List of movements of the human body

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The list below describes such skeletal movements as normally are possible in particular joints of the human body. Other animals have different degrees of movement at their respective joints; this is because of differences in positions of muscles and because structures peculiar to the bodies of humans and other species block motions unsuited to their anatomies.

Certain movements, such as of the carpal bones of the hand or the tarsal bones of the foot, are difficult to classify. In most fields of medical practice there is little need of terminology for such movements; the terms occur mainly in the vocabulary of practitioners of hand surgery or other branches of orthopedic surgery.[citation needed]

Arm and shoulder-girdle[edit]

SC and AC joint[edit]

Main articles: SC joint and AC joint
Scapula and clavicula Abduction (Protraction) Adduction (Retraction)
Depression Elevation
Rotation Upward (Superior Rotation) Rotation Downward (Inferior Rotation)

Shoulder[edit]

Main article: Shoulder
Glenohumeral joint - shoulder Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Adduction Abduction
Transverse Adduction Transverse Flexion
Transverse Abduction Transverse Extension
Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation) Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)
Movements of the shoulder joint.[1]
Movement Muscles Origin Insertion
Flexion
(150°–170°)
Anterior fibers of deltoid Clavicle Middle of lateral surface of shaft of humerus
Clavicular part of pectoralis major Clavicle Lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus
Long head of biceps brachii Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Tuberosity of radius, Deep fascia of forearm
Short head of biceps brachii Coracoid process of scapula
Coracobrachialis Coracoid process Medial aspect of shaft of humerus
Extension
(40°)
Posterior fibers of deltoid Spine of scapula Middle of lateral surface of shaft of humerus
Latissimus dorsi Iliac crest, lumbar fascia, spines of lower six thoracic vertebrae, lower 3–4 ribs, inferior angle of scapula Floor of bicipital groove of humerus
Teres major Lateral border of scapula Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus
Abduction
(160°–180°)
Middle fibers of deltoid Acromion process of scapula Middle of lateral surface of shaft of humerus
Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of scapula Greater tuberosity of humerus
Adduction
(30°–40°)
Sternal part of pectoralis major Sternum, upper six costal cartilages Lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus
Latissimus dorsi Iliac crest, lumbar fascia, spines of lower six thoracic vertebrae, lower 3-4 ribs, inferior angle of scapula Floor of bicipital groove of humerus
Teres major Lower third of lateral border of scapula Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus
Teres minor Upper two thirds of lateral border of scapula Greater tuberosity of humerus
Lateral rotation
(in abduction: 95°;
in adduction: 70°)
Infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa of scapula Greater tuberosity of humerus
Teres minor Upper two thirds of lateral border of scapula Greater tuberosity of humerus
Posterior fibers of deltoid Spine of scapula Middle of lateral surface of shaft of humerus
Medial rotation
(in abduction: 40°–50°;
in adduction: 70°)
Subscapularis Subscapular fossa Lesser tuberosity of humerus
Latissimus dorsi Iliac crest, lumbar fascia, spines of lower 3-4 ribs, inferior angle of scapula Floor of bicipital groove of humerus
Teres major Lower third of lateral border of scapula Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus
Anterior fibers of deltoid Clavicle Middle of lateral surface of shaft of humerus

The major muscles involved in retraction include the rhomboid major muscle, rhomboid minor muscle and trapezius muscle,[2][3] whereas the major muscles involved in protraction include the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor muscles.[4][5]

Elbow[edit]

Joint From To Description
Humeroulnar joint trochlear notch of the ulna trochlea of humerus Is a simple hinge-joint, and allows of movements of flexion and extension only.
Humeroradial joint head of the radius capitulum of the humerus Is a ball-and-socket joint.
Superior radioulnar joint head of the radius radial notch of the ulna In any position of flexion or extension, the radius, carrying the hand with it, can be rotated in it. This movement includespronation and supination.

Wrist and fingers[edit]

Main articles: Wrist, finger and thumb
Wrist & Midcarpals Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Adduction (Ulna Deviation) Abduction (Radial Deviation)
Metacarpophalangeal(finger) Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Adduction Abduction
Interphalangeal (finger) Flexion Extension
Carpometacarpal (thumb) Flexion Extension
Adduction Abduction
Opposition
Metacarpophalangeal (thumb) Flexion Extension
Adduction Abduction
Interphalangeal (thumb) Flexion Extension / Hyperextension

Neck[edit]

Neck (Atlantoccipital & Antlantoaxial) Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Lateral Flexion (Abduction) Reduction (Adduction)
Rotation

Spine[edit]


