List of multiple Olympic medalists

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The page lists various individuals who have won multiple Olympic medals at either the Summer Olympic Games or the Winter Olympic Games.

As of February 2014, American swimmer Michael Phelps has won the most Olympic medals with 22 (18 gold, 2 silver, 2 bronze). Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina has won the most medals in individual events, with 14 (6 gold, 5 silver, 3 bronze). Ole Einar Bjørndalen is the most decorated Winter Olympian, with 8 gold, 4 silver and 1 bronze (a total of 13 medals).

List of most Olympic medals over career[edit]

This is a list of multiple Olympic medalists, listing people who have won seven or more Olympic medals. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included. It includes top-three placings in 1896 and 1900, before medals were awarded for top-three placings. When an athlete has won medals for more than one nation, for simplicity only the last nation he or she represented is mentioned here. The Olympics listed for each athlete only include games when they won medals. See the particular article on the athlete for more details on when and for what nation an athlete competed.

In those instances where more than one athlete has the same number of total medals, the first tiebreaker is the number of gold medals, then the number of silver medals. Where two or more athletes have exactly the same number of gold, silver and bronze medals, the ranking is shown as a tie and the athletes are shown in order by career years and name.


Rank Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Sex Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Phelps, MichaelMichael Phelps United States Swimming 2004–Present Summer M 18 2 2 22
2 Latynina, LarisaLarisa Latynina Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 9 5 4 18
3 Andrianov, NikolaiNikolai Andrianov Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 7 5 3 15
4 Bjorndalen, Ole EinarOle Einar Bjørndalen Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 8 4 1 13
5 Shakhlin, BorisBoris Shakhlin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 7 4 2 13
6 Mangiarotti, EdoardoEdoardo Mangiarotti Italy Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 5 2 13
7 Ono, TakashiTakashi Ono Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 5 4 4 13
8 Nurmi, PaavoPaavo Nurmi Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 9 3 0 12
9 Fischer, BirgitBirgit Fischer Germany Canoeing 1980–2004 Summer F 8 4 0 12
Dahlie, BjornBjørn Dæhlie Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 8 4 0 12
11 Kato, SawaoSawao Kato Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 8 3 1 12
Thompson, JennyJenny Thompson United States Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 8 3 1 12
13 Torres, DaraDara Torres United States Swimming 1984–2008 Summer F 4 4 4 12
14 Nemov, AlexeiAlexei Nemov Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 4 2 6 12
15 Coughlin, NatalieNatalie Coughlin United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 3 4 5 12
16 Spitz, MarkMark Spitz United States Swimming 1968–1972 Summer M 9 1 1 11
17 Biondi, MattMatt Biondi United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 8 2 1 11
18 Caslavska, VeraVěra Čáslavská Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 4 0 11
19 Chukarin, ViktorViktor Chukarin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 7 3 1 11
20 Osburn, CarlCarl Osburn United States Shooting 1912–1924 Summer M 5 4 2 11
21 Lochte, RyanRyan Lochte United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 5 3 3 11
22 Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 9 1 0 10
23 Gerevich, AladarAladár Gerevich Hungary Fencing 1932–1960 Summer M 7 1 2 10
24 Bjorgen, MaritMarit Bjørgen Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2014 Winter F 6 3 1 10
25 Nakayama, AkinoriAkinori Nakayama Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 6 2 2 10
26 Scherbo, VitalyVitaly Scherbo Belarus Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 6 0 4 10
27 Keleti, AgnesÁgnes Keleti Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 5 3 2 10
Hall, Jr., GaryGary Hall, Jr. United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer M 5 3 2 10
