List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia
This list includes many museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia (including aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens, following the definition of the International Council of Museums).
Heritage buildings such as candi, mosques, colonial churches and buildings with no site museum should not be placed in the list.
Prior to the 20th century, the Government of the Netherlands Indies paid little attention to the culture of Indonesia. Study of traditional culture and archaeology was left to individuals or non-governmental institutions. Some of these are the non-governmental Batavian Society of Arts and Science, and individuals such as Sir Stamford Raffles, who wrote a valuable archaeological history of Java in 1818, and other important figures such as Dr. Snoeck Hourgrogne.
The first museum in Indonesia seems to have been that built by Rumphius in Ambon, built in 1662. Nothing remains of it except books written by himself, which are now in the library of the National Museum. Its successor was the Batavia Society of Art and Science, established on 24 April 1778. It built a museum and a library, played an important role in research, and collected much material on the natural history and culture of Indonesia. It later came under the direct control of the British Lieutenant-Governor Raffles who, among other things, provided it with a new office building for the museum and library administration. The museum collection and library continued to grow, and in 1862 the government built, in the center of New Batavia, what is now the National Museum, the previous building is now Wayang Museum in Jakarta Old Town. The whole collection was transferred to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in 1962.
The Batavia Society of Art and Science also specialized in social sciences. In 1817 it made the plans for the Hortus Botanicus Bogoriense in Bogor. In 1894 it set up the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense. The Bibliotheca Bogoriense made Bogor into an important center of biological science.
Except for the Radya Pustaka Museum in Surakarta (1890), no other major museums were established in the 19th century. It was only in the 1930s that local museums began to appear, usually privately initiated, by civil servants and Catholic and Protestant missionaries. These museums are praiseworthy, but are not always in expert hands, and are often run by boards which do not always function continually. Some museums suffer from the lack of regular resources, and some have disappeared completely, e.g. the Karo Museum in Berastagi, North Sumatra, set up by Dr Neuman, was abolished during the Japanese occupation (1942–45); and the Banjarmasin Museum built by Dr Malinkrodt, an expert on customs and traditions in Kalimantan, was burned down.
At the beginning of 20th century, the colonial government became interested in the maintenance and restoration of cultural remains. In 1901 it set up the Commissie in Nederlandsch Indie voor Oudheidkundige Onderzoek van Java en Madoera, headed by Dr J. L. A. Brandes. In 1913, this became the more effective Oudheid-kundige Dienst van Nederlandsch Indie (Archaeological Service), under Professor Dr. N.J. Kromm. The government also employed officials to make a study of local languages and started the Kantoor voor Inlandsche Zaken.
In 1918 Balai Poestaka was created to publish books of literary value in Malay and local languages. Malay was taught in schools next to the local language. Prospective civil servants were obliged to study the language and customs of the region they were to work in. Training was given in Leiden, in the Netherlands. Native Indonesians also came to realize the importance of their national culture in awakening nationalism, part of a general contemporary phenomenon in Asia. This nationalism was pioneered by Budi Utomo in 1908 in the STOVIA, whose building, the School for Javanese Doctors, is converted into a museum today.
Modern technology and cultural change leads to disappearance of indigenous handicrafts. There was no longer a market for plait-work, textiles, earthenware, and brass, silver and gold objects. The result was a gradual process of cultural impoverishment. A need for money forced people to sell their heirlooms on the market, and many objects that should have been kept in Indonesia found their way to foreign countries. This condition prompted the building of the Sana Budaya Museum in Yogyakarta in 1935. Dr. F. D. K. Bosch, then Head of the Archaeology Service, and now Museum Director of the Batavia Society, first referred to cultural impoverishment, and the need for historical and cultural museums, to encourage people to appreciate their own products and to improve the quality of their handicrafts.
The late Director of the Municipal Museum of Surabaya, Von Faber, emphasized the role of museums in education. The famous painter, Walter Spies, actively helped in the creation and management of the Bali Museum in Denpasar. Unfortunately, the decision to establish museums at the time was not matched by a determination to find experts capable of managing them properly. Only a few language experts like Professor Husein Jayadiningrat and Professor Dr. Purbacaraka were interested in museums-mainly because the university produced few experts in history and the social sciences, but concentrated on training physicians, lawyers, technicians and civil servants. It was not until independence that the social sciences began to develop.
The Japanese occupation (1942-1945) indirectly stimulated Indonesian culture, and especially language, drama and the arts. A cultural center (Keimin Bunka Sidosho), created to promote Indonesian art and culture, and Poetera, headed by national leaders, provided opportunities for exhibitions, performances and so on.
