List of highest mountains of Germany

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Location of the highest major summits in Germany

This is a list of the highest mountains in Germany. All of these mountains are located in the federal state of Bavaria. They lie within the Alps in the region known as the Eastern Alps and are part of the Northern Limestone Alps. The majority belong to the mountain ranges of the Wetterstein, Berchtesgaden Alps and Allgäu Alps.

Because the definition of a mountain is not universally agreed, a distinction is made between main summits and other peaks. Subsidiary summits or subpeaks are not counted. In the Alps a summit is classed as independent, according to the UIAA definition, if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more. In order for a peak to qualify as an independent mountain, however, it must have a prominence of at least 300 metres.[1] Based on this definition only the main summits of entire mountain massifs are counted. All elevations with a prominence below 30 metres are considered as subpeaks.[2]

By these definitions, the highest mountains in Germany are the Zugspitze (2,962 m), Hochwanner (2,746 m) and Watzmann (2,713 m). If all independent summits are counted, the Zugspitze is followed by the Schneefernerkopf (2,875 m) and the Middle Wetterspitze (2,747 m) in places two and three. Both are however, part of the Zugspitze massif and lie relatively close to the summit of the Zugspitze itself.

The highest mountain which lies entirely on German soil is the Watzmann Middle Peak with a height of 2,713 metres, followed by the Hochkalter (2,607 m), the Großer Daumen (2,280 m) and the Höfats (2,259 m). Likewise fully on German territory, but considerably less independent, are the Middle Höllentalspitze (2,742 m) and the Hochblassen (2,703 m).

A majority of the summits were verifiably climbed in the 19th century; the Watzmann Middle Peak and Hoher Göll for example as early as 1800. The Zugspitze was officially climbed for the first time in 1820. However, there are many peaks of which it is suspected had been climbed in earlier times by unknown climbers.

Because the borders of Germany have often changed during the course of the centuries, there were different "highest mountains" in the past. For example, during the time of the Holy Roman Empire up to 1806, the Ortler in present-day South Tyrol, at 3,905 m, was the highest German mountain. Whilst during the colonial period to 1918 Mount Kilimanjaro in the colony of German East Africa, at 5,895 m, was officially the highest mountain the German Reich. During the Nazi era from 1938 to 1945 this title went to the Großglockner which, at 3,797 m, is today the highest mountain in Austria.

Key[edit]

  • Ranking: The ranking of the peak within Germany in terms of height.
  • Photograph: Photograph of the mountain.
  • Peak: Name of the peak.
  • Height: Height of the mountain in metres.
  • Mountain range: Mountain range in which the mountain lies.
  • Massif: (table 1) Gives the name of the massif to which the mountain belongs. If the massif is named after a linked main peak, the link is omitted here.
  • Location: (table 2) DE = mountain lies entirely on German territory; DE/AT = mountain lies in the area of the border between Germany and Austria, but the peak at least is on German state territory.
  • Isolation: The isolation describes the radius of the area which the mountain dominates. Given in kilometres including the reference point.
  • Prominence: The prominence is the height difference between height of the summit and the highest point to which one must descend in order to climb a higher peak. Given in metres including the reference point.
  • First climb: Name of the first climber and date. Empty field indicates that the first climber or the date is not known.

There may be differences in data from other sources. The tables use the tables of the German height reference system, based on height above Normalnull (~sea level) in Amsterdam, and data from the Bavarian Survey Office (Bayerischen Vermessungsverwaltung).[3]

The highest summits[edit]

Table 1 below shows the 30 highest independent summits in Germany. A summit or peak requires a prominence of over 30 metres in order to count as independent.

By clicking on the symbols at the head of the table the individual columns may be sorted.

Ranking
Photograph Peak Height
(m)
Mountain range Massif Isolation
(km)
Prominence
(m)
First climb
1 Zugspitze (2,962 m) seen from the Alpspitze Zugspitze 2,962 Wetterstein Zugspitze 24.6
Acherkogel
1,746
West of the Fernpass
27.08.1820
Josef Naus, Johann Georg Tauschl, Acolyte Maier1
2 Zugspitze Massif including Schneefernerkopf (centre left, 2,874 m) Schneefernerkopf 2,874 Wetterstein Zugspitze 1.7
Zugspitze
175
Schneeferner wind-gap
1871
Hermann von Barth
3 Zugspitze Massif including Schneefernerkopf (centre right, 2,750 m) Middle Wetterspitze 2,750 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.6
Schneefernerkopf
67
Wind-gap to the Schneefernerkopf