29 Astakhova, PolinaPolina Astakhova Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 5 2 3 10
30 Smetanina, RaisaRaisa Smetanina Soviet Union Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 4 5 1 10
31 Dityatin, AlexanderAlexander Dityatin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 3 6 1 10
32 Belmondo, StefaniaStefania Belmondo Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 Winter F 2 3 5 10
33 Almsick, FranziskaFranziska van Almsick Germany Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 0 4 6 10
34 Van Innis, HubertHubert Van Innis Belgium Archery 1900–1920 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Russia Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 Winter F 6 3 0 9
36 Vezzali, ValentinaValentina Vezzali Italy Fencing 1996–2012 Summer F 6 1 2 9
37 Comaneci, NadiaNadia Comăneci Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 3 1 9
Thorpe, IanIan Thorpe Australia Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 5 3 1 9
39 Pechstein, ClaudiaClaudia Pechstein Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 5 2 2 9
40 Tsukahara, MitsuoMitsuo Tsukahara Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 1 3 9
41 Popov, AlexanderAlexander Popov Russia Swimming 1992–2000 Summer M 4 5 0 9
42 Jernberg, SixtenSixten Jernberg Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 4 3 2 9
Tourischeva, LudmillaLudmilla Tourischeva Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer F 4 3 2 9
44 Grunsven, AnkyAnky van Grunsven Netherlands Equestrian 1992–2012 Summer F 3 5 1 9
Jones, LeiselLeisel Jones Australia Swimming 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 1 9
46 Gaudini, GiulioGiulio Gaudini Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 3 4 2 9
47 Swahn, AlfredAlfred Swahn Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 3 3 3 9
48 Voronin, MikhailMikhail Voronin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 6 1 9
49 Savolainen, HeikkiHeikki Savolainen Finland Gymnastics 1928–1952 Summer M 2 1 6 9
50 Titov, YuriYuri Titov Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 1 5 3 9
51 Ottey, MerleneMerlene Ottey Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 3 6 9
52 Ewry, RayRay Ewry United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
53 Fredriksson, GertGert Fredriksson Sweden Canoeing 1948–1960 Summer M 6 1 1 8
54 Klimke, ReinerReiner Klimke Germany Equestrian 1964–1988 Summer M 6 0 2 8
54 Ahn, ViktorViktor Ahn South Korea/ Russia Short track speed skating 2006-2014 Winter M 6 0 2 8
55 Ritola, VilleVille Ritola Finland Athletics 1924–1928 Summer M 5 3 0 8
Werth, IsabellIsabell Werth Germany Equestrian 1992–2008 Summer F 5 3 0 8
57 Lipa, ElisabetaElisabeta Lipă Romania Rowing 1984–2000 Summer F 5 2 1 8
58 Carlberg, VilhelmVilhelm Carlberg Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 4 4 0 8
Fraser, DawnDawn Fraser Australia Swimming 1956–1964 Summer F 4 4 0 8
Ender, KorneliaKornelia Ender East Germany Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 4 4 0 8
60 Olsen, OttoOtto Olsen Norway Shooting 1920–1924 Summer M 4 3 1 8
Miez, GeorgesGeorges Miez Switzerland Gymnastics 1924–1936 Summer M 4 3 1 8
Gross, RicoRicco Groß Germany Biathlon 1992–2006 Winter M 4 3 1 8
Wüst, IreenIreen Wüst Netherlands Speed skating 2006-2014 Winter F 4 3 1 8
65 Matthes, RolandRoland Matthes East Germany Swimming 1968–1976 Summer M 4 2 2 8
Kulakova, GalinaGalina Kulakova Soviet Union Cross-country skiing 1972–1980 Winter F 4 2 2 8
Aamodt, Kjetil AndreKjetil André Aamodt Norway Alpine skiing 1992–2006 Winter M 4 2 2 8
Fischer, SvenSven Fischer Germany Biathlon 1994–2006 Winter M 4 2 2 8
Bruijn, IngeInge de Bruijn Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer F 4 2 2 8
Lezak, JasonJason Lezak United States Swimming 2000–2012 Summer M 4 2 2 8
71 Trillini, GiovannaGiovanna Trillini Italy Fencing 1992–2008 Summer F 4 1 3 8
72 Kovacs, KatalinKatalin Kovács Hungary Canoeing 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 0 8
73 Ducret, RogerRoger Ducret France Fencing 1920–1928 Summer M 3 4 1 8
Cattiau, PhilippePhilippe Cattiau France Fencing 1920–1936 Summer M 3 4 1 8
Enke, KarinKarin Enke East Germany Speed skating 1980–1988 Winter F 3 4 1 8
