List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 321.321

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This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.321 under that system. These instruments may be known as necked bowl lutes.


3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321: Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
321.3: Instruments in which the string bearer is a plain handle (handle lutes)
321.32: Instrument in which the handle is attached to, or carved from, the resonator, like a neck (necked lutes)
321.321: Instrument whose body is shaped like a bowl (necked bowl lutes)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive

List[edit]


Instrument Tradition Complete classification Description
angélique
French classical music 321.321 Pear-shaped, plucked, with 15-17 strings
archlute
Italian arciliuto, Erzlaute, Архилютня
Western classical music 321.321 Plucked
baglamas
Greece 321.321 Pear-shaped, long-necked
bağlama
Middle East and Central Asia 321.321
balalaika[1]
Russia 321.321 Triangle-shaped lute-type instrument
bandora
321.321
bandura[2]
Ukraine 321.321 Diatonic, unfretted lute-like string instrument, traditionally carved from a single block of wood
banduria[3]
Philippines 321.321 Pear-shaped mandolin-like instrument, part of the rondalla tradition of ensemble playing of plucked instruments including bandurias, octavinas, laúds, guitars, and basses.
bandurria
Spain 321.322 Necked box lute
banhu
China 321.321 Two-stringed, bowed instrument
banzouki
321.321
barbat
Persian 321.321
biwa
Japan 321.321 Short-necked, fretted
bouzouki[4]
Greece, Modern 321.321 String instrument with a pear-shaped body and a long neck, played with plectrum
bouzouki, Irish
321.321
buzuq
Middle Eastern 321.321 Long-necked, fretted
charango [5]
charanga
Bolivia 321.321-6 Fretted, hollow-bodied bowl lute, usually with four or five doubled strings, with as many as eleven tunings, traditionally made from an armadillo shell
charango [6]
charanga, chillador
Peru 321.321-6 Guitar-like instrument, most commonly with ten strings in two courses and made from an armadillo back
chillador
321.321 Small fretted instrument
chitarra Italiana
Renaissance Italy 321.322 Plucked
cimboa
Cape Verde 321.322 Bowed
cittern
321.322
daguangxian
China 321.321 Bowed
dambura
Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan 321.321 Wooden plucked instrument
Đàn gáo
Vietnam 321.321 Bowed two-stringed instrument
Đàn tỳ bà
Vietnam 321.321 Plucked four-stringed instrument
dangubica
Croatia 321.321
dilruba
India 321.321
dombra[7][8]
Central Asia 321.321-6 Fretted, long-necked lute with a round body, played by plucking with a plectrum
domra
Russia 321.321
dotara
Bangladesh 321.321
dranyen[9]
dranyen, dramnyen
Bhutan 321.321 Seven-stringed lute, fretless, long-necked and double-waisted with rosette-shaped sound hole
dutar
Central Asia 321.321 Long-necked, two-stringed instrument
erhu
China 321.321 Two-stringed, bowed instrument
erxian
China, especially Cantonese 321.321 Two-stringed, bowed instrument
esraj
India 321.321
gadulka
Bulgaria 321.321
gambus
Arab 321.321
gusle[10][11]
gusla
Southeastern Europe 321.321-71 Stringed instrument, round, typically with one string bound at the top of the neck with a tuning peg
huluhu
China 321.321 Two-stringed, bowed instrument
igil
Tuva 321.321
jing erhu
China 321.321
kamancheh
Persian 321.321
kobyz
Kazakhstan 321.321
komuz[12][13]
kopuz
Kyrgyzstan 321.321 Three-stringed fretless lute, made from wood with gut strings
laúd
Spain 321.321
liuqin
China 321.321 Four-stringed
mandolin[14]
Italy 321.321 Stringed instrument
About this sound Mandolin performance 
mandolin, octave
321.321
mando-bass
321.321 Bass mandolin
mandocello
321.321
mandola
321.321
mandolute
321.321
mandriola
321.321
orpharion
321.321
oud [15]
Arab 321.321-6 Pear-shaped fretless stringed instrument, with five courses of two strings and a single eleventh string, a bent back and a bowl-shaped body, often with up to three soundholes, played with a pick
pandur
Chechnya 321.321
pandura
321.321
panduri
Georgia 321.321
pipa[16]
China 321.321-5 Pear-shaped bowl lute with a neck, played by plucking
rubab[1][17]
rabab
Afghanistan 321.321-6 Short-necked three-stringed lute with sympathetic and drone strings, fretted and plucked with a plectrum, with a double-chambered body, the lower part of which is covered in skin, and with three main strings
sallaneh
321.321
Saraswati veena
India 321.321
Šargija
Southeastern Europe 321.321
saz[18][19]
bağlama, kopuz
Turkey 321.321-6 Fretted lute with a long neck, pear-shaped body, and three courses of seven steel strings
sitar
India 321.321
surbahar
India 321.321
tamburica[20][21]
tamburitza
Croatia 321.321 Lute-like stringed instrument with a long neck, picked or strummed, variable number of strings
theorbo
321.321
tricordia
321.321

