 Galileo Main group moon (Galilean) [12][13] Jupiter
Europa-moon.jpg
II Europa 1560.7 ± 0.7 671,100 3.551 1610 Galileo Main group moon (Galilean) [12][13] Jupiter
Ganymede g1 true 2.jpg
III Ganymede 2634.1 ± 0.3 1,070,400 7.155 1610 Galileo Main group moon (Galilean) [12][13] Jupiter
Callisto.jpg
IV Callisto 2408.4 ± 0.3 1,882,700 16.69 1610 Galileo Main group moon (Galilean) [12][13] Jupiter
Amalthea Voyager-1.gif
V Amalthea 83.45 ± 2.4 181,400 0.498 1892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [11][12][14] Jupiter
Himalia from New Horizons.jpg
VI Himalia 85 11,461,000 250.56 1904 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [11][12][15] Jupiter
Elara2-LB1-mag17.jpg
VII Elara 43 11,741,000 259.64 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [11][12][16] Jupiter
Pasiphaé.jpg
VIII Pasiphae 30 23,624,000 743.63 (r) 1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][17] Jupiter
Sinopé.jpg
IX Sinope 19 23,939,000 758.90 (r) 1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][18] Jupiter
Lysithea2.jpg
X Lysithea 18 11,717,000 259.20 1938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [11][12][19] Jupiter
Carmé.jpg
XI Carme 23 23,404,000 734.17 (r) 1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][19] Jupiter
Ananké.jpg
XII Ananke 14 21,276,000 629.77 (r) 1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][20] Jupiter
Leda2(moon).jpg
XIII Leda 10 11,165,000 240.92 1974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [11][12][21] Jupiter
Thebe.jpg
XIV Thebe 49.3 ± 2.0 221,900 0.675 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [11][12][22] Jupiter
Adrastea.jpg
XV Adrastea 8.2 ± 2.0 129,000 0.298 1979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [11][12][23] Jupiter
Metis.jpg
XVI Metis 21.5 ± 2.0 128,000 0.295 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [11][12][24] Jupiter
S1999j1.jpg
XVII Callirrhoe 4.3 24,103,000 758.77 (r) 2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][25] Jupiter
S 2000 J 1.jpg
XVIII Themisto 4.0 7,284,000 130.02 1975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery) Prograde irregular (Themisto) [11][12][26][27] Jupiter
XIX Megaclite 2.7 23,493,000 752.86 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XX Taygete 2.5 23,280,000 732.41 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXI Chaldene 1.9 23,100,000 723.72 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXII Harpalyke 2.2 20,858,000 623.32 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXIII Kalyke 2.6 23,483,000 742.06 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXIV Iocaste 2.6 21,060,000 631.60 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXV Erinome 1.6 23,196,000 728.46 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXVI Isonoe 1.9 23,155,000 726.23 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXVII Praxidike 3.4 20,908,000 625.39 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][28] Jupiter
XXVIII Autonoe 2.0 24,046,000 760.95 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXIX Thyone 2.0 20,939,000 627.21 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][29] Jupiter
Ερμίππη.gif
XXX Hermippe 2.0 21,131,000 633.9 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke?) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXI Aitne 1.5 23,229,000 730.18 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXII Eurydome 1.5 22,865,000 717.33 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXIII Euanthe 1.5 20,797,000 620.49 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXIV Euporie 1.0 19,304,000 550.74 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXV Orthosie 1.0 20,720,000 622.56 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXVI Sponde 1.0 23,487,000 748.34 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXVII Kale 1.0 23,217,000 729.47 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXVIII Pasithee 1.0 23,004,000 719.44 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XXXIX Hegemone 1.5 23,577,000 739.88 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
XL Mneme 1.0 21,035,000 620.04 (r) 2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
XLI Aoede 2.0 23,980,000 761.50 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
XLII Thelxinoe 1.0 21,164,000 628.09 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
Bigs2002j1barrow.gif