Niemann-Stirnemann, GundaGunda Niemann-Stirnemann Germany Speed skating 1992–1998 Winter F 3 4 1 8
Thomas, PetriaPetria Thomas Australia Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 3 4 1 8
78 Babashoff, ShirleyShirley Babashoff United States Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 2 6 0 8
79 Oneill, SusieSusie O'Neill Australia Swimming 1992–2000 Summer F 2 4 2 8
80 Korondi, MargitMargit Korondi Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 2 2 4 8
Muratova, SofiaSofia Muratova Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1960 Summer F 2 2 4 8
Sautin, DmitriDmitri Sautin Russia Diving 1992–2008 Summer M 2 2 4 8
Ohno, ApoloApolo Ohno United States Short track speed skating 2002–2010 Winter M 2 2 4 8
84 Hoy, ChrisChris Hoy Great Britain Cycling 2000–2012 Summer M 6 1 0 7
85 Kovacs, PalPál Kovács Hungary Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 0 1 7
87 Endo, YukioYukio Endo Japan Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer M 5 2 0 7
Peirsol, AaronAaron Peirsol United States Swimming 2000–2008 Summer M 5 2 0 7
88 Lee, Willis AugustusWillis Augustus Lee United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 5 1 1 7
Thunberg, ClasClas Thunberg Finland Speed skating 1924–1928 Winter M 5 1 1 7
Winkler, Hans GunterHans Günter Winkler Germany Equestrian 1956–1976 Summer M 5 1 1 7
Jager, TomTom Jager United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 5 1 1 7
Egerszegi, KrisztinaKrisztina Egerszegi Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1 7
Lazutina, LarisaLarisa Lazutina Russia Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 5 1 1 7
94 Gaudin, LucienLucien Gaudin France Fencing 1920–1928 Summer M 4 3 0 7
Patzaichin, IvanIvan Patzaichin Romania Canoeing 1968–1984 Summer M 4 3 0 7
96 Liberg, EinarEinar Liberg Norway Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 4 2 1 7
Ballangrud, IvarIvar Ballangrud Norway Speed skating 1928–1936 Winter M 4 2 1 7
98 Daniels, CharlesCharles Daniels United States Swimming 1904–1908 Summer M 4 1 2 7
Spooner, LloydLloyd Spooner United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 4 1 2 7
Wiggins, BradleyBradley Wiggins Great Britain Cycling 2000–2012 Summer M 4 1 2 7
Kitajima, KosukeKosuke Kitajima Japan Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 4 1 2 7
Trickett, LibbyLibby Trickett Australia Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 4 1 2 7
103 Hakulinen, VeikkoVeikko Hakulinen Finland Cross-country skiing 1952–1960 Winter M 3 3 1 7
104 Mantyranta, EeroEero Mäntyranta Finland Cross-country skiing 1960–1968 Winter M 3 2 2 7
Szewinska, IrenaIrena Szewińska Poland Athletics 1964–1976 Summer F 3 2 2 7
Andersson, AgnetaAgneta Andersson Sweden Canoeing 1984–1996 Summer F 3 2 2 7
Hoogenband, PieterPieter van den Hoogenband Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 3 2 2 7
Campbell-Brown, VeronicaVeronica Campbell-Brown Jamaica Athletics 2000–2012 Summer F 3 2 2 7
Kramer, SvenSven Kramer Netherlands Speed skating 2006-2014 Winter M 3 2 2 7
110 Strickland, ShirleyShirley Strickland Australia Athletics 1948–1956 Summer F 3 1 3 7
Amanar, SimonaSimona Amânar Romania Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer F 3 1 3 7
112 Kirvesniemi, Marja-LiisaMarja-Liisa Kirvesniemi Finland Cross-country skiing 1984–1994 Winter F 3 0 4 7
Valbe, YelenaYelena Välbe Russia Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 3 0 4 7
114 Marzi, GustavoGustavo Marzi Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 2 5 0 7
Gorokhovskaya, MariaMaria Gorokhovskaya Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952 Summer F 2 5 0 7
116 Beard, AmandaAmanda Beard United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1 7
Khorkina, SvetlanaSvetlana Khorkina Russia Gymnastics 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1 7
Coventry, KirstyKirsty Coventry Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1 7
119 Ujlaki-Rejto, IldikoIldikó Újlaky-Rejtő Hungary Fencing 1960–1976 Summer F 2 3 2 7
Janz, KarinKarin Janz East Germany Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer F 2 3 2 7
121 Miller, ShannonShannon Miller United States Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer F 2 2 3 7
Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 2 2 3 7