Pursuant to Article 32 of the Constitution, the government established the Ministry of Education and Culture. Its Cultural Department had separate Archaeological, Art, and Language Divisions. The Art Division set up various educational institutes including the Indonesian Academy of Fine Arts, the Indonesian School of Music (both in Yogyakarta), and Karawitan Conservatoire in Surakarta (Central Java). The original Language Division was divided in 1952 into two parts, one retaining the name of Language Division in the Cultural Department, the other being included in the Institute of Literature (the former Instituut voor Taal en Cultuur Onderzoek, Faculteit der Lettera en Wijsbegeerte van de Universiteit van Indonesi). In the same year (1952), the Cultural Department opened cultural offices in the provinces: Medan (North Sumatra), Bukit Tinggi (Central Sumatra), Palembang (South Sumatra), Jakarta, Bandung (West Java), Surabaya (East Java), Makassar (South Sulawesi), Denpasar (Bali) and Ambon (Moluccas).
In 1956, the following changes took place: (a) The Archaeological Division became an autonomous Institute of Archaeology; (b) The Language Division became the Sub-Division of Customs and Traditions (remaining in the Cultural Department); (c) The other part of the former Language Division was incorporated into the Language Division of the Literary Faculty of the University of Indonesia; (d) The Cultural Department was given a new responsibility: museum management (Museum Section).
New Order Period
As a result of an extensive ministerial reorganization of the New Order period (1960-1969), the Cultural Department was incorporated into the Directorate of Culture, while the Museum Section became an autonomous National Museum Institute. In consequence the Ministry of Education and Culture had one Directorate (Culture) and four institutes, namely Archaeology, Language and Literature, National Museum, History and Anthropology. The Inspectorate of Provincial Culture was made responsible for setting up cultural offices in the provinces. Under General Suharto, further changes were made in 1966 in the ministries. Education and Culture was organized into five Directorates-General. The Directorate-General of Culture has five directorates, namely Art, Cultural Education, Archaeology and History, Museums, Language, and Literature.
During this period, the Armed Forces History Center expanded and encouraged the development of museums of militaristic in nature. Some of these museums for which the Armed Forces was directly responsible are Satria Mandala Armed Forces Museum (opened in 1972), Museum of the Sacred Pancasila Monument (1982), Museum of Eternal Vigilance (1987), Soldiership Museum (1987), and the Museum of Communist Treachery (1993). The collection of these museums feature relics, photographs, and weapons. Dioramas are extensively used by the Armed Forces History Center, whom method was chosen because of a general lack of perceived value in historical objects in Indonesia as well as the lack of funds.
The number of museums in Indonesia in 1945 was 26 (including aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens, following the definition of the International Council of Museums (ICOM)). Between 1945 and 1968, this increased to 46. Today there are 281 museums in Indonesia (2010), 80 of which are State Museums.
The Directorate for Museums introduced categories to characterize the various collection: there are general and special museums, there are privately maintained and state-run museums, both by the central and provincial governments. Those museums kept by the central government in the main operate under the administration of the Ministry of Education and Culture. Military museums are supervised by the Defence Ministry.
The most frequent type is the General Provincial Museum (Museum Umum Propinsi) which exists in almost all provincial capitals. These museums usually consist of several sections: natural history (geological, biology), ethnography, and history. Objects are sometimes flatly arranged in display cases with poor explanations. More recently established museums have already achieved higher standards with thoughtful and appealing expositions.
In Indonesia, the increase of museums in numbers has not yet been matched by an increase in quality. Buildings are often unsuitable for display and for socio-educational activities; competent staffs are lacking; the public does not yet appreciate the educational role of museums; funds are lacking to maintain collections and extend building; and so on. There are not enough museums for 120 million inhabitants and a large number of State and private universities. Big cities like Jakarta, Medan, Surabaya, Bandung and Semarang need centers for science and culture, and museums as places of study and enjoyment.
Museums by region
Jakarta contains the most museums in Indonesia with over 50 museums within its 661 square kilometers area. The museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.
The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of the notable museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Netherlands Trading Society).
Several museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia, Monas, Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal mosque, and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta area is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area.