XLIII Arche 1.5 23,355,000 731.95 (r) 2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12][29] Jupiter
XLIV Kallichore 1.0 23,288,000 728.73 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [11][12] Jupiter
XLV Helike 2.0 21,069,000 626.32 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
XLVI Carpo 1.5 17,058,000 456.30 2003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [11][12] Jupiter
XLVII Eukelade 2.0 23,328,000 730.47 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12] Jupiter
XLVIII Cyllene 1.0 23,809,000 752 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
XLIX Kore 1.0 24,543,000 779.17 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
L Herse 1.0 22,983,000 714.51 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2000 J 11 2.0 12,570,000 287.93 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia?) [30] Jupiter
S/2003 J 2 1.0 28,455,000 981.55 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 3 1.0 20,224,000 583.88 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 4 1.0 23,933,000 755.26 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 5 2.0 23,498,000 738.74 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 9 0.5 23,388,000 733.30 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 10 1.0 23,044,000 716.25 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 12 0.5 17,833,000 489.72 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 15 1.0 22,630,000 689.77 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke?) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 16 1.0 20,956,000 616.33 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 18 1.0 20,426,000 596.58 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2003 J 19 1.0 23,535,000 740.43 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [11][12] Jupiter
S2003j23ccircle.gif
S/2003 J 23 1.0 23,566,000 732.45 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [11][12] Jupiter
S/2010 J 1 1.0 23,314,335 723.2 (r) 2010 Jacobson, Brozovic, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [30] Jupiter
S/2010 J 2 0.5 20,307,150 588.1 (r) 2010 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke?) [30] Jupiter
S/2011 J 1 0.5 20,155,290 580.7 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular [30] Jupiter
S/2011 J 2 0.5 23,329,710 726.8 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [30] Jupiter
Mimas Cassini.jpg
I Mimas 198.2 ± 0.4 185,540 0.942 1789 Herschel Main group moon [11][12] Saturn
PIA08409 North Polar Region of Enceladus.jpg
II Enceladus 252.3 ± 0.6 238,040 1.370 1789 Herschel Main group moon [11][12] Saturn
PIA07738 Tethys mosaic contrast-enhanced.jpg
III Tethys 536.3 ± 1.5 294,670 1.888 1684 Cassini Main group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [11][12] Saturn
Dione3 cassini big.jpg
IV Dione 562.5 ± 1.5 377,420 2.737 1684 Cassini Main group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [11][12] Saturn
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
V Rhea 764.5 ± 2.0 527,070 4.518 1672 Cassini Main group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [11][12] Saturn
Titan in natural color Cassini.jpg
VI Titan 2575.5 ± 2.0 1,221,870 15.95 1655 Huygens Main group moon [11][12] Saturn
Hyperion true.jpg
VII Hyperion 133.0 ± 8.0 1,500,880 21.28 1848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main group moon [11][12] Saturn
Iapetus 706 1419 1.jpg
VIII Iapetus 734.5 ± 4.0 3,560,840 79.33 1671 Cassini Main group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [11][12] Saturn
Phoebe cassini.jpg
IX Phoebe 106.6 ± 1.1 12,947,780 550.31 (r) 1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
X Janus 90.4 ± 3.0 151,460 0.695 1966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 Inner moon (co-orbital) [11][12] Saturn
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg XI Epimetheus 58.3 ± 3.1 151,410 0.694 1980 Walker; Voyager 1 Inner moon (co-orbital) [11][12] Saturn
Helene over Saturn.jpg
XII Helene 16 ± 4 377,420 2.737 1980 Laques, Lecacheux Main group trojan [11][12] Saturn
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
XIII Telesto 12 ± 3 294,710 1.888 1980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1) Main group trojan [11][12] Saturn
N00151485 Calypso crop.jpg
XIV Calypso 9.5 ± 1.5 294,710 1.888 1980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main group trojan [11][12] Saturn
