List of the most distant astronomical objects
This article documents the farthest known astronomical objects, and the time periods in which they were so classified.
Apart from relatively nearby galaxies, beyond the Milky Way distances to remote objects are nearly always inferred by measuring the cosmological redshift of their light. By their nature, very distant objects tend to be very faint, and these distance determinations are difficult and subject to errors. An important distinction is whether the distance is determined via spectroscopy or using a photometric redshift technique. The former is generally both more precise and also more reliable, in the sense that photometric redshifts are more prone to being wrong due to confusion with lower redshift sources that have unusual spectra. For that reason, a spectroscopic redshift is conventionally regarded as being necessary for an object's distance to be considered definitely known, whereas photometrically determined redshifts identify "candidate" very distant sources. Here, this distinction is indicated by a "p" subscript for photometric redshifts.
Notably distant objects
1 Gly = 1 billion light-years.
|Light travel distance§
|GRB 090423||z=8.2||13.095||Gamma-ray burst|||
|z8 GND 5296||z=7.51||13.02||Galaxy||Confirmed galaxy|
|LAE J095950.99+021219.1||z=6.944||Galaxy||Lyman-alpha emitter — Faint galaxy|
|Light travel distance§
|UDFj-39546284||zp≅11.9?||13.37||Protogalaxy||This is a candidate protogalaxy, although recent analyses have suggested it is likely to be a lower redshift source.|
|MACS0647-JD||zp≅10.8||13.3||Galaxy||Candidate most distant galaxy, which benefits by being magnified by the gravitational lensing effect of an intervening cluster of galaxies.|
|A2744-JD||zp≅9.8||13.2||Galaxy||Galaxy is being magnified and lensed into three multiple images, geometrically supporting its redshift. Faintest known galaxy at z~10.|
|MACS J1149-JD||zp≅9.6||13.2||Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy|||
|GRB 090429B||zp≅9.4||13.14||Gamma-ray burst|| The photometric redshift in this instance has quite large uncertainty, with the lower limit for the redshift being z>7.|
|UDFy-33436598||zp≅8.6||Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy|||
|UDFy-38135539||zp≅8.5||Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy||A spectroscopic redshift of z=8.55 was claimed for this source in 2010, but has subsequently been shown to be mistaken.|
|BoRG-58||zp≅8||Cluster or protocluster||Protocluster candidate|
|A1689-zD1||zp≅7.6||13||Galaxy or protogalaxy||Galaxy|
List of most distant objects by type
|Any astronomical object, no matter what type||GRB 090423||z=8.2|| Note, the galaxy UDFj-39546284 has previously been claimed to have a photometric redshift zp≅11.9, but more recent analyses have suggested it is likely to be a lower redshift source.|
|Galaxy or protogalaxy||EGS-zs8-1||z=7.73||See above note regarding UDFj-39546284
See also: List of galaxies
|Galaxy cluster||CL J1449+0856
See also: List of galaxy clusters
See also: List of superclusters
See also: List of quasars
|Black hole||ULAS J1120+0641||z=7.085|||
|Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected by an event)
|Progenitor of GRB 090423||z=8.2|| Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4, and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation.
See also: List of gamma-ray bursts
|Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected as a star)
|SDSS J1229+1122||55 Mly (17 Mpc)||The blue supergiant is illuminating a nebula in the tidal tail of galaxy IC 3418.|
|System of star clusters||Globular cluster system in elliptical galaxy behind NGC 6397||1.2Gly|||
|X-ray jet||GB 1428+4217 nearside quasar jet||z=4.72
|The previous recordholder was at 12.2Gly.|
|Microquasar||XMMU J004243.6+412519||2.5 Mly||First extragalactic microquasar discovered|
|Gamma-ray burst||GRB 090423||z=8.2|| Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4, and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation.
See also: List of gamma-ray bursts
|Core collapse supernova||SN 1000+0216||z=3.8993||
See also: List of most distant supernovae
|Type Ia supernova||SN UDS10Wil||z=1.914||
See also: List of supernovae
|Type Ia supernova||SN SCP-0401
|z=1.71||First observed in 2004, it was not until 2013 that it could be identified as a Type-Ia SN.