Cervical spine Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Lateral Flexion (Abduction) Reduction (Adduction)
Rotation
Thoracic spine Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Lateral Flexion (Abduction) Reduction (Adduction)
Rotation
Lumbar spine Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Lateral Flexion (Abduction) Reduction (Adduction)
Rotation
Hip (acetabulofemoral joint - art.coxae) Flexion Extension
Adduction Abduction
Transverse Adduction Transverse Abduction
Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation) Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)
Knee - atriculatio genus Flexion Extension
Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation) Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)
Ankle Plantar Flexion Dorsi Flexion

Lower limb[edit]

Feet[edit]

Intertarsal - (foot) Inversion Eversion
Plantarflexion
Metatarsophalangeal (toes) Flexion Extension / Hyperextension
Abduction Adduction
Interphalangeal (toes) Flexion Extension


The muscles tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior invert the foot. Some sources also state that the triceps surae and extensor hallucis longus invert.[6]:123 Inversion occurs at the subtalar joint and transverse tarsal joint.[7]

Eversion of the foot occurs at the subtalar joint. The muscles involved in this include Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis, which are innervated by the superficial fibular nerve. Some sources also state that the fibularis tertius everts.[6]:108

Dorsiflexion of the foot: The muscles involved include those of the Anterior compartment of leg, specifically tibialis anterior muscle, extensor hallucis longus muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, and peroneus tertius. The range of motion for dorsiflexion indicated in the literature varies from 12.2[8] to 18[9] degrees.[10] Foot drop is a condition, that occurs when dorsiflexion is difficult for an individual who is walking.

Plantarflexion of the foot: Primary muscles for plantar flexion are situated in the Posterior compartment of leg, namely the superficial Gastrocnemius, Soleus and Plantaris (only weak participation), and the deep muscles Flexor hallucis longus, Flexor digitorum longus and Tibialis posterior. Muscles in the Lateral compartment of leg also weakly participate, namely the Fibularis longus and Fibularis brevis muscles. Those in the lateral compartment only have weak participation in plantar flexion though. The range of motion for plantar flexion is usually indicated in the literature as 30° to 40°, but sometimes also 50°. The nerves are primarily from the sacral spinal cord roots S1 and S2. Compression of S1 roots may result in weakness in plantarflexion; these nerves run from the lower back to the bottom of the foot.[citation needed]

Pronation at the forearm is a rotational movement at the radioulnar joint, or of the foot at the subtalar and talocalcaneonavicular joints.[11][12] For the forearm, when standing in the anatomical position, pronation will move the palm of the hand from an anterior-facing position to a posterior-facing position without an associated movement at the shoulder (glenohumeral joint). This corresponds to a counterclockwise twist for the right forearm and a clockwise twist for the left (when viewed superiorly). In the forearm, this action is performed by pronator quadratus and pronator teres muscle. Brachioradialis puts the forearm into a midpronated/supinated position from either full pronation or supination. For the foot, pronation will cause the sole of the foot to face more laterally than when standing in the anatomical position.

Pronation of the foot is a compound movement that combines abduction, eversion, and dorsiflexion. Regarding posture, a pronated foot is one in which the heel bone angles inward and the arch tends to collapse. Pronation is the motion of the inner and outer ball of the foot with the heel bone.[13] One is said to be "knock-kneed" if one has overly pronated feet. It flattens the arch as the foot strikes the ground in order to absorb shock when the heel hits the ground, and to assist in balance during mid-stance. If habits develop, this action can lead to foot pain as well as knee pain, shin splints, achilles tendinitis, posterior tibial tendinitis, piriformis syndrome, and plantar fasciitis.[citation needed].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Snell, Richard S. Clinical Anatomy by Systems. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 427–428. 
  2. ^ shoulder/surface/scsurface4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy
  3. ^ Scapula & Clavicle Articulations
  4. ^ shoulder/surface/scsurface3 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy
  5. ^ Animation at exrx.net
  6. ^ a b Kyung Won, PhD. Chung (2005). Gross Anatomy (Board Review). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-5309-0. 
  7. ^ "Gross Anatomy: Functional Anatomy Of The Ankle And Foot". Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  8. ^ Boone, Donna C.; Azen, Stanley P. (July 1979). "Normal range of motion of joints in male subjects". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 61–A: 756–759. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  9. ^ American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (1965). Joint Motion: Method of Measuring and Recording. Chicago: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 
  10. ^ Roaas, Asbjørn; Andersson, Gunnar B. J. (1982). "Normal Range of Motion of the Hip, Knee and Ankle Joints in Male Subjects, 30–40 Years of Age". Acta Orthopaedica 53 (2): 205–208. doi:10.3109/17453678208992202. 
  11. ^ Kendall, F. P.; McCreary, E. K.; Provance, P. G. (1993). Muscles Testing and Function (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-04576-8. 
  12. ^ Brukner, P.; Khan, K. (1993). Clinical Sports Medicine (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-452852-1. 
  13. ^ "Foot in the bottom of the foot – RealHealthyNet". Realhealthynet.com. July 11, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2013.