Cassini Atlas N00084634 CL.png
XV Atlas 15.3 ± 1.2 137,670 0.602 1980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Saturn
Prometheus 12-26-09b.jpg
XVI Prometheus 46.8 ± 5.6 139,380 0.613 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Saturn
Pandora PIA07632.jpg
XVII Pandora 40.6 ± 4.5 141,720 0.629 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Saturn
Pan side view.jpg
XVIII Pan 12.8 133,580 0.575 1990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Saturn
Ymir-Cassini.jpg
XIX Ymir 9 23,040,000 1,315.14 (r) 2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XX Paaliaq 11 15,200,000 686.95 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [11][12] Saturn
Tarvos from Cassini.jpg
XXI Tarvos 7.5 17,983,000 926.23 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [11][12] Saturn
Ijiraq discovery.gif
XXII Ijiraq 6 11,124,000 451.42 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [11][12] Saturn
XXIII Suttungr 3.5 19,459,000 1,016.67 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
Kiviuq N00164111.jpg
XXIV Kiviuq 8 11,110,000 449.22 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [11][12] Saturn
Mundilfari.jpg
XXV Mundilfari 3.5 18,628,000 952.77 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XXVI Albiorix 16 16,182,000 783.45 2000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [11][12] Saturn
XXVII Skathi 4 15,540,000 728.20 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XXVIII Erriapus 5 17,343,000 871.19 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [11][12] Saturn
XXIX Siarnaq 20 17,531,000 895.53 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [11][12] Saturn
Thrym from Cassini on April 05,2009.jpg
XXX Thrymr 3.5 20,314,000 1,094.11 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XXXI Narvi 3.5 19,007,000 1,003.86 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
Methone PIA14633.jpg
XXXII Methone 1.5 194,440 1.010 2004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [12] Saturn
N00163156.jpg
XXXIII Pallene 2 212,280 1.154 2004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [12] Saturn
Polydeuces.jpg
XXXIV Polydeuces 1.25 377,200 2.737 2004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Main group trojan [12] Saturn
Daphnis raw 2010 cropped.jpg
XXXV Daphnis 3–4 136,500 0.594 2005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [12] Saturn
XXXVI Aegir 3 20,751,000 1,117.52 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
Μπέβιν.jpg
XXXVII Bebhionn 3 17,119,000 834.84 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [11][12] Saturn
Bergelmir cassini.jpg
XXXVIII Bergelmir 3 19,336,000 1,005.74 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XXXIX Bestla 3.5 20,192,000 1,088.72 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XL Farbauti 2.5 20,377,000 1,085.55 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XLI Fenrir 2 22,454,000 1,260.35 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
N00084012.jpg
XLII Fornjot 3 25,146,000 1,494.2 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XLIII Hati 3 19,846,000 1,038.61 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
XLIV Hyrrokkin 4 18,437,000 931.86 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
Kari moon crop.jpg
XLV Kari 3.5 22,089,000 1,230.97 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
XLVI Loge 3 23,058,000 1,311.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
XLVII Skoll 3 17,665,000 878.29 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
XLVIII Surtur 3 22,704,000 1,297.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
S2007 S 4 PIA08369.gif
XLIX Anthe 1 197,700 1.0365 2007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [31] Saturn
L Jarnsaxa 3 18,811,000 964.74 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
LI Greip 3 18,206,000 921.19 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
LII Tarqeq 3.5 18,009,000 887.48 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) [12] Saturn
Aegaeon (2008 S1).jpg
LIII Aegaeon 0.25 167,500 0.808 2008 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [32] Saturn
S/2004 S 7 3 20,999,000 1,140.24 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
S/2004 S 12 2.5 19,878,000 1,046.19 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
S/2004 S 13 3 18,404,000 933.48 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