4 Southern side of the Hochwanner (2,744 m) Hochwanner 2,744 Wetterstein Hochwanner 5.5
Zugspitze
701
Feldernjöchl
1870
Hermann von Barth
5 Middle Höllentalspitze (centre, 2,743 m) Middle Höllentalspitze 2,743 Wetterstein Zugspitze 1.6
Zugspitze
116
Jubiläum arête wind-gap to the Zugspitze
1871
Hermann von Barth
6 Inner Höllentalspitze (left front, 2,741 m) Inner Höllentalspitze 2,741 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.6
Middle Höllentalspitze
90
Wind-gap to the Middle Höllentalspitze
09.09.1871
Hermann von Barth
7 Outer Höllentalspitze (centre, 2,720 m) Outer Höllentalspitze 2,720 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.6
Middle Höllentalspitze
353
Wind-gap to the Middle Höllentalspitze
1871
Hermann von Barth
8 Watzmann Middle Peak (centre, 2,713 m) Watzmann Middle Peak 2,713 Berchtesgaden Alps Watzmann 15.9
Hochseiler
939
Trischübel Pass
Aug. 1800
Valentin Stanič
9 Watzmann South Peak (2,712 m) Watzmann South Peak 2,712 Berchtesgaden Alps Watzmann 0.8
Watzmann Middle Peak
1103
Watzmann arête wind-gap
1832
Peter Carl Thurwieser
10 Hochblassen (front right, 2,703 m) Hochblassen 2,703 Wetterstein Zugspitze 1.1
Outer Höllentalspitze
143
Falsche Grießkar wind-gap
25.08.1871
Hermann von Barth, Peter Klaisl
11 Zugspitze Massif including Wetterwandeck (right, 2,698 m) Wetterwandeck 2,698 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.5
Southern Wetterspitze
30
Wind-gap to the Eastern Wetterspitze

12 Leutascher Dreitorspitze (2,682 m) Leutascher Dreitorspitze 2,682 Wetterstein Dreitorspitze 5.2
Hochwanner
346
Western Wang wind-gap
07.08.1871
Hermann von Barth
13 Eastern Plattspitze (Left of the Zugspitze, 2,680 m) Eastern Plattspitze 2,680 Wetterstein Zugspitze 1.1
Wetterwandeck
204
Wetter wind-gap
1871
Hermann von Barth
14 Hinterreintalschrofen 2,669 Wetterstein Hochwanner 1.5
Hochwanner
109
Teufel arête wind-gap to the Hochwanner
01.09.1871
Hermann von Barth
15 Hochfrottspitze (2,649 m) from the Mädelegabel Hochfrottspitze 2,649 Allgäu Alps Hohes Licht 2.2
Hohes Licht
203
Sock valley wind-gap
16.06.1869
Hermann von Barth
16 Southern side of the Mädelegabel (2,645 m) Mädelegabel 2,645 Allgäu Alps Hohes Licht 0.4
Hochfrottspitze
81
Wind-gap to the Hochfrottspitze
1852
Oskar Sendtner[4]4
17 Southern side of the Partenkirchner Dreitorspitze (2,633 m) Partenkirchner Dreitorspitze 2,633 Wetterstein Dreitorspitze 0.5
Leutascher Dreitorspitze
1003
Wind-gap to the Leutascher Dreitorspitze
20.07.1854
Jakob Grasegger, Karl Kiendl
18 Alpspitze (2,628 m) from the Osterfelderkopf Alpspitze 2,628 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.8
Hochblassen
165
Grießkar wind-gap
1825
J. Burger
19 Vollkarspitze 2,618 Wetterstein Zugspitze 0.5
Hochblassen
403
Wind-gap to the Höllentalspitzen
1897
Ferdinand Henning2
20 Bockkarkopf (2,609 m) Bockkarkopf 2,609 Allgäu Alps Hohes Licht 0.6
Hochfrottspitze
106
Bockkar wind-gap

21 Hochkalter (centre, 2,607 m) Hochkalter 2,607 Berchtesgaden Alps Hochkalter 4.5
Watzmann
621
Wimbach wind-gap

22 Northeastern Dreitorspitze (centre, 2,605 m) Northeastern Dreitorspitze 2,605 Wetterstein Dreitorspitze 0.2
Dreitorspitze
403
Wind-gap to the Dreitorspitze