- Jakarta Old Town
- Jakarta Textile Museum
- Museum Lukisan Universitas Pelita Harapan
- Museum 12 Mei Universitas Trisakti
- Bentara Budaya Jakarta
- Gedung Joang '45
- Gedung Kesenian Jakarta
- Gedung Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin
- Jakarta Cathedral Museum
- Jakarta Planetarium
- Museum Adam Malik (1985, closed in 2005)
- Museum Anatomy Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia
- Museum Jenderal Besar DR. Abdul Haris Nasution
- Museum Kebangkitan Nasional
- Museum Pers ANTARA
- Museum Perumusan Naskah Proklamasi (the site where the text of the nation's proclamation of independence was composed in 1945)
- Museum Puri Bhakti Renatama
- National Gallery of Indonesia
- National Museum or Museum Gajah
- Museum Sasmita Loka Jenderal Ahmad Yani
- Museum Sumpah Pemuda
- Taman Prasasti Museum
- Museum Loka Jala Srana
- Museum of PKI Treason
- Monument of Sacred Pancasila
- Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
- Asmat Museum
- Indonesia Fauna Museum
- Indonesia Museum
- Istiqlal Museum
- Indonesia Soldiership Museum
- Insect Museum and Butterfly Park
- Komodo Museum and Reptile Park
- Museum of Electricity and New Energy
- Oil and Natural Gas Museum
- Sports Museum
- Lighting Museum
- Museum of Science and Technology
- Indonesia Stamp Museum
- Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum
- Heirloom Museum
- Telecommunication Museum
- Timor Timur Museum
- Transport Museum
- Basuki Abdullah Museum
- Harry Dharsono Museum
- Kite Museum
- Museum Dirgantara Mandala
- Museum Kriminal (Mabak)
- Museum Manggala Wanabhakti
- Museum Polri
- Reksa Artha Museum
- Satrian Mandala Museum
- Waspada Purbawisesa Museum
- Ragunan Zoo
Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums. Monument Yogya Kembali and Museum Benteng Yogyakarta are two major museums of about 11 named in the city.
- Affandi Museum
- Code Museum
- Dewantara Kirti Griya Museum
- Dharma Wiratama Museum
- Diponegoro Monument Museum
- Kraton Yogyakarta Museum
- Hamengkubuwono IX Museum
- Train Museum
- Monumen Pahlawan Pancasila
- Museum Batik "Ciptowening"
- Museum Benteng Yogyakarta
- Museum Karbol TNI Angkatan Udara
- Museum Kayu Wanagama
- Museum Kebun Raya Gembira Loka
- Museum of Biology Gadjah Mada University
- Museum of Geotechnology and Mineral
- Museum Pergerakan Wanita
- Museum Perjuangan Yogyakarta
- Museum Purbakala Pleret
- Museum Pura Paku Alaman
- Museum R.S. Mata "Dr. Yap"
- Nyoman Gunarsa Museum
- Museum Tani Jawa
- Prambanan Museum
- Sana Budaya Museum (1939)
- Sudirman Museum
- Taman Budaya Yogyakarta
- Tembi Museum
- Ullen Sentalu Museum
- Wayang Kekayon Museum
- Yogya Kembali Museum, Sleman Regency
- Yogyakarta Batik Museum
- Museum Pusat TNI AU "Dirgantara Mandala"
- Amerta Dirgantara Museum, Subang
- Asian–African Conference Museum, Bandung
- Bandung Geological Museum, Bandung (1928)
- Bandung Zoo, Bandung (1933)
- Barli Museum, Bandung
- Bogor Zoological Museum, Bogor (1894)
- Ethnobotanical Museum, Bogor
- Indonesia Post Museum, Bandung
- Kraton Kacirebonan Museum, Cirebon
- Kraton Kasepuhan Museums, Cirebon:
- Museum Kereta Singa Barong
- Museum Benda Kuno
- Museum Linggarjati, Kuningan
- Museum Palangan B. Kokosan, Sukabumi
- Museum PETA, Bogor
- Museum Perjuangan Jawa Barat, Bandung
- Museum Perjuangan Jawa Barat, Bogor
- Museum Prabu Geusan Ulun, Purwakarta
- Museum Tanah Nasrel, Bogor
- Percandian Batujaya Museum, Karawang
- Sri Baduga Museum, Bandung
- Tambaksari's Site Museum, Ciamis
- Wangsit Mandala Siliwangi Museum
- Ambarawa Railway Museum, Ambarawa
- Borobudur Complex, Magelang
- Indonesian World Records Museum, Semarang
- Keraton Surakarta Museum, Surakarta
- Kretek Museum, Semarang
- National Press Monument, Surakarta
- Pekalongan Batik Museum, Pekalongan (1972)
- Radya Pustaka Museum, Surakarta (1890)
- Sangiran archeology museum, Sangiran
- Ronggo Warsito State Museum, Semarang
- Brawijaya Museum, Malang
- Mpu Tantular State Museum
- Museum Tugu Pahlawan, Surabaya
- Trowulan Museum, Trowulan (1987)
- Agung Rai Museum of Art
- Bali Museum (1930)
- Blanco Renaissance Museum
- Buleleng Museum, Singaraja
- Le Mayeur Museum, Sanur
- Museum Rudana
- Museum Semarajaya
- Neka Art Museum, Ubud (1982)
- Purbakala Archaeological Museum
- Puri Lukisan Museum
West Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara
Most museums in Sumatra specialized on cultural heritage such as textiles and other traditional artifacts.