See also: List of supernovae
|Cosmic Decoupling||Cosmic Background Radiation creation||z~1000|||
Timeline of most distant astronomical object recordholders
Objects in this list were found to be the most distant known object at the time of determination of their distance. This is frequently not the same as the date of their discovery.
Distances to astronomical objects may be determined through parallax measurements, use of standard references such as cepheid variables or Type Ia supernovas, or redshift measurement. Spectroscopic redshift measurement is preferred, while photometric redshift measurement is also used to identify candidate high redshift sources. The symbol z represents redshift.
|Progenitor of GRB 090423 / Remnant of GRB 090423||Gamma-ray burst progenitor / Gamma-ray burst remnant||2009 −||z=8.2|||
|IOK-1||Galaxy||2006 − 2009||z=6.96|||
|SDF J132522.3+273520||Galaxy||2005 − 2006||z=6.597|||
|SDF J132418.3+271455||Galaxy||2003 − 2005||z=6.578|||
|HCM-6A||Galaxy||2002 − 2003||z=6.56||The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first non-quasar galaxy found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z=6.28|
|Quasar||2001 − 2002||z=6.28|||
|Quasar||2000 − 2001||z=5.82|||
|SSA22-HCM1||Galaxy||1999 − 2000||z>=5.74|||
|HDF 4-473.0||Galaxy||1998 − 1999||z=5.60|||
|RD1 (0140+326 RD1)||Galaxy||1998||z=5.34|||
|CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2||Galaxies||1997 − 1998||z=4.92||These were the remotest objects known at the time of discovery. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z=0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a quasar held the record for being the most distant object in the universe.|
|PC 1247-3406||Quasar||1991 − 1997||z=4.897|||
|PC 1158+4635||Quasar||1989 − 1991||z=4.73|||
|Q0051-279||Quasar||1987 − 1989||z=4.43|||
|Quasar||1987||z=4.04||This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.|
|Quasar||1986 − 1987||z=3.80||This is a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45 ″.|
(QSO J2003-3251, Q2000-330)
|Quasar||1982 − 1986||z=3.78||'|
|Quasar||1974 − 1982||z=3.53|||
|Quasar||1973 − 1974||z=3.408||Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe".|
|4C 05.34||Quasar||1970 − 1973||z=2.877||Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.|
|Quasar||1968 − 1970||z=2.399|||
|Quasar||1967 − 1968||z=2.225|||
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
|Quasar||1966 − 1967||z=2.1291|||
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
|Quasar||1965 − 1966||z=2.0990|||
|3C 9||Quasar||1965||z=2.018||<ref>Astrophysical Journal, vol. 141, p.1295 ;|
|3C 147||Quasar||1964 − 1965||z=0.545|||
|3C 295||Radio galaxy||1960 − 1964||z=0.461|||
|LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008)||Brightest cluster galaxy||1951 − 1960||z=0.2
|This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at B1950.0 08h 55m 4s +03° 21′ and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).|
|LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069)||Brightest cluster galaxy||1936 -||z=0.13
|The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at B1950.0 14h 30m 6s +31° 46′ apparent magnitude 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.|
|LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021)||Brightest cluster galaxy||1932 -||z=0.075
|This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at B1950.0 07h 05m 0s +35° 04′|
|BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster||Brightest cluster galaxy||1931 − 1932||z=
|BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster||Brightest cluster galaxy||1930 − 1931||z=
|NGC 4860||Galaxy||1929 − 1930||z=0.026
|Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to distance, however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to distance, which became accepted widely as an inferred distance.|
(Dreyer nebula 584)
|Galaxy||1921 − 1929||z=0.006
|At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.|
|M104 (NGC 4594)||Galaxy||1913 − 1921||z=0.004
|This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda - which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer distance. Both were measured by Vesto Melvin Slipher. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was measured originally as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.|
|Star||1891 − 1910||160 ly
(this is very inaccurate, true= 37 ly)
|This number is wrong; originally announced in 1891, the figure was corrected in 1910 to 40 ly (60 mas). From 1891 to 1910, it had been thought this was the star with the smallest known parallax, hence the most distant star whose distance was known. Prior to 1891, Arcturus had previously been recorded of having a parallax of 127 mas.|
