List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 321.312

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.312 under that system. These instruments may be known as spike box lutes or spike guitars.


3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321: Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
321.3: Instruments in which the string bearer is a plain handle (handle lutes)
321.31: Instruments in which the handle passes diametrically through the resonator (spike lutes)
321.312: Instruments in which the resonator is built up from wood (spike box lutes, spike guitars)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Complete classification Description
banjo[1][2]
African American 321.312-5 Four or five stringed instrument, plucked with a bare thumb and a forefinger covered by a metal thimble, traditionally with four or five strings,
gimbri
guinbri, guimbri, gimbri, ginibri
Gnawa music 321.312 Rectangular box lute with leather tuning rings
gusle[3][4][5]
Serbia, Montenegro and elsewhere in the former Yugoslavia 321.312 Stringed instrument, round, typically with one string bound at the top of the neck with a tuning peg
About this sound Serbian gusle 
morin khuur
horse-head fiddle,
Mongolia, Tuva 321.312 Two-stringed instrument, held between the legs, with a trapezoidal body and a horse's head typically carved on the upper edge of the pegbox
rubab[6][7]
rabab
Afghanistan and neighboring areas 321.312-6 Short-necked three-stringed lute with sympathetic and drone strings, fretted and plucked with a plectrum, with a double-chambered body, the lower part of which is covered in skin, and with three main strings
sanshin[8]
Ryukyus of Japan 321.312-6 Three stringed banjo-like instrument, covered with snakeskin

References[edit]

  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal (Galpin Society) 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hill, Errol; James Vernon Hatch (2003). A History of African American Theatre. Don B. Wilmeth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62443-6. 
  2. ^ Bailey, Jay (January–March 1972). "Historical Origin and Stylistic Developments of the Five-String Banjo". Journal of American Folklore (American Folklore Society) 85 (335): 58–65. doi:10.2307/539129. JSTOR 539129. 
  3. ^ "'Spinning Out of Control': Rhetoric and Violent Conflict" (pdf). June 1, 2006. p. 4. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Montenegrin Music". Visit Montenegro. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  5. ^ Lord, Albert B. (1936). "Homer and Huso I: The Singer's Rests in Greek and Southslavic Heroic Song". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 67: 106–113. doi:10.2307/283230. JSTOR 283230. 
  6. ^ Doubleday, Veronica (2000). "Afghanistan: Red Light at the Crossroads". In Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham with James McConnachie and Orla Duane (Eds.). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. pp. 3–7. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  7. ^ ARC music; Peter McClelland. "Glossary of Folk Instruments". Hobgoblin Music. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  8. ^ Tokita, Alison McQueen; David Hughes. "Context and Change in Japanese Music" (pdf). Retrieved December 17, 2007.