Timeline[edit]

This is a progressive list of Olympians that have held the record for most medals won. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included. It includes top-three placings in 1896 and 1900, before medals were awarded for top-three placings. All record-holders have competed at Summer Games rather than Winter Games.

Medal count Date Athlete Nation Sport Record medal event Earlier medal events
1 6 April 1896[1] James Connolly United States Athletics Triple jump G
Alexandre Tuffère France Triple jump S
Ioannis Persakis Greece Triple jump B
Robert Garrett United States Athletics Discus G
Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos Greece Discus S
Sotirios Versis Greece Discus B
2 7 April 1896[1] Robert Garrett United States Athletics Long jump S See above
James Connolly United States Long jump B
3 Robert Garrett United States Athletics Shot put G 18961 G, 2 S
9 April 1896[1] Carl Schuhmann Germany Gymnastics Vault G 18961 G, 2 G
Hermann Weingärtner Germany Vault B 18961 G, 2 G
4 Gymnastics Pommel horse S
5 Rings S
6 Horizontal bar G
16 July 1900 Robert Garrett United States Athletics Standing triple jump B 18961 G, 2 S, 3 G, 4 S
19005 B
3 September 1904 Ray Ewry United States Athletics Standing triple jump G 19001 G, 2 G, 3 G
19044 G, 5 G
7 20 July 1908 Athletics Standing long jump G
8 23 July 1908 Standing high jump G
29 July 1920 Carl Osburn United States Shooting Team 300 m / 600 m military rifle, prone G 19121 B, 2 S, 3 S, 4 G
19205 B, 6 S, 7 G
9 30 July 1920 300 m military rifle, standing G
10 31 July 1920 Team free rifle G
11 27 June 1924 Shooting 600 m free rifle S
3 August 1928 Paavo Nurmi Finland Athletics 5000 m S 19201 S, 2 G, 3 G, 4 G
19245 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G, 9 G
192810 G
12 4 August 1928 3000 m steeplechase S
2 September 1960 Edoardo Mangiarotti Italy Fencing Team foil S 19361 G
19482 S, 3 S, 4 B
19525 S, 6 S, 7 G, 8 G
19569 G, 10 G, 11 B
13 9 September 1960 Team épée G
21 October 1964 Larisa Latynina Soviet Union Gymnastics Team G 1956 – 1 G, 2 B, 3 G, 4 G, 5 G, 6 S
1960 – 7 G, 8 G, 9 S, 10 S, 11 B, 12 G
14 All-around S
15 22 October 1964 Vault S
16 Uneven bars B
17 23 October 1964 Balance beam B
18 Floor exercise G
31 July 2012 Michael Phelps United States Swimming 200 m butterfly S 20041 G, 2 B, 3 B, 4 G, 5 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G
20089 G, 10 G, 11 G, 12 G, 13 G, 14 G, 15 G, 16 G
201217 S
19 4 x 200 m freestyle G
20 2 August 2012 200 m individual medley G
21 3 August 2012 100 m butterfly G
22 4 August 2012 4 × 100 m medley relay G

Legend: G = Gold, S = Silver, B = Bronze.

List of most career medals in individual events[edit]

This list contains only medals won in individual events, no relays or team events count for this section.

No. Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Sex Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Latynina, LarisaLarisa Latynina Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 6 5 3 14
2 Phelps, MichaelMichael Phelps United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 11 1 1 13
3 Andrianov, NikolaiNikolai Andrianov Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 6 3 3 12
4 Shakhlin, BorisBoris Shakhlin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 6 2 2 10
5 Ono, TakashiTakashi Ono Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 3 3 4 10
6 Nemov, AlexeiAlexei Nemov Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 3 2 5 10
7 Nurmi, PaavoPaavo Nurmi Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Dahlie, BjornBjørn Dæhlie Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 6 3 0 9
9 Chukarin, ViktorViktor Chukarin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 5 3 1 9
Kato, SawaoSawao Kato Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 3 1 9
11 Scherbo, VitalyVitaly Scherbo Belarus Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 5 0 4 9
12 Ewry, RayRay Ewry United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
13 Caslavska, VeraVěra Čáslavská Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 1 0 8
Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 7 1 0 8
15 Bjorndalen, Ole EinarOle Einar Bjørndalen Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 5 3 1 9
16 Nakayama, AkinoriAkinori Nakayama Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 4 2 2 8
Pechstein, ClaudiaClaudia Pechstein Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 4 2 2 8
18 Dityatin, AlexanderAlexander Dityatin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 2 5 1 8
19 Comaneci, NadiaNadia Comăneci Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 1 1 7
Egerszegi, KrisztinaKrisztina Egerszegi Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1 7
21 Bjørgen, MaritMarit Bjørgen Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2014 Winter F 4 2 1 7
22 Jernberg, SixtenSixten Jernberg Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 3 3 1 7
Wust, IreenIreen Wust Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2014 Winter F 3 3 1 7
24 Voronin, MikhailMikhail Voronin Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 4 1 7
Smetanina, RaisaRaisa Smetanina Soviet Union Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 2 4 1 7
Coventry, KirstyKirsty Coventry Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1 7
27 Lochte, RyanRyan Lochte United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 2 2 3 7
28 Ottey, MerleneMerlene Ottey Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 2 5 7