S/2004 S 17 2 19,447,000 1,014.70 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [11][12] Saturn
S/2006 S 1 3 18,790,000 963.37 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
S/2006 S 3 3 22,096,000 1,227.21 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
S/2007 S 2 3 16,725,000 808.08 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
S/2007 S 3 3 18,975,000 977.8 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [12] Saturn
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring cropped.jpg
S/2009 S 1 0.15 117,000 0.471 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [33] Saturn
Ariel (moon).jpg
I Ariel 578.9 ± 0.6 190,900 2.520 1851 Lassell Main group moon [11][12] Uranus
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
II Umbriel 584.7 ± 2.8 266,000 4.144 1851 Lassell Main group moon [11][12] Uranus
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
III Titania 788.9 ± 1.8 436,300 8.706 1787 Herschel Main group moon [11][12] Uranus
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
IV Oberon 761.4 ± 2.6 583,500 13.46 1787 Herschel Main group moon [11][12] Uranus
Miranda.jpg
V Miranda 235.8 ± 0.7 129,900 1.413 1948 Kuiper Main group moon [11][12] Uranus
Uranus rings and two moons.jpg
VI Cordelia 20.1 ± 3 49,800 0.335 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Uranus
Uranus rings and two moons.jpg
VII Ophelia 21.4 ± 4 53,800 0.376 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [11][12] Uranus
Bianca-luna-urano.gif
VIII Bianca 25.7 ± 2 59,200 0.435 1986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Uranus-Portia-Cressida-Ophelia-NASA.gif
IX Cressida 39.8 ± 2 61,800 0.464 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Uranus-Desdemona-NASA.gif
X Desdemona 32.0 ± 4 62,700 0.474 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Uranus-Juliet-NASA.gif
XI Juliet 46.8 ± 4 64,400 0.493 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Uranus-Portia-Cressida-Ophelia-NASA.gif
XII Portia 67.6 ± 4 66,100 0.513 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Rosalind1.jpg
XIII Rosalind 36 ± 6 69,900 0.558 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Belinda.gif
XIV Belinda 40.3 ± 8 75,300 0.624 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Puck.png
XV Puck 81 ± 2 86,000 0.762 1985 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Uranus
Caliban feat.gif
XVI Caliban 49 7,231,000 579.73 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Sycorax.jpg
XVII Sycorax 95 12,179,000 1,288.3 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Prospero discovery image.gif
XVIII Prospero 15 16,256,000 1,978.29 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Uranus - Setebos image.jpg
XIX Setebos 15 17,418,000 2,225.21 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Stephano - Uranus moon.jpg
XX Stephano 10 8,004,000 677.36 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
XXI Trinculo 5 8,504,000 749.24 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Uranus moon 021002 02.jpg
XXII Francisco 6 4,276,000 266.56 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
XXIII Margaret 5.5 14,345,000 1,687.01 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Ferdinand - Uranus moon.gif
XXIV Ferdinand 6 20,901,000 2,887.21 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al. Retrograde irregular [11][12] Uranus
Perdita feat.jpg
XXV Perdita 10 76,417 0.638 1986 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [12] Uranus
Mab moon.png
XXVI Mab 5 97,736 0.923 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [12] Uranus
Cupid moon.png
XXVII Cupid 5 74,392 0.613 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [12] Uranus
Triton moon mosaic Voyager 2 (large).jpg
I Triton 1353.4 ± 0.9 354,800 5.877 (r) 1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
II Nereid 170 ± 25 5,513,400 360.14 1949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
Naiad Voyager.png
III Naiad 33 ± 3 48,227 0.294 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Naiad Voyager.png
IV Thalassa 41 ± 3 50,075 0.311 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Despina.jpg
V Despina 75 ± 3 52,526 0.335 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Galatea moon.jpg
VI Galatea 88 ± 4 61,953 0.429 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Larissa.jpg