|Star||1849 -||72 ly
(Alpha Ursae Minoris)
|Star||1847 - 1849||50 ly
(this is very inaccurate, true=~375 ly)
|Star (part of a double star pair)||1839 - 1847||7.77 pc
|61 Cygni||Binary star||1838 − 1839||3.48 pc
|This was the first star other than the Sun to have its distance measured.|
|Uranus||Planet of the Solar System||1781 − 1838||18 AU||This was the last planet discovered before the first successful measurement of stellar parallax. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.|
|Saturn||Planet of the Solar System||1619 − 1781||10 AU||From Kepler's Third Law, it was finally determined that Saturn is indeed the outermost of the classical planets, and its distance derived. It had only previously been conjectured to be the outermost, due to it having the longest orbital period, and slowest orbital motion. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.|
|Mars||Planet of the Solar System||1609 − 1619||2.6 AU when Mars is diametrically opposed to Earth||Kepler correctly characterized Mars and Earth's orbits in the publication Astronomia nova. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.|
|Sun||Star||3rd century BC — 1609||380 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=16000 Earth radii)||Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance of the Sun from the Earth in relation to the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The distance to the Moon was described in Earth radii (20, also inaccurate). The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously. At the time, it was assumed that some of the planets were further away, but their distances could not be measured. The order of the planets was conjecture until Kepler determined the distances of the four true planets from the Sun that were not Earth. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.|
|Moon||Moon of a planet||3rd century BC||20 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=64 Earth radii)||Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance between the Earth and the Moon. The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously. At the time, it was assumed that some of the planets were further away, but their distances could not be measured. The order of the planets was conjecture until Kepler determined the distances of the four true planets from the Sun that were not Earth. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.|
List of objects by year of discovery that turned out to be most distant
This list contains a list of most distant objects by year of discovery of the object, not the determination of its distance. Objects may have been discovered without distance determination, and were found subsequently to be the most distant known at that time. However, object must have been named or described. An object like OJ 287 is ignored even though it was detected as early as 1891 using photographic plates, but ignored until the advent of radiotelescopes.
|Year of record||Modern
light travel distance (Mly)
|Object||Type||Detected using||First record by (1)|
|964||2.5||Andromeda Galaxy||Spiral galaxy||naked eye||Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi|
|1654||3||Triangulum Galaxy||Spiral galaxy||refracting telescope||Giovanni Battista Hodierna|
|1779||68||Messier 58||Barred spiral galaxy||refracting telescope||Charles Messier|
|1785||76.4||NGC 584||Galaxy||William Herschel|
|1880s||206 ± 29||NGC 1||Spiral galaxy||Dreyer, Herschel|
|1959||2,400||3C 273||Quasar||Parkes Radio Telescope||Maarten Schmidt, Bev Oke|
|1960||5,000||3C 295||Radio galaxy||Palomar Observatory||Rudolph Minkowski|
|2009||13,000||GRB 090423||Gamma-ray burst progenitor||Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission||Krimm, H. et al.|
- NASA, "New Gamma-Ray Burst Smashes Cosmic Distance Record", 28 April 2009
- P. A. Oesch, P. G. van Dokkum, G. D. Illingworth, R. J. Bouwens, I. Momcheva, B. Holden, G. W. Roberts-Borsani, R. Smit, M. Franx, I. Labbe, V. Gonzalez, D. Magee. "A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z=7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE". arXiv:1502.05399. Bibcode:2015arXiv150205399O.
- S. L. Finkelstein, C. Papovich, M. Dickinson, M. Song, V. Tilvi, A. M. Koekemoer, K. D. Finkelstein, B. Mobasher, H. C. Ferguson, M. Giavalisco, N. Reddy, M. L. N. Ashby, A. Dekel, G. G. Fazio, A. Fontana, N. A. Grogin, J.-S. Huang, D. Kocevski, M. Rafelski, B. J. Weiner, S. P. Willner (2013). "A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51". Nature 502 (7472): 524. arXiv:1310.6031. Bibcode:2013Natur.502..524F. doi:10.1038/nature12657.
- Morelle, R. (23 October 2013). "New galaxy 'most distant' yet discovered". BBC News.