Timeline[edit]

The historical progression of the leading performance(s).

Athletes with medals in different disciplines[edit]

In the Summer and Winter Games[edit]

Athlete (Nation) Summer Games Winter Games
Year Medal Event Year Medal Event Ref.
Eddie eagan.jpg  Eddie Eagan (USA) 1920 Antwerp  Gold Boxing (light heavyweight) 1932 Lake Placid  Gold Bobsleigh (four-man) [2]
Jacob Tullin Thams.jpeg  Jacob Tullin Thams (NOR) 1936 Berlin  Silver Sailing (8-metre) 1924 Chamonix  Gold Ski jumping (individual large hill) [3]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-Z0301-022, Christa Rothenburger.jpg  Christa Luding (GDR) 1988 Seoul  Silver Cycling (sprint) 1984 Sarajevo  Gold Speed skating (500 m) [4]
1988 Calgary  Gold Speed skating (1000 m)
 Silver Speed skating (500 m)
1992 Albertville  Bronze Speed skating (500 m)
Hughes0004 024.jpg  Clara Hughes (CAN) 1996 Atlanta  Bronze Cycling (road race) 2002 Salt Lake City  Bronze Speed skating (5000 m) [5]
2006 Turin  Silver Speed skating (team pursuit)
 Bronze Cycling (time trial)  Gold Speed skating (5000 m)
2010 Vancouver  Bronze Speed skating (5000 m)
Lauryn Williams Osaka07.jpg  Lauryn Williams (USA) 2004 Athens  Silver Athletics (100 m) 2014 Sochi  Silver Bobsleigh (two-woman) [6]
2012 London  Gold Athletics (4×100 m relay)
  • Gillis Grafström became the first person to win a medal in the same event in Summer and Winter Olympics, winning figure skating golds at the 1920 Olympics and at the first Winter Olympics in 1924.
  • Eddie Eagan became the first person to win a medal in the Winter Olympics and in the Summer Olympics in different events. He is the only Summer and Winter medalist to win gold medals in different events.
  • Christa Luding is the only person to win medals at the Winter and Summer Games in the same year. (This feat is no longer possible due to the staggering of the Winter and Summer Olympic years). She is also the first person to win medals in successive Winter and Summer Games or vice versa.
  • Clara Hughes is the first person to win multiple medals in both Summer and Winter Games and holds the highest number of medals of any Olympian to win medals in both the Summer and Winter Games.

In the Summer Games[edit]

Swimming and water polo[edit]

Others in Summer Games[edit]

In the Winter Games[edit]

Cross-country skiing and Nordic combined[edit]

Others in Winter Games[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Coubertin, Pierre de; Timoleon J. Philimon; N. G. Politis; Ch. Anninos (1897). "Second Part: The Olympic Games in 1896" (PDF). The Olympic Games, B.C. 776 – A.D. 1896. IOC official Olympic reports. translated by A. v. K. London: Grevel. pp. 55–81 (passim). Retrieved 13 August 2008.  (note: the source gives dates in the Julian calendar; this table uses the Gregorian calendar)
  2. ^ "Eddie Eagan". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "Jacob Tullin Thams". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Christa Rothenburger-Luding". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Clara Hughes". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Borden, Sam (19 February 2014). "Canada Catches U.S. in Final Bobsled Run". New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2014.