23 Biberkopf (2,599 m) Biberkopf 2,599 Allgäu Alps Biberkopf 3.5
Hohes Licht
337
Große Stein wind-gap
18535
24 Trettachspitze (2,595 m) Trettachspitze 2,595 Allgäu Alps Hohes Licht 0.4
Mädelegabel
1403
Wind-gap to the Mädelegabel
Aug 1855
Urban, Alois and Mathias Jochum
25 Großer Hundstod (2,593 m) Großer Hundstod 2,593 Berchtesgaden Alps Großer Hundstod 4.5
Watzmann
474
Dießbach wind-gap
1825
Karl Thurwieser
26 Hochvogel (2,592 m) Hochvogel 2,592 Allgäu Alps Hochvogel 5.4
Urbeleskarspitze
572
Hornbachjoch
1832
Trobitus
27 Funtenseetauern (2,578 m) Funtenseetauern 2,578 Berchtesgaden Alps Selbhorn 4
Selbhorn
220
Hochbrunnsulzen
ca. 1865
Johann Grill, Albert Kaindl
28 Öfnerspitze (right, 2,576 m) Öfnerspitze 2,576 Allgäu Alps Großer Krottenkopf 0.7
Großer Krottenkopf
1613
Wind-gap to the Großen Krottenkopf
18545
29 Schüsselkarspitze (2,551 m) Schüsselkarspitze 2,551 Wetterstein Dreitorspitze 0.3
Leutascher Dreitorspitze
603
Wind-gap to the Leutascher Dreitorspitze
1894
A. Moser, O. Schuster
30 Krottenspitze (right, 2,551 m) Krottenspitze 2,551 Allgäu Alps Großer Krottenkopf 0.3
Öfnerspitze
78
Wind-gap to the Öfnerspitze

  • 1 First recorded climb. Historic maps from the 18th century suggest that the Zugspitze had already been climbed before 1770.[5]
  • 2 Year of the first complete crossing of the Jubiläums arête.
  • 3 Exact value unknown as no survey has been carried out. Estimate based on contours from a topographical map.
  • 4 First recorded climb. It is possible that it had been climbed during survey work in 1818 or work by a border commission in 1835
  • 5 As part of a survey

The highest mountains[edit]

Table 2 below shows the 21 highest mountains in Germany. A mountain is considered to be the main summit of a massif if its prominence is more than 300 metres.

By clicking the symbols at the head of the table the individual column may be sorted.