- TMT - SXDF-NB1006-2
- Subaru telescope
- NASA Telescopes Help Find Rare Galaxy at Dawn of Time
- Vanzella et al. (2011). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshift Beyond 7". ApJL 730 (2): L35. arXiv:1011.5500. Bibcode:2011ApJ...730L..35V. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/730/2/L35.
- Most Distant Quasar Found - 29 June 2011
- Scientific American, "Brilliant, but Distant: Most Far-Flung Known Quasar Offers Glimpse into Early Universe", John Matson, 29 June 2011
- Rhoads, et al. - A Lyman-� Galaxy at Redshift z = 6:944 in the COSMOS Field
- FirstGalaxies, Our Latest Results[when?]
- Wall, Mike (December 12, 2012). "Ancient Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen". Space.com. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
13.75 Big Bang - 0.38 = 13.37
- NASA, "NASA's Hubble Finds Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Ever Seen in Universe", 26 January 2011
- "Hubble finds a new contender for galaxy distance record". Space Telescope (heic1103 - Science Release). 26 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- HubbleSite, "NASA's Hubble Finds Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Ever Seen in Universe", STScI-2011-05, 26 January 2011
- Hubble spots three magnified views of most distant known galaxy
- CLASH: Three Strongly Lensed Images of a Candidate z ~ 11 Galaxy
- NASA’s Hubble Finds Extremely Distant Galaxy through Cosmic Magnifying Glass
- DOI 10.1088/2041-8205/793/1/L12
- NASA NASA Telescopes Spy Ultra-Distant Galaxy
- Zheng, W.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Moustakas, J.; Shu, X.; Jouvel, S.; Høst, O.; Molino, A.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Moustakas, L. A.; Carrasco, M.; Ford, H.; Benítez, N.; Lauer, T. R.; Seitz, S.; Bouwens, R.; Koekemoer, A.; Medezinski, E.; Bartelmann, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Donahue, M.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jha, S. W.; Kelson, D. D.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M. (2012). "A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang". Nature 489 (7416): 406–408. doi:10.1038/nature11446. PMID 22996554.
- Penn State SCIENCE, "Cosmic Explosion is New Candidate for Most Distant Object in the Universe", Derek. B. Fox , Barbara K. Kennedy , 25 May 2011
- Space Daily, Explosion Helps Researcher Spot Universe's Most Distant Object, 27 May 2011
- The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field
- Dim galaxy is most distant object yet found
- VLT/XSHOOTER and Subaru/MOIRCS spectroscopy of HUDF.YD3: no evidence for Lyman alpha emission at z = 8.55
- Trenti, et al. - Overdensities of Y-dropout Galaxies from the Brightest-of-Reionizing Galaxies Survey: A Candidate Protocluster at Redshift z ≈ 8
- "heic0805: Hubble finds strong contender for galaxy distance record". ESA/Hubble. 2008-02-12. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
- Astronomy & Astrophysics, "A mature cluster with X-ray emission at z=2.07", R. Gobat, E. Daddi, M. Onodera, A. Finoguenov, A. Renzini, N. Arimoto, R. Bouwens, M. Brusa, R.-R. Chary, A. Cimatti, M. Dickinson, X. Kong, M. Mignoli , February 2011, Volume 526, arXiv:1011.1837 , Bibcode: 2011A&A...526A.133G , doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201016084
- ABC News (Australia), "Astronomers find old heads in a young crowd", Stuart Gar , 10 March 2011
- SIMBAD, "ClG J1449+0856"
- Science Codex, "GRB 090429B - most distant gamma-ray burst yet", NASA/Goddard, 27 May 2011
- Sky and Telescope, "The Most Distant Star Ever Seen?", Camille M. Carlisle, 12 April 2013