VII Larissa 97 ± 3 73,548 0.555 1989 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Proteus (Voyager 2).jpg
VIII Proteus 210 ± 7 117,647 1.122 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [11][12] Neptune
Halimede.jpg
IX Halimede 31 15,728,000 1,879.71 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
Psmathe feat.jpg
X Psamathe 20 46,695,000 9,115.91 (r) 2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
XI Sao 22 22,422,000 2,914.07 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
XII Laomedeia 21 23,571,000 3,167.85 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
XIII Neso 30 48,387,000 9,373.99 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [11][12] Neptune
S/2004 N 1 8–10 105,283 0.9362 2013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [34] Neptune
Charon.png
I Charon 603.6 ± 1.4 17,536 6.387 1978 Christy [11][12] Pluto
Pluto and its satellites (2005).jpg
II Nix 23–67.5 48,708 24.86 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. [12] Pluto
Pluto and its satellites (2005).jpg
III Hydra 30.5–83.5 64,749 38.20 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. [12] Pluto
P4.jpg
IV Kerberos 6.5–17 59,000 32.1 2011 Showalter (Hubble) [35][36] Pluto
Pluto P5 Discovery Image.jpg
V Styx 5–12.5 42,000 ± 2,000 20.2 ± 0.1 2012 Showalter (Hubble) [37] Pluto
I Hiʻiaka 195 49,500 ± 400 49.12 ± 0.03 2005 Brown et al. [38][39] Haumea
II Namaka 100 39,000 (r) 34.7 ± 0.1
if e = 0
2005 Brown et al. [38][39] Haumea
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
I Dysnomia 342[40] 37,370 ± 150 15.774 ± 0.002 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [41][42][43] Eris

References[edit]

  1. ^ Warell, J.; Karlsson, O. (2007). "A search for natural satellites of Mercury". Planetary and Space Science 55 (14): 2037–2041. Bibcode:2007P&SS...55.2037W. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.06.004. 
  2. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Moons". NASA. Retrieved 16 March 2008. 
  3. ^ Whitehouse, David (21 October 2002). "Earth's little brother found". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2007. 
  4. ^ Sheppard, Scott; et al. (2004). "A Survey for Outer Satellites of Mars: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal 128 (5): 2542–2546. arXiv:astro-ph/0409522. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.2542S. doi:10.1086/424541. 
  5. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 38: 933. Bibcode:2006AAS...209.2502B. 
  6. ^ M. E. Brown, M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, et al. (1 March 2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects". The Astrophysical Journal 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. 
  7. ^ Johnston, Robert (21 August 2007). "(136199) Eris and Dysnomia". Retrieved 12 March 2008. 
  8. ^ a b "Satellites and Companions of Minor Planets". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  9. ^ Wieczorek, M.; et al. (2006). "The constitution and structure of the lunar interior". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 60 (1): 221–364. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3. 
  10. ^ a b "Notes: The Satellites of Mars". The Observatory 1 (6): 181–185. 20 September 1877. Bibcode:1877Obs.....1..181. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL, NASA. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2008. , and references therein.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters". JPL, NASA. Retrieved 9 March 2008. , and references therein.
  13. ^ a b c d Showman, Adam P.; Malhotra, Renu (1999). "The Galilean Satellites" (PDF). Science 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564. 
  14. ^ Barnard, E. E. (1892). "Discovery and Observation of a Fifth Satellite to Jupiter". Astronomical Journal 12: 81–85. Bibcode:1892AJ.....12...81B. doi:10.1086/101715. 
  15. ^ Crommelin, A. C. D. (10 March 1905). "Provisional Elements of Jupiter's Satellite VI". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 65 (5): 524–527. Bibcode:1905MNRAS..65..524C. 
  16. ^ Perrine, C. D. (1905). "The Seventh Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 17 (101): 62–63. JSTOR 40691209. 
  17. ^ Melotte, P. J. (1908). "Note on the Newly Discovered Eighth Satellite of Jupiter, Photographed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 68 (6): 456–457. Bibcode:1908MNRAS..68..456. 