- Aceh Museum, Banda Aceh (1915)
- Aceh Tsunami Museum, Banda Aceh (2009)
- Museum Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe
- Batak Museum, Balige
- Museum Joang '45, Medan
- Museum Perjuangan TNI Kodam I Bukit Barisan, Medan (1971)
- Museum Simalungun, Pematangsiantar (1940)
- Museum Huta Balon Simanindo, Simanindo
- Museum Rumah Bolon Pematang Purba, Pematang purba
- Museum Pusaka Nias, Nias (1993). The only museum in Nias, was destroyed by the Boxing Day Tsunami. A new building for the museum has been constructed.
- Zoological Museum of Pematangsiantar, Pematangsiantar (1936)
- North Sumatra Museum, Medan (1982)
- TB Silalahi Center, Balige Subdistrict (2008)
- Bagansiapiapi Chinese Museum, Bagansiapiapi
- Bagansiapiapi Fish Museum, Bagansiapiapi
- Bagansiapiapi History Museum, Bagansiapiapi
- Bagansiapiapi Muslim Museum, Bagansiapiapi
- Museum Kandil Riau, Tanjung Pinang (1988)
- Museum Sang Nila Utama, Pekanbaru (1994)
- Museum Istana Siak Sri Indrapura, Indrapura (Building from 1889)
- Museum Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alamsyah, Tanjung Pinang
- Adityawarman Museum, Padang (1977)
- Bung Hatta Museum, Bukittinggi
- Museum Rumah Kelahiran Buya Hamka, Agam (2001)
- Tri Daya Eka Dharma Museum, Bukittinggi
- Museum Gempa 30 September 2009, Padang (2012)
- Gedung Joang '45, Padang
- Goedang Ransoem Museum, Sawahlunto
- Galeri Tambang Mbah Soero, Sawahlunto
- Information Center of Minangkabau Culture, Padang Panjang (1990)
- Museum Rumah Adat Baanjuang, Fort de Kock, Bukittinggi
- Railway Museum, Sawahlunto
- Museum Taman Bundo Kandung, Bukittinggi (1934)
- Museum Tri Daya Eka Dharma, Bukittinggi (1973)
- Bukittinggi Zoological Museum, Bukittinggi
- Rumah Puisi Taufiq Ismail, Tanah Datar
- Rumah Kelahiran Tan Malaka, Lima Puluh Kota
- Jambi Museum, Jambi City (1988)
- Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds Site Museum, Muaro Jambi Regency
- Museum Perjuangan Rakyat Jambi, Jambi City (1993)
- Balaputradewa Museum, Palembang
- Museum UPT Belitung, Belitung
- Sriwijaya Museum, Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park, Palembang
- Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, Palembang
- Textile Museum, Palembang
- Balanga Museum, Palangkaraya
- Kayu Sampit Museum, East Kotawaringin Regency
- Lewu Hante Museum, Pasar Panas, East Barito Regency
- Kalimantan Art Gallery, Samarinda
- Mulawarman State Museum, Tenggarong Subdistrict
- Museum Batiwakkal, Gunung Tabur Subdistrict, Berau Regency
- Museum Kayu Tuah Himba, Tenggarong Subdistrict
- Museum Perjuangan Merah Putih, Sanga-Sanga Subdistrict
- Sadurengas Museum, Paser Belengkong Subdistrict
- Sendawar Museum, West Kutai Regency
- Candi Agung Museum, Amuntai, North Hulu Sungai Regency
- Lambung Mangkurat State Museum, Banjarbaru
- Wasaka Museum, Banjarmasin
- West Kalimantan State Museum, Pontianak
- Museum Dara Juanti, Sintang
- Museum Istana Kadriyah, Pontianak
- Museum Kapuas Raya, Sintang
Most museums in Sulawesi specialized on cultural heritage such as textiles and other traditional artifacts.
- Manado Wanua Paksinata North Sulawesi Provincial Museum, Manado
- Kaili Souraja Museum, Kaili
- Palu Central Sulawesi Provincial Museum, Palu
- Museum Batara Guru, Wara Utama Subdistrict
- Museum Indo’ Ta’dung, Kete Kesu, Toraja Utara
- Museum La Galigo, Fort Rotterdam, Makassar
- Sungguminasa Balla Lompoa Museum, near Ujung Pandang
Ambon was the site of the first recorded museum in Indonesia, a botanical museum built by Georg Eberhard Rumphius in 1662. Nothing remains of it except books written by himself, which are now in the library of the National Museum of Indonesia.
Today, museums in the Moluccas specialized in Ambonese ethnography or artifacts from the earlier Sultanates in the Moluccas.
- Kedaton Sultan Ternate Museum, Kota Ternate Utara Subdistrict (1982)
- Sonyie Malige Museum, Tidore
- Asmat Museum of Culture and Progress, Agats (1973)
- Loka Budaya Museum, Cenderawasih University, Jayapura (1973)
- Papua Province State Museum, Jayapura (1983)
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