- New Scientist, "Lucky Hubble find raises star cluster mystery", Rachel Courtland, 8 July 2008 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- Astronomy Magazine, "A star cluster hides star clusters", Francis Reddy, 10 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- Space.com, "Faraway Galaxy Plays Peekaboo", Ker Than, 10 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- ScienceDaily, "Astronomers Find The Most Distant Star Clusters Hidden Behind A Nearby Cluster", 14 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- Kalirai, Jason S.; Richer, H.; Anderson, J.; Strader, J.; Forde, K.; "Globular Clusters in a Globular Cluster", 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #228.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 38, p.1214, December 2006; Bibcode: 2006AAS...20922802K
- SpaceDaily, "Record-Setting X-ray Jet Discovered", 30 November 2012 (accessed 4 December 2012)
- ESA, "Artist's impression of the X-ray binary XMMU J004243.6+412519", 12 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- e! Science News, "XMMU J004243.6+412519: Black-Hole Binary At The Eddington Limit", 12 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- SpaceDaily, "Microquasar found in neighbor galaxy, tantalizing scientists", 17 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- USA Today, "Smallest, most distant planet outside solar system found", Malcolm Ritter, 25 January 2006 (accessed 5 August 2010)
- Schneider, J. "Notes for star PA-99-N2". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- Exoplaneten.de, "The Microlensing Event of Q0957+561" (accessed 5 August 2010)
- Astrophysical Journal, "Microlensing Variability of the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Q0957+561 A,B", R.E. Schild, June 1996, v.464, p.125, doi:10.1086/177304 , Bibcode: 1996ApJ...464..125S
- Record-breaking supernova in the CANDELS Ultra Deep Survey: before, after, and difference
- Science Newsline, "The Farthest Supernova Yet for Measuring Cosmic History", Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 9 January 2013 (accessed 10 January 2013)
- Space.com, "Most Distant 'Standard Candle' Star Explosion Found", Mike Wall, 9 January 2013 (accessed 10 January 2013)
- Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L. (2009). "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results". Astrophysical Journal Supplement 180 (2): 225–245. arXiv:0803.0732. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225.
- New Scientist, "Most distant object in the universe spotted", Rachel Courtland, 22:32 27 April 2009 . Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- New Scientist, "First generation of galaxies glimpsed forming", 'David Shiga ', 19:01 13 September 2006 (accessed 2009/11/11)
- Nature 443, 186-188 (14 September 2006), A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96, doi:10.1038/nature05104;
- arXiv, Star Forming Galaxies at z > 5 , Fri, 4 April 2008
- PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 57, 165-182, February 25, 2005; The SUBARU Deep Field Project: Lymanα Emitters at a Redshift of 6.6
- BBC News, Most distant galaxy detected, Tuesday, 25 March 2003, 14:28 GMT
- SpaceRef, Subaru Telescope Detects the Most Distant Galaxy Yet and Expects Many More, Monday, March 24, 2003
- arXiv, The Discovery of Two Lyman$\alpha$ Emitters Beyond Redshift 6 in the Subaru Deep Field, 28 February 2003
- New Scientist, New record for Universe's most distant object, 17:19 14 March 2002
- BBC News, Far away stars light early cosmos, Thursday, 14 March 2002, 11:38 GMT
- The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568:L75–L79, April 1, 2002 ; A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370 ; doi:10.1086/340424
- "K2.1 HCM 6A — Discovery of a redshift z = 6.56 galaxy lying behind the cluster Abell 370". Hera.ph1.uni-koeln.de. 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- arXiv, PDF, Feb 2002
- The Astrophysical Journal, 578:702–707, 20 October 2002, A Constraint on the Gravitational Lensing Magnification and Age of the Redshift z = 6.28 Quasar SDSS 1030+0524
- The Astrophysical Journal, 126:1-14, 2003 July ; Probing the Ionization State OF THE Universe At z > 6
- The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 611, Issue 1, pp. L13-L16 ; The X-Ray Spectrum of the z=6.30 QSO SDSS J1030+0524 ; 2004ApJ...611L..13F