  18. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1914). "Discovery of the Ninth Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 26: 197–198. Bibcode:1914PASP...26..197N. doi:10.1086/122336. 
  19. ^ a b Nicholson, S.B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: 292–293. Bibcode:1938PASP...50..292N. doi:10.1086/124963. 
  20. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1951). "An unidentified object near Jupiter, probably a new satellite". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 63 (375): 297–299. Bibcode:1951PASP...63..297N. doi:10.1086/126402. 
  21. ^ Kowal, C. T.; Aksnes, K.; Marsden, B. G.; Roemer, E. (1974). "Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter". Astronomical Journal 80: 460–464. Bibcode:1975AJ.....80..460K. doi:10.1086/111766. 
  22. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1980). "1979J2: The Discovery of a Previously Unknown Jovian Satellite". Science 210 (4471): 786–788. Bibcode:1980Sci...210..786S. doi:10.1126/science.210.4471.786. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17739548. 
  23. ^ Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G.E.; Synnott, S.P. (1979). "Discovery of a New Jupiter Satellite". Science 206 (4421): 951. Bibcode:1979Sci...206..951J. doi:10.1126/science.206.4421.951. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17733911. 
  24. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1981). "1979J3: Discovery of a Previously Unknown Satellite of Jupiter". Science 212 (4501): 1392. Bibcode:1981Sci...212.1392S. doi:10.1126/science.212.4501.1392. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17746259. 
  25. ^ "IAUC 7460: S/1999 J 1". 20 July 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  26. ^ "IAUC 2845: Probable New Satellite of Jupiter". 3 October 1975. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  27. ^ "IAUC 7525: S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1". 25 November 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IAUC 7555: Satellites of Jupiter". 5 January 2001. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "IAUC 7900: Satellites of Jupiter". 16 May 2002. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Jupiter's Known Satellites
  31. ^ C. Porco and the Cassini Imaging Team (18 July 2007). "S/ 2007 S 4". International Astronomical Union Circulars 8857. 
  32. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9023". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 
  33. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9091". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  34. ^ Kelly Beatty (15 July 2013). "Neptune's Newest Moon". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  35. ^ Showalter, M. R.; Hamilton, D. P. (20 July 2011). "New Satellite of (134340) Pluto: S/2011 (134340) 1". Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  36. ^ "NASA's Hubble Discovers Another Moon Around Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  37. ^ "Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  38. ^ a b D. C. Fabrycky, M. J. Holman, D. Ragozzine, M. E. Brown, T. A. Lister, D. M. Terndrup, J. Djordjevic, E. F. Young, L. A. Young, R. R. Howell. "Mutual Events of 2003 EL61 and its Inner Satellite". AAS DPS conference 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  39. ^ a b Dumas, C.; Carry, B.; Hestroffer, D.; Merlin, F. (2011). "High-contrast observations of (136108) Haumea". Astronomy & Astrophysics 528: A105. arXiv:1101.2102. Bibcode:2011A&A...528A.105D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015011.  edit
  40. ^ Santos-Sanz, P.; et al. (2012). ""TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV. Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS". arXiv:1202.1481 [astro-ph.EP].
  41. ^ Brown, Michael E.; Schaller, Emily L. (15 June 2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science 316 (5831): 1585. Bibcode:2007Sci...316.1585B. doi:10.1126/science.1139415. PMID 17569855.  edit (Including supplementary material.)
  42. ^ "Dwarf Planet Outweighs Pluto". space.com. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  43. ^ Brown, M. E.; Van Dam, M. A.; Bouchez, A. H.; Le Mignant, D.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; Conrad, A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johansson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L. Rabinowitz; Stomski, P. J., Jr.; Summers, D. M.; Trujillo, C. A.; Wizinowich, P. L. (2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. Retrieved 2011-10-19.  edit