References[edit]

  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal (The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14) 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b ARC music; Peter McClelland. "Glossary of Folk Instruments". Hobgoblin Music. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  2. ^ Jarosewich, Irene. "Roman Hrynkiv hopes to give the bandura international stature". Ukraine Weekly. Retrieved December 17, 2007. "The bandura will always be known as Ukraine's national instrument." [dead link]
  3. ^ Aning, Jerome (November 23, 2007). "Rondalla maestro makes strong pitch for banduria". Inquirer Entertainment. Inquirer. Retrieved December 22, 2007. 
  4. ^ Grahn, Göran (April 1999). "Review of Musikkens Tjenere - Instrument - Forsker - Musiker by Mette Müller and Lisbet Torp". The Galpin Society Journal 52: 367–368. JSTOR 842547. 
  5. ^ Baumann, Max Peter (1997). "Review of Bolivie: Charangos et guitarrillas du Norte Potosi by Florindo Alvis and Jean-Marc Grassler". Yearbook for Traditional Music 29 (1997): 200–201. JSTOR 768327. 
  6. ^ Bennett, Caroline. "Music in Peru". Viva Travel Guides. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  7. ^ Levin, Theodore C. "Kazakhstan". National Geographic World Music. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  8. ^ Mirseitova, Sapargul (2005). "Kazakhstan and Its People" (pdf). WLT Kids. World Literature Today. Retrieved February 18, 2008. 
  9. ^ Broughton, Simon; Mark Ellingham (2000). World Music. James McConnachie. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  10. ^ "Montenegrin Music". Visit Montenegro. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  11. ^ "'Spinning Out of Control': Rhetoric and Violent Conflict" (pdf). June 1, 2006. p. 4. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Cobza". Eliznik. 2005. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  13. ^ Golos, George S. (January 1961). "Kirghiz Instruments and Instrumental Music". Ethnomusicology (Ethnomusicology, Vol. 5, No. 1) 5 (1): 42–48. doi:10.2307/924307. JSTOR 924307. 
  14. ^ Jahnel, Franz; Nicholas Clarke (2000). Manual of Guitar Technology: Chords Especially for Lefties. Bold Strummer. ISBN 0-933224-99-0. 
  15. ^ Project Results (pdf). The Music Inter-Cultural X-Change: Project for Peace in Israelpublisher=The Boston Conservatory. p. 2. Retrieved December 26, 2007. 
  16. ^ Millward, James. "From Camelback to Carnegie Hall: the Global Journey and Modern Makeover of the Pipa". AAS Annual Meeting. Retrieved December 22, 2007. 
  17. ^ Doubleday, Veronica (2000). "Afghanistan: Red Light at the Crossroads". In Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham with James McConnachie and Orla Duane (Eds.). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. pp. 3–7. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  18. ^ "Saz". Glossary. National Geographic. Retrieved December 22, 2007. "Considered the national instrument of Turkey." 
  19. ^ Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Devin DeWeese (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36686-0. 
  20. ^ "Croatia". National Geographic World Music. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  21. ^ Erdely, Stephen (1979). "Ethnic Music in the United States: An Overview". Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council (Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 11) 11: 114–137. doi:10.2307/767568. JSTOR 767568. "The tamburitza... is the national instrument of the Croatians."