- PennState Eberly College of Science, Discovery Announced of Two Most Distant Objects, June 2001
- SDSS, Early results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: From under our nose to the edge of the universe, June 2001
- PennState - Eberly College of Science - Science Journal - Summer 2000 -- Vol. 17, No. 1 International Team of Astronomers Finds Most Distant Object
- The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 522:L9–L12, 1999 September 1, An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at z = 5.74
- PennState Eberly College of Science, X-rays from the Most Distant Quasar Captured with the XMM-Newton Satellite, Dec 2000
- UW-Madison Astronomy, Confirmed High Redshift (z > 5.5) Galaxies - (Last Updated 10th February 2005)
- SPACE.com, Most Distant Object in Universe Comes Closer, 01 December 2000
- The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 522:L9–L12, September 1, 1999, An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at z = 5.74
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 111: 1475-1502, 1999 December; Search Techniques for Distant Galaxies; Introduction
- 'New York Times, Peering Back in Time, Astronomers Glimpse Galaxies Aborning, October 20, 1998
- Astronomy Picture of the Day, A Baby Galaxy, March 24, 1998
- arXiv, PDF (209 KB), 11 March 1998
- "A New Most Distant Object: z = 5.34". Astro.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Astronomy Picture of the Day, Behind CL1358+62: A New Farthest Object, July 31, 1997
- Astrophysical Journal Letters v.486, p.L75 ; 09/1997, A Pair of Lensed Galaxies at z=4.92 in the Field of CL 1358+62 ; 1997ApJ...486L..75F ; 10.1086/310844
- "Astrophysics and Space Science" 1999, 269/270, 165-181 ; Galaxies at High Redshift - 8. Z > 5 Galaxies ; Garth Illingworth
- The Astronomical Journal, vol. 108, no. 4, p. 1147-1155, Multicolor detection of high-redshift quasars, 2: Five objects with Z greater than or approximately equal to 4, April 1994
- New Scientist, issue 1842, 10 October 1992, page 17, Science: Infant galaxy's light show
- FermiLab Scientists of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Discover Most Distant Quasar December 8, 1998
- Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices, vol. 294, p. L7-L12 ;Discovery of radio-loud quasars with Z = 4.72 and Z = 4.01 ; Code: 1998MNRAS.294L...7H
- Astronomical Journal, vol. 101, Jan. 1991, p. 5-17; Quasars and galaxy formation. I - The Z > 4 objects
- SIMBAD, Object query : PC 1158+4635, QSO B1158+4635 -- Quasar
- Lennox L. Cowie (1991) Young Galaxies Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 647 (1), 31–41 doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1991.tb32157.x
- New York Times, Peering to Edge of Time, Scientists Are Astonished, November 20, 1989
- Nature 330, 453 - 455 (03 December 1987); Quasars of redshift z = 4.43 and z = 4.07 in the South Galactic Pole field, doi:10.1038/330453a0
- Astrophysics (journal), Volume 29, Number 2 / September, 1988, pp.657-671, Absorption spectra of quasars, ISSN 0571-7256, doi:10.1007/BF01005972
- New York Times, Objects Detected in Universe May Be the Most Distant Ever Sighted, January 14, 1988
- New York Times, Astronomers Peer Deeper Into Cosmos, May 10, 1988
- SIMBAD, Object query : Q0000-26, QSO B0000-26 -- Quasar
- Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 321, Oct. 1, 1987, p. L7-L10. Research funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Astrophys. J., 321, L7-L10 (1987) - 01.01.86 01.01.86 October 1987 ;  PC 0910+5625 : an optically selected quasar with a redshift of 4.04 ; 1987ApJ...321L...7S
- SIMBAD, Object query : PC 0910+5625, QSO B0910+5625 -- Quasar
- Nature, 325, 131-132 (1987) - 01.01.86 01.01.86 ; First observation of a quasar with a redshift of 4; 1987Natur.325..131W
- SIMBAD, Object query : Q0046-293, QSO J0048-2903 -- Quasar