Ranking
Photograph Peak Height (m)
Mountain range Location Isolation (km) Prominence (m) First climb
on
1 Zugspitze (2,962 m) seen from the Alpspitze Zugspitze 2,962 Wetterstein DE/AT 24.6
Acherkogel
1,746
West of the Fernpass
Josef Naus, Johann Georg Tauschl, Acolyte Maier1 27.08.1820
2 southern side of the Hochwanner (2,744 m) Hochwanner 2,744 Wetterstein DE/AT 5.5
Zugspitze
701
Feldernjöchl
Hermann von Barth 1870
3 Watzmann Middle Peak (centre, 2,713 m) Watzmann Middle Peak 2,713 Berchtesgaden Alps DE 15.9
Hochseiler
939
Trischübel Pass
Valentin Stanič Aug 1800
4 Leutascher Dreitorspitze (2,682 m) Leutascher Dreitorspitze 2,682 Wetterstein DE/AT 5.2
Hochwanner
346
Western Wang wind-gap
Hermann von Barth 07.08.1871
5 Hochkalter (centre, 2,607 m) Hochkalter 2,607 Berchtesgaden Alps DE 4.5
Watzmann
621
Wimbach wind-gap
6 Biberkopf (2,599 m) Biberkopf 2,599 Allgäu Alps DE/AT 3.5
Hohes Licht
337
Große Stein wind-gap
18532
7 Großer Hundstod (2,593 m) Großer Hundstod 2,593 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 4.5
Watzmann
474
Dießbach wind-gap
Karl Thurwieser 1825
8 Hochvogel (2,592 m) Hochvogel 2,592 Allgäu Alps DE/AT 5.4
Urbeleskarspitze
572
Hornbachjoch
Trobitus 1832
9 Eastern Karwendelspitze (2,538 m) Östliche Karwendelspitze 2,538 Karwendel DE/AT 3.5
Middle Ödkarspitze
736
Hochalm Saddle
Hermann von Barth 04.07.1870
10 The Hocheisspitze from the northwest Hocheisspitze 2,523 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 3
Hochkalter
410
Sittersbach wind-gap
Hermann von Barth 06.09.1868
11 Hoher Göll (left rear, 2,522 m) Hoher Göll 2,522 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 11.4
Watzmann
788
Torrener Joch
Valentin Stanič 04.09.1800
12 Hochkarspitze (left, 2,482 m) Hochkarspitze 2,482 Karwendel DE/AT 42
Pleisenspitze
661
Bäralp Saddle
Hermann von Barth 1870
13 Großes Teufelshorn (left, 2,361 m) Großes Teufelshorn 2,361 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 3.8
Reißhorn
339
Blühnbachtörl
14 Kahlersberg (2,350 m) Kahlersberg 2,350 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 4.8
Großes Teufelshorn
3353
East of the Hintere Bärengrube
F. v. Schilcher, G. Helblehen 1854
15 Stadelhorn (2,286 m) Stadelhorn 2,286 Berchtesgaden Alps DE/AT 5.2
Wasserwandkopf
1,133
Hirschbichl Pass
Karl Thurwieser 1825
16 Großer Daumen (2,280 m) Großer Daumen 2,280 Allgäu Alps DE 6.4
Kesselspitze
350
Höfatsblick summit station
17 Höfats (2,257 m) Höfats 2,257 Allgäu Alps DE 2.7
Großer Wilder
477
Älple Saddle
Otto Sendtner 1848
18 Soiernspitze (2,257 m) Soiernspitze 2,257 Karwendel DE 3.8
Wörner
833
West of the Vereiner-Alm
19 Hoher Ifen (2,229 m) Hoher Ifen 2,229 Allgäu Alps DE/AT 7.7
Elferkopf
476
Gerach Saddle
20 Große Arnspitze (2,196 m) Große Arnspitze 2,196 Wetterstein DE/AT 3.9
Upper Wetterstein peak
1,003
Northwest of Neuleutasch
21 Große Arnspitze (2,185 m) Kreuzspitze 2,185 Ammergau Alps DE 10.6
Daniel
1,182
Upper Schellbach valley
  • 1 First recorded climb. Historic maps from the 18th century suggest that the Zugspitze had already been climbed before 1770.[5]
  • 2 As part of a survey
  • 3 Exact value not known, because it has not been surveyed. Estimate based on contours from a topographical map.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Or a prominence of 100m according to other authorities.
  2. ^ "The Viertausender of the Alpen – Offizielles UIAA-Verzeichnis" (PDF) (in German). UIAA. Nr. 145, März 1994. Retrieved 7 May 2009.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. ^ Bayerische Vermessungsverwaltung. "Bayernviewer" (in German). Bayerische Staatsregierung. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  4. ^ "Von Abenteurern and Bergpionieren" (in German). allgaeuer-anzeigeblatt.de. 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Andrea Händel (2006). "Historische Zugspitzkarte" (in German). alpenverein.de. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 

Literature[edit]

  • DAV-Karte: 4/3 Wetterstein und Mieminger Kette, eastern sheet (1:25,000). 2005
  • DAV-Karte: 5/1 Karwendel, western sheet (1:25,000). 2005
  • DAV-Karte: 5/2 Karwendel, middle sheet (1:25,000). 2000
  • DAV-Karte: 10/1 Steinernes Meer (1:25,000). 2006
  • Kompass Wander-, Bike- and Skitourenkarte: Blatt 3 Allgäu Alps, Kleinwalsertal (1:50.000). Kompass-Karten, Innsbruck 2005, ISBN 978-3-85491-005-3
  • Kompass Wander-, Bike and Skitourenkarte: Blatt 03 Oberstdorf, Kleinwalsertal (1:25.000). Kompass-Karten, Innsbruck 2009, ISBN 978-3-85491-231-6
  • Kompass Wander-, Bike and Skitourenkarte: Blatt 25 Zugspitze, Mieminger Kette (1:50.000). Kompass-Karten, Innsbruck 2008, ISBN 978-3-85491-026-8

External links[edit]

  • Bayern-Viewer: Online map material for the Federal State of Bavaria