- SIMBAD, Object query : Q1208+1011, QSO B1208+1011 -- Quasar
- New Scientist, Quasar doubles help to fix the Hubble constant, 16 November 1991
- Orwell Astronomical Society (Ipswich) - OASI ; Archived Astronomy News Items, 1972 - 1997
- SIMBAD, Object query : PKS 2000-330, QSO J2003-3251 -- Quasar
- OSU Big Ear, History of the OSU Radio Observatory
- SIMBAD, Object query : OQ172, QSO B1442+101 -- Quasar
- Quasars - Three Years Later, 1974 
- Time Magazine, The Edge of Night, Monday, Apr. 23, 1973
- SIMBAD, Object query : OH471, QSO B0642+449 -- Quasar
- Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 53, Issue 8 (August 1990)The detection of high-redshift quasars
- The Structure of the Physical Universe, Volume III - The Universe of Motion, CHAPTER 23 - Quasar Redshifts, by Dewey Bernard Larson, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 79-88078, ISBN 0-913138-11-8 , Copyright © 1959, 1971, 1984
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 163, p.235 ; Some Inferences from Spectrophotometry of Quasi-Stellar Sources ; 1971ApJ...163..235B
- Nature 226, 532 (09 May 1970); The Unusually Large Redshift of 4C 05.34 ; doi:10.1038/226532a0
- SIMBAD, Object query : 5C 02.56, 7C 105517.75+495540.95 -- Quasar
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 154, p.L41 ; The Distribution of Redshifts in Quasi-Stellar Objects, N-Systems and Some Radio and Compact Galaxies ; 1968ApJ...154L..41B
- Time Magazine, A Farther-Out Quasar, Friday, Apr. 07, 1967
- SIMBAD, Object query : QSO B0237-2321, QSO B0237-2321 -- Quasar
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 147, p.851 ; On the Wavelengths of the Absorption Lines in Quasi-Stellar Objects ; 1967ApJ...147..851B
- Time Magazine, The Man on the Mountain, Friday, Mar. 11, 1966
- SIMBAD, Object query : Q1116+12, 4C 12.39 -- Quasar
- SIMBAD, Object query : Q0106+01, 4C 01.02 -- Quasar
- Time Magazine, Toward the Edge of the Universe, Friday, May. 21, 1965
- Time Magazine, The Quasi-Quasars, Friday, Jun. 18, 1965
- The Cosmic Century: A History of Astrophysics and Cosmology Page 379 by Malcolm S. Longair - 2006
- The Discovery of Radio Galaxies and Quasars, 1965
- Quasi-Stellar Sources and Gravitational Collapse, Proceedings of the 1st Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics. Edited by Ivor Robinson, Alfred Schild and E.L. Schucking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965., p.269 ; Redshifts of the Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3c 47 and 3c 147
- Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 103, no. 5, May 1992, p. 1451-1456 ; Radio properties of optically selected high-redshift quasars. I - VLA observations of 22 quasars at 6 CM ; 1992AJ....103.1451S
- Time Magazine, Finding the Fastest Galaxy: 76,000 Miles per Second, Friday, Apr. 10, 1964
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 139, p.781 ; Redshift of the Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3c 47 and 3c 147. 1964ApJ...139..781S
- "The Discovery of Radio Galaxies and Quasars". Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics Vol. 31: 639-688 (September 1993) ; High Redshift Radio Galaxies ; doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.003231
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 133, p.355 ; The Ability of the 200-INCH Telescope to Discriminate Between Selected World Models ; 1961ApJ...133..355S
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 113, p.658 ; The law of red shifts (George Darwin Lecture) Hubble, E. P. ; 1953MNRAS.113..658H
- Observational Tests of World Models; 6.1. Local Tests for Linearity of the Redshift-Distance Relation ; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988. 26: 561-630
- Astron. J., 61, 97-162 (1956) ; Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae ; 1956AJ.....61...97H
- The Observatory, Vol. 73, p. 97-103 (1953) ; May 8, 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society ; 1953Obs....73...97.
- Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, Vol. 7, p.393 ; From Atoms to Galaxies ; 1958ASPL....7..393M
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10 ; The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic Nebulae ; 1936ApJ....83...10H
- "The First 50 Years At Palomar: 1949-1999 ; The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics'; 5.2.1. The Mount Wilson Years ; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1999. 37: 445-486
- Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 26, p.180 ; Notes and Queries (Doings at Mount Wilson-Ritchey's Photographic Telescope-Infra-red Photographic Plates) ; 1932JRASC..26..180C
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 74, p.35 ; Apparent Velocity-Shifts in the Spectra of Faint Nebulae ; 07/1931 ; 1931ApJ....74...35H
- Astrophysical Journal, vol. 74, p.43 ; The Velocity-Distance Relation among Extra-Galactic Nebulae ; 1931ApJ....74...43H
- Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, Vol. 1, p.149 ; The Large Apparent Velocities of Extra-Galactic Nebulae ; 1931ASPL....1..149H
- Astrophys. J., 71, 351-356 (1930) The Rayton short-focus spectrographic objective. 1930ApJ....71..351H
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, v.108, p.1073-1082 ; H_0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant, 1925-1975 ; 1996PASP..108.1073T
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 41, No. 242, p.244 ; The Berkeley Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, June 20-21, 1929 ; 1929PASP...41..244
- From the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Volume 15 : March 15, 1929 : Number 3 ; The Large Radial Velocity of N. G. C. 7619 ; January 17, 1929
- The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada / Journal de la Société Royale D'astronomie du Canada; Vol. 83, No.6 December 1989 Whole No. 621 ; EDWIN HUBBLE 1889-1953
- National Academy of Sciences; Biographical Memoirs: V. 52 - Vesto Melvin Slipher; ISBN 0-309-03099-4
- Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 739, pp.1-1 ; Nebula with Highest Receding Velocity ; 1920BHarO.739....1B
- New York Times, DREYER NEBULA NO. 584 Inconceivably Distant; Dr. Slipher Says the Celestial Speed Champion Is 'Many Millions of Light Years' Away. ; January 19, 1921, Wednesday
- New York Times, Nebula Dreyer Breaks All Sky Speed Records; Portion of the Constellation of Cetus Is Rushing Along at Rate of 1,240 Miles a Second. ; January 18, 1921, Tuesday
- Hawera & Normanby Star, "Items of Interest", 29 December 1910, Volume LX, page 3 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- Evening Star (San Jose), "Colossal Arcturus", Pittsburgh Dispatch, 10 June 1910 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- Nelson Evening Mail, "British Bloodthirstiness", 2 November 1891, Volume XXV, Issue 230, Page 3 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- "Handbook of astronomy", Dionysius Lardner & Edwin Dunkin, Lockwood & Co. (1875), pp.121
- "The Three Heavens", Josiah Crampton, William Hunt and Company (1876), pp.164
- (German) "Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung", Volume 4, Alexander von Humboldt, J. G. Cotta (1858), pp.195
- "Outlines of Astronomy", John F. W. Herschel, Longman & Brown (1849), ch. 'Parallax of Stars', pp.551 (section 851)
- The North American Review, "The Observatory at Pulkowa", FGW Struve, Volume 69 Issue 144 (July 1849)
- The Sidereal Messenger, "Of the Precession of the Equinoxes, Nutation of the Earth's Axis, And Aberration of Light", Vol.1, No.12, April 1847, 'Derby, Bradley, & Co.' Cincinnati
- SEDS, "Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (July 22, 1784 - March 17, 1846)" . Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- Harper's New Monthly Magazine, "Some Talks of an Astronomer", Simon Newcomb, Volume 0049 Issue 294 (November 1874), pp.827 (accessed 2009-Nov-11)
- Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Liu, Michael C.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Ajhar, Edward A.; Blakeslee, John P. (February 2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430.
- Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide, Volume 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1.
- Fodera-Serio, G.; Indorato, L.; Nastasi, P. (February 1985). "Hodierna's Observations of Nebulae and his Cosmology". Journal of the History of Astronomy 16 (1): 1–36. Bibcode:1985JHA....16....1F.
- G. Gavazzi, A. Boselli, M. Scodeggio, D. Pierini and E. Belsole (1999). "The 3D structure of the Virgo cluster from H-band Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher distance determinations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 304 (3): 595–610. arXiv:astro-ph/9812275. Bibcode:1999MNRAS.304..595G. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02350.x.
- Burnham, Robert Jr (1978). Burnham's Celestial Handbook: Volume Three, Pavo Through Vulpecula. Dover. pp. 2086–2088. ISBN 0-486-23673-0.
- OBEY - NGC 584
- "Distance Results for NGC 0001". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- "On the Mass and Distance of the Quasi-Stellar Object 3C 273". Adsabs.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Variable Star Of The Season[dead link]
- "A New Distant Cluster of Galaxies". Cdsads.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- "Exploding star is oldest object seen in universe". Cnn.com. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Krimm, H. et al. (2009). "GRB 090423: Swift detection of a burst". GCN Circulars (9198).